• 1.

    Hathcock JN, Hattan DG, Jenkins MY, et al. Evaluation of vitamin A toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:183202.

  • 2.

    Li Z, Shen J, Wu WK, et al. Vitamin A deficiency induces congenital spinal deformities in rats. PLoS One 2012;7:e46565.

  • 3.

    Zile MH. Function of vitamin A in vertebrate embryonic development. J Nutr 2001;131:705708.

  • 4.

    Hill B, Holroyd R, Sullivan M. Clinical and pathological findings associated with congenital hypovitaminosis A in extensively grazed beef cattle. Aust Vet J 2009;87:9498.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Williams DL. Congenital abnormalities in production animals. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2010;26:477486.

  • 6.

    Clagett-Dame M, DeLuca HF. The role of vitamin A in mammalian reproduction and embryonic development. Annu Rev Nutr 2002;22:347381.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Dewell G, Ensley S, Cooper V. Weak calf syndrome in beef cattle herds. Available at: https://vetmed.iastate.edu/sites/default/files/vdpam/Extension/WeakCalfSyndrome2013.pdf. Accessed Jan 19, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Waldner CL, Uehlinger FD. Factors associated with serum vitamin A and vitamin E concentrations in beef calves from Alberta and Saskatchewan and the relationship between vitamin concentrations and calf health outcomes. Can J Anim Sci 2016;97:6582.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Moosavian HR, Mohri M, Seifi HA. Effects of parenteral over-supplementation of vitamin A and iron on hematology, iron biochemistry, weight gain, and health of neonatal dairy calves. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:13161320.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Pathology in Practice

Eileen E. Henderson DVM, MS1, Rahul B. Dange DVM, PhD1, Jon S. Patterson DVM, PhD1, Thomas Herdt DVM, MS1, and Dalen W. Agnew DVM, PhD1
View More View Less
  • 1 From the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI 48910.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Agnew (agnewd@msu.edu).