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Prevalence of inherited disorders among mixed-breed and purebred dogs: 27,254 cases (1995–2010)

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  • 1 Department of Animal Science, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Department of Animal Science, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 Department of Population, Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 Department of Animal Science, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 5 Department of Animal Science, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the proportion of mixed-breed and purebred dogs with common genetic disorders.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—27,254 dogs with an inherited disorder.

Procedures—Electronic medical records were reviewed for 24 genetic disorders: hemangiosarcoma, lymphoma, mast cell tumor, osteosarcoma, aortic stenosis, dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, mitral valve dysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism, hypothyroidism, elbow dysplasia, hip dysplasia, intervertebral disk disease, patellar luxation, ruptured cranial cruciate ligament, atopy or allergic dermatitis, bloat, cataracts, epilepsy, lens luxation, and portosystemic shunt. For each disorder, healthy controls matched for age, body weight, and sex to each affected dog were identified.

Results—Genetic disorders differed in expression. No differences in expression of 13 genetic disorders were detected between purebred dogs and mixed-breed dogs (ie, hip dysplasia, hypo- and hyperadrenocorticism, cancers, lens luxation, and patellar luxation). Purebred dogs were more likely to have 10 genetic disorders, including dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, cataracts, and hypothyroidism. Mixed-breed dogs had a greater probability of ruptured cranial cruciate ligament.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prevalence of genetic disorders in both populations was related to the specific disorder. Recently derived breeds or those from similar lineages appeared to be more susceptible to certain disorders that affect all closely related purebred dogs, whereas disorders with equal prevalence in the 2 populations suggested that those disorders represented more ancient mutations that are widely spread through the dog population. Results provided insight on how breeding practices may reduce prevalence of a disorder.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Oberbauer (amoberbauer@ucdavis.edu).