• 1.

    Schumacher J, Hanselka DV. Nasopharyngeal cicatrices in horses: 47 cases (1972–1985). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1987; 191:239242.

  • 2.

    Chesen AB, Rakestraw PC. Indications for and short- and long-term outcome of permanent tracheostomy performed in standing horses: 82 cases (1995–2005). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 232:13521356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Dean PW, Cohen ND. Arytenoidectomy for advanced unilateral chrondropathy with accompanying lesions. Vet Surg 1990; 19:364370.

  • 4.

    Spiegelhalter DJ, Best NG. Bayesian approaches to multiple sources of evidence and uncertainty in complex cost-effectiveness modeling. Stat Med 2003; 23:36873709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Jeffery PK, Li D. Airway mucosa: secretory cells, mucus and mucin genes. Eur Respir J 1997; 10:16551662.

  • 6.

    Davenport-Goodall CLM, Parente E. Disorders of the larynx. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2003; 19:169187.

  • 7.

    Sullivan EK, Parente E. Disorders of the pharynx. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2003; 19:159167.

  • 8.

    Lilich JD, Gaughan EM. Diagnostic approach to exercise intolerance in racehorses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 1996; 12:555564.

  • 9.

    Rakestraw PC. Equine nasopharyngeal cicatrix syndrome, in Proceedings. Texas A&M Annu Equine Conf 2003;4043.

  • 10.

    McClure SR, Schumaker J, Snyder JR. Transnasal incision of restrictive nasopharyngeal cicatrix in 3 horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1994; 205:461463.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Association of clinical signs with endoscopic findings in horses with nasopharyngeal cicatrix syndrome: 118 cases (2003–2008)

Tracy E. Norman VMD, DACVIM1, M. Keith Chaffin DVM, MS, DACVIM2, Wesley T. Bisset DVM, PhD3, and James A. Thompson DVM, DVSC, DACT, DACVPM4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.
  • | 2 Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.
  • | 3 Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.
  • | 4 Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the associations between clinical signs of nasopharyngeal cicatrix syndrome (NCS) and endoscopic findings in horses.

Design—Retrospective, case-control study.

Animals—239 horses (118 case horses and 121 control horses).

Procedures—Medical records of horses that had an endoscopic evaluation of the upper airway performed between January 2003 and December 2008 were reviewed. Clinical signs and the appearance and anatomic locations of lesions identified during endoscopic evaluation were reviewed and recorded for each horse. The associations between clinical signs and endoscopic findings were evaluated by the use of a prospective logistic model that used a Bayesian method for inference and was implemented by a Markov chain Monte Carlo method.

Results—Nasal discharge was associated with acute inflammation of the pharynx and larynx. Exercise intolerance was associated with circumferential pharyngeal lesions. Respiratory noise was associated with chronic scarring of the pharynx, a combination of pharyngeal and laryngeal scarring, and circumferential scarring of the pharynx. Respiratory distress was associated with acute inflammation of all portions of the airway, especially when there was preexisting scarring and narrowing of the airway by ≥ 50%. Cough did not have any significant association with NCS, compared with results in control horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Associations between the endoscopic appearance of NCS lesions and relevant clinical signs will help practitioners identify horses with NCS and allow them to select appropriate treatment.

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the associations between clinical signs of nasopharyngeal cicatrix syndrome (NCS) and endoscopic findings in horses.

Design—Retrospective, case-control study.

Animals—239 horses (118 case horses and 121 control horses).

Procedures—Medical records of horses that had an endoscopic evaluation of the upper airway performed between January 2003 and December 2008 were reviewed. Clinical signs and the appearance and anatomic locations of lesions identified during endoscopic evaluation were reviewed and recorded for each horse. The associations between clinical signs and endoscopic findings were evaluated by the use of a prospective logistic model that used a Bayesian method for inference and was implemented by a Markov chain Monte Carlo method.

Results—Nasal discharge was associated with acute inflammation of the pharynx and larynx. Exercise intolerance was associated with circumferential pharyngeal lesions. Respiratory noise was associated with chronic scarring of the pharynx, a combination of pharyngeal and laryngeal scarring, and circumferential scarring of the pharynx. Respiratory distress was associated with acute inflammation of all portions of the airway, especially when there was preexisting scarring and narrowing of the airway by ≥ 50%. Cough did not have any significant association with NCS, compared with results in control horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Associations between the endoscopic appearance of NCS lesions and relevant clinical signs will help practitioners identify horses with NCS and allow them to select appropriate treatment.

Contributor Notes

The authors thank Dr. Peter Rakestraw for technical assistance with the design of this study and Kim Hensarling for assistance with the medical records.

Address correspondence to Dr. Norman (tnorman@cvm.tamu.edu).