• 1. Kyles AE, Hardie EM, Wooden BG, et al. Clinical, clinicopathologic, radiographic, and ultrasonographic abnormalities in cats with ureteral calculi: 163 cases (1984–2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:932936.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Kyles AE, Hardie EM, Wooden BG, et al. Management and outcome of cats with ureteral calculi: 153 cases (1984–2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:937944.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Snyder DM, Steffey MA, Mehler SJ, et al. Diagnosis and surgical management of ureteral calculi in dogs: 16 cases (1990–2003). N Z Vet J 2005;53:1925.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Kuntz JA, Berent AC, Weisse C, et al. Double pigtail ureteral stenting and renal pelvic lavage for renal-sparing treatment of obstructive pyonephrosis in dogs: 13 cases (2008–2012). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;246:216225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Berent AC, Weisse CW, Todd KL, et al. Technical and clinical outcomes of ureteral stenting in cats with benign ureteral obstruction: 69 cases (2006–2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;244:559576.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Berent AC. Ureteral obstructions in dogs and cats: a review of traditional and new interventional diagnostic and therapeutic options. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2011;21:86103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Horowitz C, Berent A, Weisse C, et al. Predictors of outcome for cats with ureteral obstructions after interventional management using ureteral stents or a subcutaneous ureteral by-pass device. J Feline Med Surg 2013;15:10521062.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Berent AC, Weisse C, Beal MW, et al. Use of indwelling, double-pigtail stents for treatment of malignant ureteral obstruction in dogs: 12 cases (2006–2009). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;238:10171025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Zaid MS, Berent AC, Weisse C, et al. Feline ureteral strictures: 10 cases (2007–2009). J Vet Intern Med 2011;25:222229.

  • 10. Roberts SF, Aronson LR, Brown DC. Postoperative mortality in cats after ureterolithotomy. Vet Surg 2011;40:438443.

  • 11. Hardie EM, Kyles AE. Management of ureteral obstruction. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2004;34:9891010.

  • 12. McLouglin MA, Bjorling DE. Ureters. In: Slatter D, ed Textbook of small animal surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2003;16191628.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Lulich JP, Adam LG, Grant D, et al. Changing paradigms in the treatment of uroliths by lithotripsy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Prac 2009;39:143160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Lam NK, Berent AC, Weisse SW, et al. Endoscopic placement of ureteral stents for treatment of congenital bilateral ureteral stenosis in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240:983990.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Runge JJ, Berent AC, Mayhew PD, et al. Transvesicular percutaneous cystolithotomy for the retrieval of cystic and urethral calculi in dogs and cats: 27 cases (2006–2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;239:344349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Weisse C, Berent AC. Percutaneous perianal approach to the canine urethra. In: Veterinary image-guided interventions. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons, 2015:415418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Brearley MJ, Milroy EJ, Rickards D. A percutaneous perineal approach for cystoscopy in male dogs. Res Vet Sci 1988;44:380382.

  • 18. Steinhaus J, Berent AC, Weisse C, et al. Clinical presentation and outcome of cats with circumcaval ureters associated with a ureteral obstruction. J Vet Intern Med 2015;29:6370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Outcome of ureteral stent placement for treatment of benign ureteral obstruction in dogs: 44 cases (2010–2013)

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Interventional Radiology and Endoscopy, the Animal Medical Center, 510 E 62nd St, New York, NY 10065.
  • | 2 Department of Interventional Radiology and Endoscopy, the Animal Medical Center, 510 E 62nd St, New York, NY 10065.
  • | 3 Department of Interventional Radiology and Endoscopy, the Animal Medical Center, 510 E 62nd St, New York, NY 10065.
  • | 4 Department of Interventional Radiology and Endoscopy, the Animal Medical Center, 510 E 62nd St, New York, NY 10065.
  • | 5 Lamb Consulting, 404 Thompson Ave W, West Saint Paul, MN 55118.
  • | 6 Department of Urology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the technique and short- and long-term outcomes for dogs undergoing double-pigtail ureteral stent placement for treatment of benign ureteral obstruction.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 44 dogs (57 ureters).

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs that underwent ureteral stenting for treatment of benign ureteral obstruction between 2010 and 2013 were reviewed. Signal-ment, history, pertinent diagnostic imaging results, endourologic and post-procedural details, duration of hospitalization, complications, and outcome (short term, 7 to 30 days; long term, > 30 days) were recorded. Ureteral stent placement was performed endoscopically, surgically, or both, with fluoroscopic guidance.

RESULTS 57 ureters (44 dogs) underwent stenting because of obstructive ureterolithiasis (n = 48 [84%]), stricture (5 [9%]), or both (4 [7%]). Endoscopic or surgical techniques were successful for stent placement in 45 of 55 and 12 of 12 ureters (34/42 and 10/10 dogs), respectively. Median hospitalization time was 1 day. Median creatinine concentration was 2 mg/dL prior to stenting and 1.3 mg/dL 3 months after the procedure. Urinary tract infections were present in 26 of 44 (59%) dogs prior to stenting and in 11 of 43 dogs (26%) after stenting. One of the 44 (2%) dogs died after undergoing stenting, but the cause of death was not related to the procedure. Median follow-up time was 1,158 days (range, 3 to > 1,555 days), with 30 of 44 dogs alive at the time of last follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that ureteral stenting may be a viable option for first-line treatment of dogs with benign ureteral obstruction. However, patients should be monitored for urinary tract infection following stenting.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the technique and short- and long-term outcomes for dogs undergoing double-pigtail ureteral stent placement for treatment of benign ureteral obstruction.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 44 dogs (57 ureters).

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs that underwent ureteral stenting for treatment of benign ureteral obstruction between 2010 and 2013 were reviewed. Signal-ment, history, pertinent diagnostic imaging results, endourologic and post-procedural details, duration of hospitalization, complications, and outcome (short term, 7 to 30 days; long term, > 30 days) were recorded. Ureteral stent placement was performed endoscopically, surgically, or both, with fluoroscopic guidance.

RESULTS 57 ureters (44 dogs) underwent stenting because of obstructive ureterolithiasis (n = 48 [84%]), stricture (5 [9%]), or both (4 [7%]). Endoscopic or surgical techniques were successful for stent placement in 45 of 55 and 12 of 12 ureters (34/42 and 10/10 dogs), respectively. Median hospitalization time was 1 day. Median creatinine concentration was 2 mg/dL prior to stenting and 1.3 mg/dL 3 months after the procedure. Urinary tract infections were present in 26 of 44 (59%) dogs prior to stenting and in 11 of 43 dogs (26%) after stenting. One of the 44 (2%) dogs died after undergoing stenting, but the cause of death was not related to the procedure. Median follow-up time was 1,158 days (range, 3 to > 1,555 days), with 30 of 44 dogs alive at the time of last follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that ureteral stenting may be a viable option for first-line treatment of dogs with benign ureteral obstruction. However, patients should be monitored for urinary tract infection following stenting.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Pavia's present address is BluePearl Veterinary Partners, 1 W 15th St, New York, NY 10011. Dr. Neiman's present address is VCA West Los Angeles Animal Hospital, 1900 S Sepulveda Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90025.

Address correspondence to Dr. Berent (allyson.berent@amcny.org).