• 1. CDC. Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013. Available at: www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/index.html. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. AVMA. What is one health? Available at: www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Reference/Pages/One-Health94.aspx. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

  • 3. AVMA Task Force for Antimicrobial Stewardship in Companion Animal Practice. Antimicrobial stewardship in companion animal practice. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;246:287288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Papich MG. Antibiotic treatment of resistant infections in small animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2013;43:10911107.

  • 5. Guardabassi L, Prescott JF. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice: from theory to practice. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015;45:361376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Greene CE. Antimicrobial drug formulary. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2006;11861333.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Weese JS, Giguère S, Guardabassi L, et al. ACVIM consensus statement on therapeutic antimicrobial use in animals and antimicrobial resistance. J Vet Intern Med 2015;29:487498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Bryan J, Frank L, Rohrbach B, et al. Treatment outcome of dogs with meticillin-resistant and meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius pyoderma. Vet Dermatol 2012;23:361368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Weese JS, van Duijkeren E. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in veterinary medicine. Vet Microbiol 2010;140:418429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. AVMA. Task Force on Antimicrobial Stewardship in Companion Animal Practice: activities August 2013–December 2015. Available at: www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Reports/Documents/TFASCAP_Report.pdf. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Sanchez GV, Fleming-Dutra KE, Roberts RM, et al. Core elements of outpatient antibiotic stewardship. MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65:112.

  • 12. AVMA. Veterinarian's Oath. Available at: www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Pages/veterinarians-oath.aspx. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

  • 13. World Health Organization. Ad-hoc Interagency Coordination Group. Available at: www.who.int/antimicrobial-resistance/interagency-coordination-group/en/. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. World Health Organization. Antibiotic resistance. Available at: www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antibiotic-resistance. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Jennings R. Pups, pigs arrive in NJ from hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico. Available at: www.nj.com/morris/index.ssf/2017/10/a_plane_full_of_dogs_and_cats_arrives_from_puerto.html. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. The United Nations. SDGs. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform. Available at: sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdgs. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. World Health Organization. Antimicrobial resistance. Available at: www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antimicrobial-resistance. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Global Health Security Agenda. Action packages. Available at: www.ghsagenda.org/packages. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

  • 19. American Association of Feline Practitioners/American Animal Hospital Association. AAFP/AAHA basic guidelines of judicious therapeutic use of antimicrobials. Available at: www.aaha.org/public_documents/professional/guidelines/aafp_aaha_antimicrobialguidelines.pdf. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine. Antimicrobial resistance learning site. Available at: amrls.umn.edu/antimicrobial-resistance-learning-site/microbiology. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Moodley A, Nielsen S, Guardabassi L. Effects of tetracycline and zinc on selection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type 398 in pigs. Vet Microbiol 2011;152:420423.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. CDC. Ten great public health achievements—United States, 1900–1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999;48:241243.

  • 23. CDC. Innovations to slow antibiotic resistance. Available at: www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/solutions-initiative/innovations-to-slow-AR.html. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. AVMA Task Force for Antimicrobial Stewardship in Companion Animal Practice. Understanding companion animal practitioners’ attitudes toward issues of antimicrobial stewardship. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:883884.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. AVMA. AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials: entity description. Available at: www.avma.org/About/Governance/Councils/Pages/Committee-on-Antimicrobials.aspx. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. AVMA. Antimicrobial stewardship for veterinarians defined. Available at: www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Pages/Antimicrobial-Stewardship-for-Veterinarians-Defined.aspx. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. CDC. Measuring outpatient antibiotic prescribing. Available at: www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/stewardship-report/index.html. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Fleming-Dutra KE, Hersh AL, Shapiro DJ, et al. Prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions among US ambulatory care visits, 2010–2011. JAMA 2016;315:18641873.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Szymczak JE, Feemster KA, Zaoutis TE, et al. Pediatrician perceptions of an outpatient antimicrobial stewardship intervention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(suppl 3): S69S78.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Francois Watkins LK, Sanchez GV, Albert AP, et al. Knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic use among adult consumers, adult hispanic consumers, and health care providers—United States, 2012–2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015;64:767770.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Baker SA, Van-Balen J, Lu B, et al. Antimicrobial drug use in dogs prior to admission to a veterinary teaching hospital. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;241:210217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Murphy CP, Reid-Smith RJ, Boerlin P, et al. Out-patient antimicrobial drug use in dogs and cats for new disease events from community companion animal practices in Ontario. Can Vet J 2012;53:291298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Weese JS. Investigation of antimicrobial use and the impact of antimicrobial use guidelines in a small animal veterinary teaching hospital: 1995–2004. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;228:553558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Adams VJ, Campbell JR, Waldner CL, et al. Evaluation of client compliance with short-term administration of antimicrobials to dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:567574.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. AVMA. Veterinary feed directive (VFD) basics. Available at: www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Pages/VFD123.aspx. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

  • 36. AVMA. The veterinarian-client-patient relationship. Available at: www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Reference/Pages/VCPR.aspx. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37. AVMA. Antimicrobial therapy do's and don'ts: cat. Available at: www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Documents/AntibioticDoDonts_CAT.pdf. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. AVMA. Antimicrobial therapy do's and don'ts: dog. Available at: www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Documents/AntibioticDoDonts_DOGpdf.pdf. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Hillier A, Lloyd DH, Weese JS, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of canine superficial bacterial folliculitis (Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases). Vet Dermatol 2014;25:163e43.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40. Lappin MR, Blondeau JM, Boothe D, et al. Antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of respiratory tract disease in dogs and cats: Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. J Vet Intern Med 2017;31:279294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41. Weese JS, Blondeau JM, Boothe D, et al. Antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of urinary tract disease in dogs and cats: Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. Vet Med Int 2011;2011:263768.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. Williams CJ, Scheftel JM, Elchos BL, et al. Compendium of Veterinary Standard Precautions for Zoonotic Disease Prevention in Veterinary Personnel: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians: Veterinary Infection Control Committee 2015. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:12521277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43. CDC. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria (NARMS). Available at: www.cdc.gov/narms/index.html. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. CDC. US Antibiotic Awareness Week. Available at: www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/week/index.html. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

  • 45. FDA. FDA Guidance for Industry #209: the judicious use of medically important antimicrobial drugs in food-producing animals. Available at: www.fda.gov/downloads/animalveterinary/guidancecomplianceenforcement/guidanceforindustry/ucm216936.pdf. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46. FDA. FDA Guidance for Industry #213: new animal drugs and new animal drug combination products administered in or on medicated feed or drinking water of food producing animals: recommendations for drug sponsors for voluntarily aligning product use conditions with GFI #209. Available at: www.fda.gov/downloads/animalveterinary/guidancecomplianceenforcement/guidanceforindustry/ucm299624.pdf. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47. FDA. Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on FDA's new efforts to advance antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary settings. Available at: www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm615245.htm. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48. World Health Organization. WHO list of critically important antimicrobials for human medicine (WHO CIA list). Available at: www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/cia2017.pdf?ua=1. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49. AVMA. The role of the veterinarian in animal antimicrobial use. Available at: www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Pages/The-Role-of-the-Veterinarian-in-Animal-Antimicrobial-Use.aspx. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50. CDC. A commitment to our patients about antibiotics. Available at: www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/community/downloads/A-Commitment-to-Our-Patients-about-Antibiotics-poster-version-1.pdf. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51. Meeker D, Knight TK, Friedberg MW, et al. Nudging guideline-concordant antibiotic prescribing: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med 2014;174:425431.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52. AVMA. Clinic posters: be careful with antibiotics. Available at: www.avma.org/PracticeManagement/ClientMaterials/Pages/clinic-posters-be-careful-antibiotics.aspx. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53. Smith M, King C, Davis M, et al. Pet owner and vet interactions: exploring the drivers of AMR. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2018;7:46. doi: 10.1186/s13756– 018– 03411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54. CDC. US Antibiotic Awareness Week. Available at: www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/week/promotional-materials/index.html. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55. FDA. How to dispose of unused medicines. Available at: www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers/buyingusingmedicinesafely/ensuringsafeuseofmedicine/safedisposalofmedicines/ucm186187.htm. Accessed Aug 28, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

The role of companion animal veterinarians in one-health efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance

Erin Frey DVM1
View More View Less
  • 1 Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Frey (erin.frey.dvm@freypearson.com).