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The use of prolonged administration of low-dose intravenous lipid emulsion to treat ivermectin toxicosis in goats

Juan C. Guerra DVM1 and Erica C. McKenzie bvms, PhD1
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  • 1 From the Department of Clinical Sciences, Carlson College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331.

Abstract

Case Description

2 Nigerian Dwarf goats (a doe [goat 1] and a wether [goat 2]) with coughing and nasal discharge since they were purchased at an auction 6 days prior were empirically treated for suspected pneumonia and intestinal parasitism. An ivermectin dosing error (intended dose, 0.4 mg/kg, PO; administered dose, 10 mg/kg, PO) was retrospectively discovered, and the owner was urged to return the goats for hospitalization and treatment.

Clinical Findings

On admission 19 hours after iatrogenic ivermectin overdose, both goats had tachycardia, tachypnea, and absent menace responses. Goat 1 also had vomited in transit, was lethargic and febrile, had slow pupillary light reflexes, and walked into walls and obstacles. Goat 2 was quiet but responsive, not ataxic or febrile, and had pale mucous membranes and a prolonged capillary refill time.

Treatment and Outcome

Each goat received 20% IV lipid emulsion (2 mL/kg, IV bolus over 15 minutes, followed by 0.008 mL/kg/min, IV) and immediately improved. Activated charcoal was administered by orogastric tube, and 6 hours later, mineral oil was similarly administered. Goat 1 had complete resolution of signs and was discharged by 48 and 72 hours, respectively, after admission. Goat 2 improved but developed progressive respiratory distress after the second orogastric intubation and was euthanized. Necropsy findings were consistent with acute renal tubular necrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome of unknown cause, ruminal tympany, and mesenteric caseous lymphadenitis.

Clinical Relevance

Results indicated that IV lipid emulsion could be used to successfully treat ivermectin toxicosis in goats. Treatment early in the course of ivermectin toxicosis is advisable to avoid severe clinical signs and secondary complications.

Abstract

Case Description

2 Nigerian Dwarf goats (a doe [goat 1] and a wether [goat 2]) with coughing and nasal discharge since they were purchased at an auction 6 days prior were empirically treated for suspected pneumonia and intestinal parasitism. An ivermectin dosing error (intended dose, 0.4 mg/kg, PO; administered dose, 10 mg/kg, PO) was retrospectively discovered, and the owner was urged to return the goats for hospitalization and treatment.

Clinical Findings

On admission 19 hours after iatrogenic ivermectin overdose, both goats had tachycardia, tachypnea, and absent menace responses. Goat 1 also had vomited in transit, was lethargic and febrile, had slow pupillary light reflexes, and walked into walls and obstacles. Goat 2 was quiet but responsive, not ataxic or febrile, and had pale mucous membranes and a prolonged capillary refill time.

Treatment and Outcome

Each goat received 20% IV lipid emulsion (2 mL/kg, IV bolus over 15 minutes, followed by 0.008 mL/kg/min, IV) and immediately improved. Activated charcoal was administered by orogastric tube, and 6 hours later, mineral oil was similarly administered. Goat 1 had complete resolution of signs and was discharged by 48 and 72 hours, respectively, after admission. Goat 2 improved but developed progressive respiratory distress after the second orogastric intubation and was euthanized. Necropsy findings were consistent with acute renal tubular necrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome of unknown cause, ruminal tympany, and mesenteric caseous lymphadenitis.

Clinical Relevance

Results indicated that IV lipid emulsion could be used to successfully treat ivermectin toxicosis in goats. Treatment early in the course of ivermectin toxicosis is advisable to avoid severe clinical signs and secondary complications.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Guerra (jguerradvm@gmail.com).