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Risk factors associated with the development of chronic kidney disease in cats evaluated at primary care veterinary hospitals

Joseph P. Greene DVM1, Sandra L. Lefebvre DVM, PhD2, Mansen Wang PhD3, Mingyin Yang BVMS, MS4, Elizabeth M. Lund DVM, MPH, PhD5, and David J. Polzin DVM, PhD6
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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108
  • | 2 Banfield Applied Research and Knowledge Team, Banfield Pet Hospital, 8000 NE Tillamook St, Portland, OR 97213
  • | 3 Banfield Applied Research and Knowledge Team, Banfield Pet Hospital, 8000 NE Tillamook St, Portland, OR 97213
  • | 4 Banfield Applied Research and Knowledge Team, Banfield Pet Hospital, 8000 NE Tillamook St, Portland, OR 97213
  • | 5 Banfield Applied Research and Knowledge Team, Banfield Pet Hospital, 8000 NE Tillamook St, Portland, OR 97213
  • | 6 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors associated with diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—1,230 cats with a clinical diagnosis of CKD, serum creatinine concentration > 1.6 mg/dL, and urine specific gravity < 1.035 and 1,230 age-matched control cats.

Procedures—Data on putative risk factors for CKD were extracted for multivariate logistic regression analysis from the medical records of cats brought to 755 primary care veterinary hospitals. For a subset of cats evaluated 6 to 12 months prior to the date of CKD diagnosis or control group inclusion, the percentage change in body weight between those dates as well as clinical signs at the earlier date were analyzed for associations with CKD development.

Results—Risk factors for CKD in cats included thin body condition, prior periodontal disease or cystitis, anesthesia or documented dehydration in the preceding year, being a neutered male (vs spayed female), and living anywhere in the United States other than the northeast. The probability of CKD decreased with increasing body weight in nondehydrated cats, domestic shorthair breed, and prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and increased when vomiting, polyuria or polydipsia, appetite or energy loss, or halitosis was present at the time of diagnosis or control group inclusion but not when those signs were reported 6 to 12 months earlier. Median weight loss during the preceding 6 to 12 months was 10.8% and 2.1% in cats with and without CKD, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The probability of CKD diagnosis in cats was influenced by several variables; recent weight loss, particularly in combination with the other factors, warrants assessment of cats for CKD.

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors associated with diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—1,230 cats with a clinical diagnosis of CKD, serum creatinine concentration > 1.6 mg/dL, and urine specific gravity < 1.035 and 1,230 age-matched control cats.

Procedures—Data on putative risk factors for CKD were extracted for multivariate logistic regression analysis from the medical records of cats brought to 755 primary care veterinary hospitals. For a subset of cats evaluated 6 to 12 months prior to the date of CKD diagnosis or control group inclusion, the percentage change in body weight between those dates as well as clinical signs at the earlier date were analyzed for associations with CKD development.

Results—Risk factors for CKD in cats included thin body condition, prior periodontal disease or cystitis, anesthesia or documented dehydration in the preceding year, being a neutered male (vs spayed female), and living anywhere in the United States other than the northeast. The probability of CKD decreased with increasing body weight in nondehydrated cats, domestic shorthair breed, and prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and increased when vomiting, polyuria or polydipsia, appetite or energy loss, or halitosis was present at the time of diagnosis or control group inclusion but not when those signs were reported 6 to 12 months earlier. Median weight loss during the preceding 6 to 12 months was 10.8% and 2.1% in cats with and without CKD, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The probability of CKD diagnosis in cats was influenced by several variables; recent weight loss, particularly in combination with the other factors, warrants assessment of cats for CKD.

Contributor Notes

Drs. Greene and Lefebvre contributed equally to this study.

Address correspondence to Dr. Lefebvre (sandi.lefebvre@banfield.net).