• 1. Landercasper J, Cogbill TH, Strutt PJ, et al. Trauma and the veterinarian. J Trauma 1988; 28: 12551259.

  • 2. Lucas M, Day L, Shirangi A, et al. Significant injuries in Australian veterinarians and use of safety precautions. Occup Med (Lond) 2009; 59: 327333.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Poole AG, Shane SM, Kearney MT, et al. Survey of occupational hazards in large animal practices. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999; 215: 14331435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Poole AG, Shane SM, Kearney MT, et al. Survey of occupational hazards in companion animal practices. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212: 13861388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Fritschi L, Day L, Shirangi A, et al. Injury in Australian veterinarians. Occup Med (Lond) 2006; 56: 199203.

  • 6. Gabel CL, Gerberich SG. Risk factors for injury among veterinarians. Epidemiology 2002; 13: 8086.

  • 7. van Soest EM, Fritschi L. Occupational health risks in veterinary nursing: an exploratory study. Aust Vet J 2004; 82: 346350.

  • 8. Jeyaretnam J, Jones H. Physical, chemical and biological hazards in veterinary practice. Aust Vet J 2000; 78: 751758.

  • 9. Seibert PJ Jr. Hazards in the hospital. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1994; 204: 352360.

  • 10. Jackson J, Villarroel A. A survey of the risk of zoonoses for veterinarians. Zoonoses Public Health 2012; 59: 193201.

  • 11. Brito MG, Chamone TL, da Silva FJ, et al. Antemortem diagnosis of human rabies in a veterinarian infected when handling a herbivore in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2011; 53: 3944.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Baker WS, Gray GC. A review of published reports regarding zoonotic pathogen infection in veterinarians. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009; 234: 12711278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Nienhaus A, Skudlik C, Seidler A. Work-related accidents and occupational diseases in veterinarians and their staff. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2005; 78: 230238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Cieri D, Turchi C, Torzi G. Occupational brucellosis in the veterinary service of the Local Health Service in the Abruzzo Region (Italy). G Ital Med Lav Ergon 2007; 29: 817819 [in Italian].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Schnurrenberger PR, Grigor JK, Walker JF, et al. The zoonosisprone veterinarian. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1978; 173: 373376.

  • 16. Wright JG, Jung S, Holman RC, et al. Infection control practices and zoonotic disease risks among veterinarians in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 232: 18631872.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Ailsby RL. Occupational arm, shoulder, and neck syndrome affecting large animal practitioners. Can Vet J 1996; 37: 411.

  • 18. AVMA Group Health and Life Insurance Trust. Dealing with back injuries. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 231: 11871188.

  • 19. Scuffham AM, Firth EC, Stevenson MA, et al. Tasks considered by veterinarians to cause them musculoskeletal discomfort, and suggested solutions. N Z Vet J 2010; 58: 3744.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Scuffham AM, Legg SJ, Firth EC, et al. Prevalence and risk factors associated with musculoskeletal discomfort in New Zealand veterinarians. Appl Ergon 2010; 41: 444453.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Smith DR, Leggat PA, Speare R. Musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors among veterinarians in Queensland, Australia. Aust Vet J 2009; 87: 260265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Fritschi L, Shirangi A, Robertson ID, et al. Trends in exposure of veterinarians to physical and chemical hazards and use of protection practices. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2008; 81: 371378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. AVMA Group Health and Life Insurance Trust. Occupational asthma a risk for veterinarians. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 233: 212213.

  • 24. Andersen CI, Von Essen SG, Smith LM, et al. Respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction in swine veterinarians: a persistent problem. Am J Ind Med 2004; 46: 386392.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Shirangi A, Fritschi L, Holman CD. Associations of unscavenged anesthetic gases and long working hours with preterm delivery in female veterinarians. Obstet Gynecol 2009; 113: 10081017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Shirangi A, Fritschi L, Holman CD. Prevalence of occupational exposures and protective practices in Australian female veterinarians. Aust Vet J 2007; 85: 3238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Shirangi A, Fritschi L, Holman CD. Maternal occupational exposures and risk of spontaneous abortion in veterinary practice. Occup Environ Med 2008; 65: 719725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Shirangi A, Fritschi L, Holman CD, et al. Birth defects in offspring of female veterinarians. J Occup Environ Med 2009; 51: 525533.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Shirangi A, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Vienneau D, et al. Living near agricultural pesticide applications and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes: a review of the literature. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2011; 25: 172191.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Botts RP, Edlavitch S, Payne G. Mortality of Missouri veterinarians. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1966; 149: 499504.

  • 31. Bartram DJ, Baldwin DS. Veterinary surgeons and suicide: a structured review of possible influences on increased risk. Vet Rec 2010; 166: 388397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Bartram DJ, Sinclair JM, Baldwin DS. Interventions with potential to improve the mental health and wellbeing of UK veterinary surgeons. Vet Rec 2010; 166: 518523.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Bartram DJ, Yadegarfar G, Baldwin DS. Psychosocial working conditions and work-related stressors among UK veterinary surgeons. Occup Med (Lond) 2009; 59: 334341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Skipper GE, Williams JB. Failure to acknowledge high suicide risk among veterinarians. J Vet Med Educ 2012; 39: 7982.

  • 35. Fritschi L, Morrison D, Shirangi A, et al. Psychological wellbeing of Australian veterinarians. Aust Vet J 2009; 87: 7681.

  • 36. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med 2001; 16: 606613.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37. Arroll B, Goodyear-Smith F, Crengle S, et al. Validation of PHQ-2 and PHQ-9 to screen for major depression in the primary care population. Ann Fam Med 2010; 8: 348353.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Scheftel JM, Elchos BL, Cherry B, et al. Compendium of veterinary standard precautions for zoonotic disease prevention in veterinary personnel: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians Veterinary Infection Control Committee 2010. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010; 237: 14031422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Artenstein AW, Hicks CB, Goodwin, BS Jr, et al. Human infection with B virus following a needlestick injury. Rev Infect Dis 1991; 13: 288291.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40. Hill DJ, Langley RL, Morrow WM. Occupational injuries and illnesses reported by zoo veterinarians in the United States. J Zoo Wildl Med 1998; 29: 371385.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41. Langley R. Physical hazards of animal handlers. Occup Med 1999; 14: 181194.

  • 42. Leggat PA, Smith DR, Speare R. Exposure rate of needlestick and sharps injuries among Australian veterinarians. J Occup Med Toxicol 2009; 4: 25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43. Moore RM Jr, Davis YM, Kaczmarek RG. An overview of occupational hazards among veterinarians, with particular reference to pregnant women. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1993; 54: 113120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. Oliveira AM, Maggi RG, Woods CW, et al. Suspected needle stick transmission of Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii to a veterinarian. J Vet Intern Med 2010; 24: 12291232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45. Patterson CJ, LaVenture M, Hurley SS, et al. Accidental self-inoculation with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis bacterin (Johne's bacterin) by veterinarians in Wisconsin. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988; 192: 11971199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46. Senanayake SN. Needlestick injury with smallpox vaccine. Med J Aust 2009; 191: 657.

  • 47. Skilton D, Thompson J. Needlestick injuries. Vet Rec 2005; 156: 522.

  • 48. Stewart KL. Handling needles properly minimizes hazards (lett). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009; 235: 1272.

  • 49. Weese JS, Faires M. A survey of needle handling practices and needlestick injuries in veterinary technicians. Can Vet J 2009; 50: 12781282.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50. Wilkins III JR, Bowman ME. Needlestick injuries among female veterinarians: frequency, syringe contents and side-effects. Occup Med (Lond) 1997; 47: 451457.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51. Wilkins MJ, Bartlett PC, Judge LJ, et al. Veterinarian injuries associated with bovine TB testing livestock in Michigan, 2001. Prev Vet Med 2009; 89: 185190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52. Trevejo RT. Rabies preexposure vaccination among veterinarians and at-risk staff. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 217: 16471650.

  • 53. Manning SE, Rupprecht CE, Fishbein D, et al. Human rabies prevention—United States, 2008: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Recomm Rep 2008; 57: 128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54. Archer BN, Weyer J, Paweska J, et al. Outbreak of Rift Valley fever affecting veterinarians and farmers in South Africa, 2008. S Afr Med J 2011; 101: 263266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55. Baer R, Turnberg W, Yu D, et al. Leptospirosis in a small animal veterinarian: reminder to follow standardized infection control procedures. Zoonoses Public Health 2010; 57: 281284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56. Martin RJ, Habtemariam T, Schnurrenberger PR. The health characteristics of veterinarians in Illinois. Int J Zoonoses 1981; 8: 6371.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57. Gräni R, Wandeler A, Steck F, et al. Rabies in a veterinarian. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1978; 108: 593597 [in German].

  • 58. Abe T, Yamaki K, Hayakawa T, et al. A seroepidemiological study of the risks of Q fever infection in Japanese veterinarians. Eur J Epidemiol 2001; 17: 10291032.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59. Whitney EA, Massung RF, Candee AJ, et al. Seroepidemiologic and occupational risk survey for Coxiella burnetii antibodies among US veterinarians. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48: 550557.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60. Andersen E. B virus—the risks in monkey business. AAOHN J 2005; 53: 385387.

  • 61. Souza MJ. One health: zoonoses in the exotic animal practice. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2011; 14: 421426.

  • 62. Constable PJ, Harrington JM. Risks of zoonoses in a veterinary service. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1982; 284: 246248.

  • 63. Ferreira JB, Yamaguti M, Marques LM, et al. Detection of Mycoplasma pulmonis in laboratory rats and technicians. Zoonoses Public Health 2008; 55: 229234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64. Hunt TD, Ziccardi MH, Gulland FM, et al. Health risks for marine mammal workers. Dis Aquat Organ 2008; 81: 8192.

  • 65. Schnurrenberger PR, Walker JF, Martin RJ. Brucella infections in Illinois veterinarians. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1975; 167: 10841088.

  • 66. Xu F, Mawokomatanda T, Flegel D, et al. Surveillance for certain health behaviors among states and selected local areas— behavioral risk factor surveillance system, United States, 2011. MMWR Surveill Summ 2014; 63 (suppl 9): 1149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67. Blackwell DL, Lucas JW, Clarke TC. Summary health statistics for US adults: national health interview survey, 2012. Vital and health statistics. Series 10, No. 260. Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics, 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68. Samadi S, Wouters IM, Heederik DJ. A review of bio-aerosol exposures and associated health effects in veterinary practice. Ann Agric Environ Med 2013; 20: 206221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69. Donham KJ, Leistikow B, Merchant J, et al. Assessment of US poultry worker respiratory risks. Am J Ind Med 1990; 17: 7374.

  • 70. Donham KJ, Thorne PS. Agents in organic dust: criteria for a causal relationship. Am J Ind Med 1994; 25: 3339.

  • 71. O'Shaughnessy PT, Donham KJ, Peters TM, et al. A task-specific assessment of swine worker exposure to airborne dust. J Occup Environ Hyg 2010; 7: 713.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72. Reynolds SJ, Donham KJ, Whitten P, et al. Longitudinal evaluation of dose-response relationships for environmental exposures and pulmonary function in swine production workers. Am J Ind Med 1996; 29: 3340.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73. Rylander R, Donham KJ, Hjort C, et al. Effects of exposure to dust in swine confinement buildings—a working group report. Scand J Work Environ Health 1989; 15: 309312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74. Rylander R, Peterson Y, Donham KJ. Questionnaire evaluating organic dust exposure. Am J Ind Med 1990; 17: 121126.

  • 75. Schwartz DA, Donham KJ, Olenchock SA, et al. Determinants of longitudinal changes in spirometric function among swine confinement operators and farmers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 151: 4753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76. Donham KJ, Merchant JA, Lassise D, et al. Preventing respiratory disease in swine confinement workers: intervention through applied epidemiology, education, and consultation. Am J Ind Med 1990; 18: 241261.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77. Donham KJ, Zavala DC, Merchant JA. Respiratory symptoms and lung function among workers in swine confinement buildings: a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Arch Environ Health 1984; 39: 96101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78. Radon K, Danuser B, Iversen M, et al. Respiratory symptoms in European animal farmers. Eur Respir J 2001; 17: 747754.

  • 79. Rylander R, Essle N, Donham KJ. Bronchial hyperreactivity among pig and dairy farmers. Am J Ind Med 1990; 17: 6669.

  • 80. Von Essen SG, Scheppers LA, Robbins RA, et al. Respiratory tract inflammation in swine confinement workers studied using induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1998; 36: 557565.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81. Bonzini M, Coggon D, Godfrey K, et al. Occupational physical activities, working hours and outcome of pregnancy: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey. Occup Environ Med 2009; 66: 685690.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82. Bonde JP, Jorgensen KT, Bonzini M, et al. Miscarriage and occupational activity: a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding shift work, working hours, lifting, standing, and physical workload. Scand J Work Environ Health 2013; 39: 325334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83. Palmer KT, Bonzini M, Bonde JP. Pregnancy: occupational aspects of management: concise guidance. Clin Med 2013; 13: 7579.

  • 84. Lindbohm ML, Taskinen H. Spontaneous abortions among veterinarians. Scand J Work Environ Health 2000; 26: 501506.

  • 85. Schenker MB, Samuels SJ, Green RS, et al. Adverse reproductive outcomes among female veterinarians. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 132: 96106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86. Shuhaiber S, Einarson A, Radde IC, et al. A prospective-controlled study of pregnant veterinary staff exposed to inhaled anesthetics and x-rays. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2002; 15: 363373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87. Wilkins JR III, Steele LL. Occupational factors and reproductive outcomes among a cohort of female veterinarians. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 213: 6167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88. CDC. Current depression among adults—United States, 2006 and 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2010; 59: 12291235.

Advertisement

Survey of occupational hazards in Minnesota veterinary practices in 2012

Heather N. Fowler VMD, MPH1,2, Stacy M. Holzbauer DVM, MPH3,4, Kirk E. Smith DVM, PhD5, and Joni M. Scheftel DVM, MPH6
View More View Less
  • 1 Minnesota Department of Health, 625 North Robert St, Saint Paul, MN 55155.
  • | 2 Center for One Health Research, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.
  • | 3 Minnesota Department of Health, 625 North Robert St, Saint Paul, MN 55155.
  • | 4 Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, CDC, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30329.
  • | 5 Minnesota Department of Health, 625 North Robert St, Saint Paul, MN 55155.
  • | 6 Minnesota Department of Health, 625 North Robert St, Saint Paul, MN 55155.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To identify the scope of occupational hazards encountered by veterinary personnel and compare hazard exposures between veterinarians and technicians working in small and large animal practices.

DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.

POPULATION Licensed veterinarians and veterinary staff in Minnesota.

PROCEDURES A survey of Minnesota veterinary personnel was conducted between February 1 and December 1, 2012. Adult veterinary personnel working in clinical practice for > 12 months were eligible to participate. Information was collected on various workplace hazards as well as on workplace safety culture.

RESULTS 831 eligible people responded, representing approximately 10% of Minnesota veterinary personnel. A greater proportion of veterinarians (93%; 368/394) reported having received preexposure rabies vaccinations than did veterinary technicians (54%; 198/365). During their career, 226 (27%) respondents had acquired at least 1 zoonotic infection and 636 (77%) had been injured by a needle or other sharps. Recapping of needles was reported by 87% of respondents; the most common reason reported by veterinarians (41%; 142/345) and veterinary technicians (71%; 238/333) was being trained to do so at school or work. Recent feelings of depression were reported by 204 (25%) respondents. A greater proportion of technicians (42%; 155/365) than veterinarians (21%; 81/394) indicated working in an environment in which employees experienced some form of workplace abuse.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Veterinary personnel in Minnesota were exposed to several work-related hazards. Practice staff should assess workplace hazards, implement controls, and incorporate instruction on occupational health into employee training.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Fowler (hfowler@uw.edu).