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Cystoscopic diagnosis of polypoid cystitis in two pet rabbits

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  • 1 Clinica per Animali Esotici, Centro Veterinario Specialistico, 00137 Roma, Italy.
  • | 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, 64100 Teramo, Italy.
  • | 3 Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, University of Padua, 35020 Legnaro, Italy.
  • | 4 Antech Diagnostics, 17672 Cowan Ave, Irvine, CA 92614.
  • | 5 Dipartimento di Ecografia, Centro Veterinario Specialistico, 00137 Roma, Italy.
  • | 6 Clinica per Animali Esotici, Centro Veterinario Specialistico, 00137 Roma, Italy.
  • | 7 Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire d'Alfort, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.
  • | 8 Clinica per Animali Esotici, Centro Veterinario Specialistico, 00137 Roma, Italy.

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION AS-year-old male Dwarf rabbit and 4-year-old female Mini-Rex rabbit were evaluated because of anorexia and urine scalding of the perineum.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Abdominal radiography revealed a diffuse increase in the opacity of the urinary bladder attributable to urinary sludge. In 1 rabbit, abdominal ultrasonography revealed several mass-like lesions protruding from the mucosal surface into the lumen of the urinary bladder. Rabbits were anesthetized, and cystoscopy was performed with a rigid 2.7-mm, 30° endoscope. Histologic analysis of tissue samples obtained through the cystoscope operating channel revealed findings consistent with polypoid cystitis.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME To remove the urinary sludge from each rabbit, the urinary bladder was filled with sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and emptied with a gentle massage several times until the ejected fluid was transparent. Rabbits were treated with NSAIDs, antimicrobials (chosen following microbial culture of urine and antimicrobial susceptibility testing), bathing of the perineum, and a low-calcium diet. The male rabbit died of unrelated causes 18 months later; postmortem examination findings confirmed the polypoid cystitis. The female rabbit remained disease free through to last follow-up (12 months after initial evaluation).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE This was the first report of polypoid cystitis in pet rabbits. Although ultrasonographic findings supported this diagnosis, a definitive diagnosis was achieved through cystoscopy and lesion biopsy. Treatments administered were intended to reduce the potential sources of irritation. Research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of the applied interventions and the association between excessive urinary calcium excretion and polyploid cystitis in rabbits.

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION AS-year-old male Dwarf rabbit and 4-year-old female Mini-Rex rabbit were evaluated because of anorexia and urine scalding of the perineum.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Abdominal radiography revealed a diffuse increase in the opacity of the urinary bladder attributable to urinary sludge. In 1 rabbit, abdominal ultrasonography revealed several mass-like lesions protruding from the mucosal surface into the lumen of the urinary bladder. Rabbits were anesthetized, and cystoscopy was performed with a rigid 2.7-mm, 30° endoscope. Histologic analysis of tissue samples obtained through the cystoscope operating channel revealed findings consistent with polypoid cystitis.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME To remove the urinary sludge from each rabbit, the urinary bladder was filled with sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and emptied with a gentle massage several times until the ejected fluid was transparent. Rabbits were treated with NSAIDs, antimicrobials (chosen following microbial culture of urine and antimicrobial susceptibility testing), bathing of the perineum, and a low-calcium diet. The male rabbit died of unrelated causes 18 months later; postmortem examination findings confirmed the polypoid cystitis. The female rabbit remained disease free through to last follow-up (12 months after initial evaluation).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE This was the first report of polypoid cystitis in pet rabbits. Although ultrasonographic findings supported this diagnosis, a definitive diagnosis was achieved through cystoscopy and lesion biopsy. Treatments administered were intended to reduce the potential sources of irritation. Research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of the applied interventions and the association between excessive urinary calcium excretion and polyploid cystitis in rabbits.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Appendix S1 (PDF 925 kb)

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Di Girolamao (nicoladiggi@gmail.com).

Dr. Di Girolamo's present address is Tai Wai, Small Animal & Exotic Hospital, Tai Wai, Shatin, 69–75 Chik Shun St, Hong Kong.

Dr. Bongiovanni's present address is Department of Pathobiology, Dutch Molecular Pathology Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Dr. Melidone's present address is CBSET Inc, 500 Shire Way, Lexington, MA 02421.