• 1. Schneider JE, Carnine BL, Guffy MM. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint in the horse: a surgical treatment for high ringbone. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1978;173:13641369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Schaer TP, Bramlage LR, Embertson RM, et al. Proximal interphalangeal arthrodesis in 22 horses. Equine Vet J 2001;33:360365.

  • 3. Caston S, McClure S, Beug J, et al. Retrospective evaluation of facilitated pastern ankylosis using intra-articular ethanol injections: 34 cases (2006–2012). Equine Vet J 2013;45:442447.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Knox PM, Watkins JP. Proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis using a combination plate-screw technique in 53 horses (1994–2003). Equine Vet J 2006;38:538542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Levine DG, Richardson DW. Clinical use of the locking compression plate (LCP) in horses: a retrospective study of 31 cases (2004–2006). Equine Vet J 2007;39:401406.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Watts AE, Fortier LA, Nixon AJ, et al. A technique for laser-facilitated equine pastern arthrodesis using parallel screws inserted in lag fashion. Vet Surg 2010;39:244253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. MacLellan KN, Crawford WH, MacDonald DG. Proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 34 horses using two parallel 5.5-mm cortical bone screws. Vet Surg 2001;30:454459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. McCormick JD, Watkins JP. Double plate fixation for the management of proximal interphalangeal joint instability in 30 horses (1987–2015). Equine Vet J 2017;49:211215.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Gautier E, Sommer C. Guidelines for the clinical application of the LCP. Injury 2003;34(suppl 2):B63B76.

  • 10. Sod GA, Riggs LM, Mitchell CF, et al. A mechanical comparison of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis techniques: an axial locking compression plate and two abaxial transarticular cortical screws versus an axial dynamic compression plate and two abaxial transarticular cortical screws. Vet Surg 2011;40:571578.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Ahern BJ, Showalter BL, Elliott DM, et al. In vitro biomechanical comparison of a 4.5 mm narrow locking compression plate construct versus a 4.5 mm limited contact dynamic compression plate construct for arthrodesis of the equine proximal interphalangeal joint. Vet Surg 2013;42:335339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Zoppa AL, Santoni B, Puttlitz CM, et al. Arthrodesis of the equine proximal interphalangeal joint: a biomechanical comparison of 3-hole 4.5 mm locking compression plate and 3-hole 4.5 mm narrow dynamic compression plate, with two transarticular 5.5 mm cortex screws. Vet Surg 2011;40:253259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Wagner M. General principles for the clinical use of the LCP. Injury 2003;34(suppl 2):B31B42.

  • 14. Herthel TD, Rick MC, Judy CE, et al. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992–2014). Equine Vet J 2016;48:557564.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Auer JA. Principles of fracture treatment. In: Auer JA, Stick JA, eds. Equine surgery. 4th ed. St Louis: Elsevier-Saunders, 2012;10471081.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Kester W. Definition and classification of lameness. In: Guide for veterinary services and judging of equestrian events. 4th ed. Lexington, Ky: American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1991;19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Kääb MJ, Frenk A, Schmeling A, et al. Locked internal fixator: sensitivity of screw/plate stability to the correct insertion angle of the screw. J Orthop Trauma 2004;18:483487.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Elce YA, Goodrich L. Deep digital flexor tendon rupture in two horses: a potential complication of comminuted second phalangeal fractures. Equine Vet Educ 2015;27:6570.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Lescun TB. Equine fractures: the importance of the soft tissues. Equine Vet Educ 2015;27:7174.

Use of a locking compression plate for equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis: 29 cases (2008–2014)

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Orthopaedic Research Center, College of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80521.
  • | 3 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80521.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80521.
  • | 6 Orthopaedic Research Center, College of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80521.
  • | 7 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe clinical use of a locking compression plate (LCP) for proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) arthrodesis in horses and compare outcomes for horses that underwent the procedure as treatment for fracture of the middle phalanx (P2) versus other causes.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 29 client-owned horses.

PROCEDURES Medical records of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from 2008 through 2014 were reviewed to identify horses that underwent PIPJ arthrodesis of 1 limb. Signalment, surgical, and outcome-related variables were recorded. Owners were contacted from 1 to 6 years after surgery to determine rehabilitation time, current use of the horse, and overall owner satisfaction with the procedure. Success was determined on the basis of owner satisfaction and outcome for intended use. Variables of interest were compared statistically between horses that underwent surgery for P2 fracture versus other reasons.

RESULTS 14 horses underwent surgery for treatment of P2 fracture, and 15 had surgery because of osteoarthritis, subluxation, or osteochondrosis. Median convalescent time after surgery (with no riding or unrestricted exercise) was 7 months. Four horses were euthanized; of 23 known alive at follow-up, 22 were not lame, and 18 had returned to their intended use (8 and 10 at higher and lower owner-reported levels of work, respectively). Horses undergoing arthrodesis for reasons other than fracture were significantly more likely to return to their previous level of work. Twenty-two of 24 owners contacted indicated satisfaction with the procedure.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Surgical arthrodesis of the PIPJ was successful in most horses of the study population. Various nuances of the system for fracture repair need to be understood prior to its use.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe clinical use of a locking compression plate (LCP) for proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) arthrodesis in horses and compare outcomes for horses that underwent the procedure as treatment for fracture of the middle phalanx (P2) versus other causes.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 29 client-owned horses.

PROCEDURES Medical records of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from 2008 through 2014 were reviewed to identify horses that underwent PIPJ arthrodesis of 1 limb. Signalment, surgical, and outcome-related variables were recorded. Owners were contacted from 1 to 6 years after surgery to determine rehabilitation time, current use of the horse, and overall owner satisfaction with the procedure. Success was determined on the basis of owner satisfaction and outcome for intended use. Variables of interest were compared statistically between horses that underwent surgery for P2 fracture versus other reasons.

RESULTS 14 horses underwent surgery for treatment of P2 fracture, and 15 had surgery because of osteoarthritis, subluxation, or osteochondrosis. Median convalescent time after surgery (with no riding or unrestricted exercise) was 7 months. Four horses were euthanized; of 23 known alive at follow-up, 22 were not lame, and 18 had returned to their intended use (8 and 10 at higher and lower owner-reported levels of work, respectively). Horses undergoing arthrodesis for reasons other than fracture were significantly more likely to return to their previous level of work. Twenty-two of 24 owners contacted indicated satisfaction with the procedure.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Surgical arthrodesis of the PIPJ was successful in most horses of the study population. Various nuances of the system for fracture repair need to be understood prior to its use.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Leise's present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.

Dr. Sakai's present address is Comstock Equine Hospital, 90 W Laramie Dr, Reno, NV 89521.

Address correspondence to Dr. Goodrich (Laurie.goodrich@colostate.edu).