A census of veterinarians in the United States

Frederic B. Ouedraogo 1Veterinary Economics Division, AVMA, 1931 N Meacham Rd, Schaumburg, IL 60173.

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Bridgette Bain 1Veterinary Economics Division, AVMA, 1931 N Meacham Rd, Schaumburg, IL 60173.

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Charlotte Hansen 1Veterinary Economics Division, AVMA, 1931 N Meacham Rd, Schaumburg, IL 60173.

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Matthew Salois 1Veterinary Economics Division, AVMA, 1931 N Meacham Rd, Schaumburg, IL 60173.
1Veterinary Economics Division, AVMA, 1931 N Meacham Rd, Schaumburg, IL 60173.

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Abstract

Analysis of the AVMA's electronic membership database provided information on 113,394 veterinarians living in the United States in 2018. At 39%, Millennials represented the highest percentage of the US veterinary workforce, and women (61.7%) outnumbered men (38.2%). Mean age at the time of graduation has increased since 1975, raising concerns that career length for veterinarians may be decreasing, potentially exacerbating veterinarian shortages. Overall, 83.9% of veterinarians were in private clinical practice, and substantial increases between 2008 and 2018 were seen in the numbers of veterinarians in emergency and critical care medicine and in referral or specialty practice.

Abstract

Analysis of the AVMA's electronic membership database provided information on 113,394 veterinarians living in the United States in 2018. At 39%, Millennials represented the highest percentage of the US veterinary workforce, and women (61.7%) outnumbered men (38.2%). Mean age at the time of graduation has increased since 1975, raising concerns that career length for veterinarians may be decreasing, potentially exacerbating veterinarian shortages. Overall, 83.9% of veterinarians were in private clinical practice, and substantial increases between 2008 and 2018 were seen in the numbers of veterinarians in emergency and critical care medicine and in referral or specialty practice.

For hundreds of years, veterinarians have played a critical and widespread role in society, from overseeing the health of horses—the primary mode of transportation into the beginning of the 20th century—to ensuring the safety of animal-based foods consumed by humans. Today, almost 60% of veterinarians are employed in the companion animal sector of veterinary medicine,1 and with > 56% of US households owning pets,2 veterinarians continue to have a central role in the health of humans and animals.

In the United States, the role of household pets has been evolving over the past several decades. Increasingly, owners consider their pets to be part of the family, and this change in attitude has resulted in an increased need for veterinarians, as evidenced by increases in annual veterinary expenditures for companion animals.2 Yet, even as the strengthening of the human-animal bond has increased the demand for veterinarians, several challenges face the profession. High on this list is the rapid increase in educational debt new veterinarians face following graduation.

Of course, high educational debt is not unique to veterinary college graduates. Medical doctors, for instance, graduate with educational debt comparable to that reported for new veterinary college graduates (Figure 1). However, veterinarians earn just a fraction of what medical doctors do. According to the 2018 AVMA Report on the Market for Veterinarians,1 the median annual income for all veterinarians was $92,000, with only 9.3% of the profession earning > $200,000 annually. Meanwhile, the 2018 Physician Compensation Report3 states that “[t]he average overall physician salary, including specialties and primary care, is $299,000.”

Figure 1—
Figure 1—

Mean educational debt for US medical school graduates (blue line) and for graduates of US veterinary medical colleges who reported having debt (orange line).

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255, 2; 10.2460/javma.255.2.183

High educational debt combined with low starting salaries, compared with salaries for physicians, can put high levels of stress on veterinarians. Furthermore, the combination could potentially reduce the influx of new veterinarians into the market as individuals opt to pursue alternative career paths likely to be more financially rewarding. Adding to the concern is the fact that many veterinarians applying to the Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program are being turned down,4 even as the AVMA reaches out to federal officials for explanations.

Meanwhile, the number of pets in the United States continues to increase, with the number of dogs alone increasing approximately 10% over 5 years, from almost 70 million in 2011 to approximately 77 million in 2016.2 But, this comes at a time when more and more pet owners are priced out of veterinary services. In fact, the price of veterinary services has been increasing steadily since 1996 and has since outpaced the US consumer price index.5 According to the 2018 AVMA Pet Ownership and Demographic Sourcebook,2 nearly 30% of pet owners do not see a veterinarian at least once a year, and an inability to pay for veterinary services was a leading reason for why they did not.

Current legislative battles over reauthorization of the Higher Education Act are also a source of concern for veterinarians.6 In particular, the AVMA is worried that by removing loan options tailored to graduate students like veterinarians, lawmakers could inadvertently cause more veterinarians to forgo careers in public service or rural veterinary medicine because of an inability to manage their educational debt on the lower salaries typically associated with these jobs. As stated in the AVMA Report on the Market for Veterinarians,1 no more than 5% to 7% of veterinarians are employed in the food animal sector, and this percentage has not changed much over the past 2 decades.7

To ensure that sufficient numbers of veterinarians are available to provide animals the care they need and to inform advocates and stakeholders about the current and future needs of the veterinary profession, information is needed on current trends in the veterinary population. Therefore, we set out to analyze information from the AVMA membership database to create a census of veterinarians in the United States.

Methods

Data used in the analysis were obtained from the AVMA electronic membership database. Individuals were assigned an identification number when they were added to the database, allowing them to be followed throughout their careers. Existing members were able to log into the platform and update their information at any time.

Information maintained for individuals recorded in the database included demographic data (ie, age, gender, race and ethnicity, and address), educational background (ie, year of graduation from veterinary college, veterinary college attended, and other degrees obtained in addition to the veterinary degree), and work experience (ie, employment type, employment function, hours worked, position type, professional discipline, specialty certifications, and species treated).

Employment type was grouped into 5 categories: private clinical practice, academia, government, industry or commercial organization, and not-for-profit organization. Within each category, individuals in the database could select an employment subtype that fit their current occupation. Choices in private practice, for instance, were general medicine and surgery, production medicine, referral or specialty medicine, emergency and critical care medicine, and all other types of private practice employment.

Inputting missing values

One of the challenges we faced was the large number of individuals included in the database for which 1 or more pieces of information were missing. For example, about 25% of veterinarians did not provide any information about their type of employment. To account for this missing information, 2 techniques were used. The first consisted of using the last reported data (eg, using the last reported employment type). This technique was used for individuals whose membership had recently lapsed. However, this technique was considered unsuitable for individuals who had not been an AVMA member since graduation from veterinary college or whose membership had lapsed more than a few years previously. In such instances, a second technique was used. This second technique consisted of segmenting observations with known information (eg, by age group, gender, geographic location, and year of graduation), then computing descriptive statistics for each of these segments. These estimated statistics were then applied to the population with unknown information. This technique has been used previously8 to study specialty information for primary care physicians in the United States.

For missing information on age, median age of the graduate cohort was used as a proxy. For example, for an individual in the database who graduated in 2000 but whose age was not included, the median age of all other individuals who graduated in 2000 was used for the missing value. The median was used instead of the mean because the distribution for age at graduation is typically skewed to the right. Although the percentage of new graduates with extreme age values is typically < 5%, these extreme values would increase the mean age, but would have little effect on the median age.

Results and Discussion

Information on 113,394 active, US-resident veterinarians was obtained from the AVMA electronic membership database (Table 1). Of these, 72.4% were AVMA members, and 61.7% were women. Graduation year ranged from 1956 to 2018. Given a median age at graduation of 26 years for individuals who graduated in 1979, we assumed that most individuals in this graduation class were at or near the official age of retirement (65 years). However, veterinarians may remain in active practice for many years after the official age of retirement. Therefore, for some analyses, only veterinarians who were ≤ 65 years old or only veterinarians who were ≤ 75 years old were included.

Table 1—

Demographic information for 113,394 veterinarians living in the United States in 2018.

CharacteristicNo. of veterinariansPercentage
Membership status  
  AVMA member82,11472.4
  Non-AVMA member31,28027.6
Gender  
  Male43,34538.2
  Female69,90861.7
Year of graduation from veterinary college  
  1956–19691500.1
  1970–19798,5197.5
  1980–198921,68119.1
  1990–199923,44420.7
  2000–200928,24524.9
  2010–201831,34427.6
Type of employment  
  Private clinical practice70,24962.0
  Academia5,9355.2
  Government3,3332.9
  Industry or commercial organization2,8372.5
  Not-for-profit organization1,2571.1
  Nonveterinary sector1,6771.5
Type of position  
  Owner24,15921.3
  Associate33,20729.3
  Other position type12,34910.9
  No position type3010.3
Geographic location  
  Other territories5430.5
  Pacific16,92114.9
  Mountain9,9198.7
  West north central10,1979.0
  West south central11,75710.4
  East north central16,18514.3
  East south central6,8116.0
  Middle Atlantic12,11310.7
  South Atlantic22,93920.2
  New England6,0025.3
Veterinary college of graduation  
  US based96,43785.0
  Canadian1,5001.3
  Caribbean6,2095.5
  Rest of the world9,2488.2

Data were obtained from the AVMA's electronic membership database. Percentages do not sum to 100 for some characteristics because of missing information.

Demographic shifts

Millennials (ie, individuals born between 1981 and 1996) are expected to outnumber Baby Boomers (ie, individuals born between 1946 and 1964) by 2019 to become the largest generation in the United States.9 As their share of the population increases, Millennials will become the leading group in terms of consumption of goods and services and, more importantly, in terms of the nation's workforce. Millennials can be expected to reshape the workplace environment, ethic, and culture through “their career aspirations, attitudes about work, and knowledge of new technologies,”10 and the veterinary profession will not be an exception.

Analysis of the US population of veterinarians by generation showed that in 2008, Baby Boomers represented 48% of the veterinarian population and Millennials represented only 11% (Figure 2). In 2018, just 10 years later, however, Millennials represented, at 39%, the highest percentage of the US veterinary workforce.

Figure 2—
Figure 2—

Generational distribution of veterinarians in the United States during 2008 and 2018. Silent = Individuals born between 1928 and 1945. Boomers = Individuals born between 1946 and 1964. Generation × = Individuals born between 1965 and 1980. Millennials = Individuals born between 1981 and 1996.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255, 2; 10.2460/javma.255.2.183

The veterinary profession has also seen a substantial gender shift. In 2008, men and women represented equal shares of the veterinarian population. Since then, the female share has increased by 2.2% annually and the male share has decreased by 2.7% annually. The percentage of the US veterinary population that was women increased from 48% in 2007 to > 60% in 2018. This trend is expected to continue as the proportion of women at veterinary colleges continues to increase.

Another major change in the US veterinary population has been an increase in the mean age at graduation (Figure 3). For both male and female veterinarians, mean age at graduation increased from 1975 until the mid-1990s by approximately 1 y/decade, after which it plateaued at around 29 years. Mean age at graduation started to decrease for women in 2002 but remained the same or increased for men. A potential consequence of the increasing age at graduation is that it may reduce the typical career length for veterinarians, possibly increasing the risk of veterinarian shortages.

Figure 3—
Figure 3—

Mean age at graduation for male and female veterinarians in the United States.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255, 2; 10.2460/javma.255.2.183

Changes in the supply of veterinarians

The US population of veterinarians ≤ 65 years of age increased from 78,400 in 2007 to 102,000 in 2018, representing an overall 30% increase in the number of veterinarians in the United States (Figure 4).

Figure 4—
Figure 4—

Number of veterinarians ≤ 65 years of age living in the United States.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255, 2; 10.2460/javma.255.2.183

In 2006, 2,253 new veterinarians graduated from the 28 colleges of veterinary medicine then present in the United States. In 2018, however, 3,142 new veterinarians graduated from the now 30 US veterinary colleges. According to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, 99.3% of students currently enrolled in US veterinary colleges are US citizens. In addition, 2,300 US citizens are currently enrolled at veterinary colleges located in the Caribbean that have been accredited by the AVMA Council on Education, 141 US citizens are studying at accredited veterinary colleges in Canada, and > 650 US citizens are studying at accredited veterinary colleges located in other countries. Therefore, every 4 years approximately 3,000 new veterinarians (approx 750/y) graduate from foreign institutions, with most intending to return to the United States to find jobs and practice veterinary medicine. In total, therefore, the US veterinary market is adding > 3,750 new veterinarians annually, and this number is projected to rise as new schools emerge here in the United States and around the world.

Shifts in practice ownership

Among practice owners and associates, the percentage of veterinarians ≤ 39 years of age who identified as owners (vs associates) dramatically decreased between 2008 and 2018 (Figure 5). For veterinarians who identified as practice owners or associates, 14.5% of those ≤ 39 years of age indicated in 2008 that they owned a practice, but only 9.0% did in 2018. In 2008, 69.8% of practice owners and associates who were ≥ 50 years of age indicated that they owned a practice, and 60.7% did in 2018.

Figure 5—
Figure 5—

Percentages of veterinarians (ie, practice owners and associates) in the United States, by age group, who owned a practice in 2008 and 2018.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255, 2; 10.2460/javma.255.2.183

In 2008, about 62% of male veterinarians who identified as practice owners or associates owned a practice, whereas only about 29.7% of females did. In 2018, the percentage of males who owned a practice had decreased to 59% but was still higher than the percentage of females who did (29.3%).

Employment types

Information on employment type was available for 99,784 US veterinarians who were ≤ 75 years of age. Of these, veterinarians in private clinical practice represented the largest share, with 83,757 veterinarians working in private clinical practice in 2018 (Table 2). The number of veterinarians working in private clinical practice increased by 13.6% between 2008 and 2013 and by an additional 13.0% between 2013 and 2018. Emergency and critical care medicine had the largest increases, with a 133.5% increase between 2008 and 2013 and a 63.3% increase between 2013 and 2018. The number of veterinarians in referral or specialty medicine increased by 49.1% between 2013 and 2018.

Table 2—

Employment type and subtype during 2018 for 99,784 veterinarians living in the United States who were ≤ 75 years of age and percentage change in number of veterinarians in each employment type and subtype between 2008 and 2013 and between 2013 and 2018.

Percentage change 
Employment type and subtypeNo. of veterinarians (2018)2008–20132013–2018
Private clinical practice83,75713.613.0
  Emergency and critical care medicine3,636133.563.3
  General medicine and surgery70,52611.110.8
  Production medicine3,413-15.5-17.0
  Referral or specialty medicine4,98898.449.1
  Other1,19468.152.7
Academia7,73120.65.0
  Animal science department122140.987.3
  Veterinary medical college6,32515.0-0.2
  Veterinary science department10748.81.2
  Veterinary technician program26975.348.8
  Other90872.734.8
Government3,69211.02.4
  Air Force8013.9-0.2
  Army68268.9-4.4
  Foreign governmental agency20-6.180.6
  Local governmental agency2499.956.7
  Public Health Commission Corps3721.723.5
  State governmental agency676-4.60.5
  US federal governmental agency1,7638.14.4
  Other185-18.9-25.8
Industry or commercial organizations2,9976.17.3
  Agriculture or livestock production201173.874.0
  Business or consulting services273-14.6-2.7
  Feed or nutrition company16439.135.6
  Laboratory services company27073.035.0
  Pharmaceutical or biologics company1,30132.416.8
  Other788-21.0-18.1
Not-for-profit organization1,60751.955.2
  Foundation or charitable organization113223.1130.4
  Humane organization96294.783.8
  Membership association100-2.01.2
  Missionary or service1912.7-35.1
  Wildlife125-9.6-15.5
  Zoo or aquarium28874.654.0

Veterinarians in academia represented the second largest sector behind private clinical practice (Table 2). In 2018, 7,731 veterinarians (7.7%) were employed in an animal health-related field in academia. The largest share of veterinarians in academia were employed by veterinary medical colleges (6,325/7,731 [81.8%]), followed by veterinary technician programs (269/7,731 [3.5%]), animal science departments (122/7,731 [1.6%]), and veterinary science departments (107/7,731 [1.4%]). The remaining veterinarians in academia were employed by a variety of other sectors. For 4 of these 5 employment subtypes, the number of veterinarians increased between 2013 and 2018, with the largest increase in animal science departments (87.3%). There was a slight decrease (−0.2%) in the number of veterinarians employed by veterinary medical colleges between 2013 and 2018, but overall, the number of veterinarians in academia increased by 5.0% during this period.

Federal, state, and local government agencies employed 3.7% of the veterinary workforce in 2018 (Table 2), with federal government employees representing 47.8% (1,763/3,692) of all veterinarians employed by government agencies and state government employees representing 18.3% (676/3,692). The number of veterinarians employed by government agencies increased by 11.0% between 2008 and 2013 and by 2.4% between 2013 and 2018. The Air Force, the Army, and other governmental agencies all saw decreases in the number of employed veterinarians during this period.

Industry and commercial organizations employed 3.0% of US veterinarians in 2018. The largest industry employers were pharmaceutical and biologics companies (1,301/2,997 [43.4%]). The number of veterinarians employed in industry and commercial organizations increased by 6.1% between 2008 and 2013 and by 7.3% between 2013 and 2018. The largest increase came from the area of agriculture and livestock production, with a 173.8% increase between 2008 and 2013 and a 74% increase between 2013 and 2018.

Finally, 1.6% of US veterinarians were employed by not-for-profit organizations in 2018. Humane organizations employed 59.9% (962/1,607) of veterinarians in the not-for-profit sector, followed by zoos and aquaria (288/1,607 [17.9%]) and wildlife organizations (125/1,607 [7.8%]). Although veterinarians employed by not-for-profit organizations represented the smallest group in the veterinary workforce, this employment type had the highest percentage changes between 2008 and 2013 (51.9%) and between 2013 and 2018 (55.2%).

Specialty board certification

There are currently 22 veterinary specialty organizations recognized by the AVMA. Veterinarians pursue board certification for a number of reasons, with an increased skill set likely being the most common. However, the higher compensation for many board-certified specialists likely also plays a role.

In 2008, approximately 20% of board-certified veterinarians were between 50 and 54 years old (Figure 6). In 2018, approximately 24% of board-certified veterinarians were ≥ 60 years old, most likely representing the same veterinarians in the 50- to 54-year-old cohort in 2008. Compared with 2008, higher percentages of veterinarians in their 30s to mid-40s were board certified in 2018. Worryingly, a large number of board-certified veterinarians are nearing retirement within the next 15 years, which may increase the shortage of board-certified veterinarians unless there is a substantial increase in the number of younger veterinarians pursuing board certification.

Figure 6—
Figure 6—

Age distribution of veterinarians in the United States who were diplomates of AVMA-recognized veterinary specialty organizations in 2008 and 2018.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255, 2; 10.2460/javma.255.2.183

Examining the percentage change in the number of board-certified veterinarians for the various recognized veterinary specialty organizations, the largest increases were seen in the number of veterinarians board certified in emergency and critical care, with a 31.7% increase between 2008 and 2013 and a 62.8% increase between 2013 and 2018 (Figure 7). This group saw the largest growth over the 10-year period (an increase of 96.1%), followed by veterinarians board certified in zoological medicine (44.1%), dentistry (42.3%), and radiology (36.7%).

Figure 7—
Figure 7—

Percentage change in number of diplomates of AVMA-recognized veterinary specialty organizations between 2008 and 2013 and between 2013 and 2018. Data are not provided for the American College of Veterinary Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation or the American College of Animal Welfare because these colleges were first recognized in 2010 and 2012, respectively. ABVP = American Board of Veterinary Practitioners. ABVT = American Board of Veterinary Toxicology. ACLAM = American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. ACPV = American College of Poultry Veterinarians. ACT = American College of Theriogenologists. ACVAA = American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. ACVB = American College of Veterinary Behaviorists. ACVCP = American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology. ACVD = American College of Veterinary Dermatology. ACVECC = American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. ACVIM = American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. ACVM = American College of Veterinary Microbiologists. ACVN = American College of Veterinary Nutrition. ACVO = American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists. ACVP = American College of Veterinary Pathologists. ACVPM = American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. ACVR = American College of Veterinary Radiology. ACVS = American College of Veterinary Surgeons. ACZM = American College of Zoological Medicine. AVDC = American Veterinary Dental College.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255, 2; 10.2460/javma.255.2.183

Geographic distribution of veterinarians

Not surprisingly, the number of veterinarians in the various states reflected the state population, with the most populous states such as California, Texas, Florida, and New York having the highest numbers of veterinarians (Figure 8). To compensate for differences in state population, we also looked at the distribution of veterinarians in relation to the number of housing units in the state (Figure 9). Most states had a ratio of 1,000 to 1,500 housing units for every 1 veterinarian. States with the lowest number of housing units per veterinarian were mainly located in the West Central and Mountain Regions. The states with the highest number of housing units per veterinarian were West Virginia and Delaware.

Figure 8—
Figure 8—

State distribution of veterinarians in the United States.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255, 2; 10.2460/javma.255.2.183

Figure 9—
Figure 9—

State distribution of veterinarians in the United States as a function of housing units in each state (ie, number of housing units per veterinarian).

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255, 2; 10.2460/javma.255.2.183

The AVMA's Veterinary Career Center is an excellent resource for candidates looking for veterinary positions in the US workforce; therefore, we also analyzed the ratio of total veterinary job applicants listed with the Veterinary Career Center to the total number of veterinary jobs listed in each state. The states with more applicants applying than jobs posted (ie, a ratio > 1) were generally those states that had the lowest number of housing units per veterinarian (typically, 500 to 1,000 housing units for every 1 veterinarian; Figure 10).

Figure 10—
Figure 10—

Ratio of total veterinary job applicants listed with the AVMA Veterinary Career Center to the total number of veterinary jobs listed in the Career Center for each state in 2018.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 255, 2; 10.2460/javma.255.2.183

Conclusions

Our analysis provided a comprehensive overview of some key demographic and employment-related information for veterinarians in the United States. As the popularity of pets and companion animals continues to grow, the role of veterinarians in providing quality health care will continue to grow as well. Veterinarians will also play a vital role in the area of one health, the integrative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally, and globally to attain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment. This interconnection of people, animals, and the environment becomes more important and more impactful as the human population continues to increase and expand across our world. Veterinarians are a critical element, as veterinary medicine is the only profession that routinely operates at the interface of these 3 components of one health.

References

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