• 1. Stalis IH, Chadwick B, Dayrell-Hart B, et al. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Maltese dogs. Vet Pathol 1995; 32: 230235.

  • 2. Cantile C, Chianini F, Arispici M, et al. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis associated with cortical hippocampal hamartia in a Pekingese dog. Vet Pathol 2001; 38: 119122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Higgins RJ, Dickinson PJ, Kube SA, et al. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in five Chihuahua dogs. Vet Pathol 2008; 45: 336346.

  • 4. Cordy DR, Holliday TA. A necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Pug dogs. Vet Pathol 1989; 26: 191194.

  • 5. Levine JM, Fosgate GT, Porter B, et al. Epidemiology of necrotizing meningoencephalitis in Pug dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2008; 22: 961968.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Greer KA, Schatzberg SJ, Porter BF, et al. Heritability and transmission analysis of necrotizing meningoencephalitis in the Pug. Res Vet Sci 2009; 86: 438442.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Barber RM, Schatzberg SJ, Corneveaux JJ, et al. Identification of risk loci for necrotizing meningoencephalitis in Pug dogs. J Hered 2011; 102(suppl 1):S40S46.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Talarico LR, Schatzberg SJ. Idiopathic granulomatous and necrotising inflammatory disorders of the canine central nervous system: a review and future perspectives. J Small Anim Pract 2010; 51: 138149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Cooper JJ, Schatzberg SJ, Vernau KM, et al. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in atypical dog breeds: a case series and literature review. J Vet Intern Med 2014; 28: 198203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Jung DI, Kang BT, Park C, et al. A comparison of combination therapy (cyclosporine plus prednisolone) with sole prednisolone therapy in 7 dogs with necrotizing meningoencephalitis. J Vet Med Sci 2007; 69: 13031306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Young BD, Levine JM, Fosgate GT, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of necrotizing meningoencephalitis in Pug dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2009; 23: 527535.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Flegel T, Henke D, Boettcher IC, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in histologically confirmed Pug dog encephalitis. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2008; 49: 419424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Ducoté JM, Johnson KE, Dewey CW, et al. Computed tomography of necrotizing meningoencephalitis in 3 Yorkshire Terriers. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1999; 40: 617621.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Kuwamura M, Adachi T, Yamate J, et al. Necrotising encephalitis in the Yorkshire Terrier: a case report and literature review. J Small Anim Pract 2002; 43: 459463.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Spitzbarth I, Schenk HC, Tipold A, et al. Immunohistochemical characterization of inflammatory and glial responses in a case of necrotizing leucoencephalitis in a French Bulldog. J Comp Pathol 2010; 142: 235241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Park ES, Uchida K, Nakayama H. Comprehensive immunohistochemical studies on canine necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), necrotizing leukoencephalitis (NLE), and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GME). Vet Pathol 2012; 49: 682692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Wolff CA, Holmes SP, Young BD, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging for the differentiation of neoplastic, inflammatory, and cerebrovascular brain disease in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2012; 26: 589597.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a large mixed-breed dog

Chelsie M. Estey MSc, DVM1, Steven J. Scott MVetSc, DVM2, and Sofia Cerda-Gonzalez DVM3
View More View Less
  • 1 Neurology Service, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.
  • | 3 Neurology Service, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Abstract

Case Description—A 4-year-old 26-kg (57.2-lb) spayed female Staffordshire Bull Terrier mix was evaluated because of a 24-hour history of cluster seizures.

Clinical Findings—Neurologic examination revealed altered mentation and multifocal intracranial signs; MRI was performed. The MRI findings included multifocal, asymmetric forebrain lesions affecting both the gray and white matter, an area suggestive of focal necrosis, and loss of corticomedullary distinction. A midline shift and caudal transtentorial herniation were noted, suggestive of greater than normal intracranial pressure.

Treatment and Outcome—Because the dog's clinical signs worsened despite medical treatment and additional evidence of increased intracranial pressure, bilateral craniectomy and durectomy were performed. Histologic evaluation of a brain biopsy specimen revealed bilateral and asymmetric areas of necrosis in the subcortical white matter and adjacent gray matter. At the periphery of the necrotic areas, there was increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and Virchow-Robin spaces were expanded by CD3+ lymphocytes. Results of immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue were negative for canine distemper virus, Neospora canis, and Toxoplasma gondii. These clinical, imaging, and histopathologic findings were compatible with necrotizing meningoencephalitis. The dog's neurologic status continued to worsen following surgery. Repeated MRI revealed ongoing signs of increased intracranial pressure, despite the bilateral craniectomy. The owners elected euthanasia.

Clinical Relevance—To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a large mixed-breed dog. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs other than small or toy breeds that have signs suggestive of inflammatory disease.

Abstract

Case Description—A 4-year-old 26-kg (57.2-lb) spayed female Staffordshire Bull Terrier mix was evaluated because of a 24-hour history of cluster seizures.

Clinical Findings—Neurologic examination revealed altered mentation and multifocal intracranial signs; MRI was performed. The MRI findings included multifocal, asymmetric forebrain lesions affecting both the gray and white matter, an area suggestive of focal necrosis, and loss of corticomedullary distinction. A midline shift and caudal transtentorial herniation were noted, suggestive of greater than normal intracranial pressure.

Treatment and Outcome—Because the dog's clinical signs worsened despite medical treatment and additional evidence of increased intracranial pressure, bilateral craniectomy and durectomy were performed. Histologic evaluation of a brain biopsy specimen revealed bilateral and asymmetric areas of necrosis in the subcortical white matter and adjacent gray matter. At the periphery of the necrotic areas, there was increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and Virchow-Robin spaces were expanded by CD3+ lymphocytes. Results of immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue were negative for canine distemper virus, Neospora canis, and Toxoplasma gondii. These clinical, imaging, and histopathologic findings were compatible with necrotizing meningoencephalitis. The dog's neurologic status continued to worsen following surgery. Repeated MRI revealed ongoing signs of increased intracranial pressure, despite the bilateral craniectomy. The owners elected euthanasia.

Clinical Relevance—To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a large mixed-breed dog. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs other than small or toy breeds that have signs suggestive of inflammatory disease.

Contributor Notes

The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, or publication of this article.

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, or publication of this article.

The authors thank Dr. Teresa Southard for contribution of histopathologic images and assistance with special stains processing.

Address correspondence to Dr. Estey (cme78@cornell.edu).