• 1.

    Hull RN, Minner JR, Smith JW. New viral agents recovered from tissue cultures of monkey kidney cells. I. Origin and properties of cytopathogenic agents S.V.1, S.V2, S.V.4, S.V.5, S.V.6. S.V.11, S.V.12, and S.V.15 Am J Hyg 1956; 63:204215.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Tribe GW. An investigation of the incidence, epidemiology and control of simian virus 5. Br J Exp Pathol 1966; 47:472479.

  • 3.

    Atoynatan T, Hsiung GD. Epidemiologic studies of latent virus infections in captive monkeys and baboons. II. Serologic evidence of myovirus infections with special reference to SV5. Am J Epidemiol 1969; 89:472479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Goswani KKA, Lange LS, Mitchell DN, et al. Does simian virus 5 infect humans? J Gen Virol 1984; 65:12951303.

  • 5.

    Binn LN, Eddy GA, Lazar EC, et al. Viruses recovered from laboratory dogs with respiratory disease. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1967; 126:140145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Binn LN, Lazar EC, Rogul M, et al. Upper respiratory disease in military dogs: bacterial, mycoplasmal, and viral studies. Am J Vet Res 1968; 29:18091815.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Crandell RA, Brumlow WB, Davison VE. Isolation of a parainfluenza virus from sentry dogs with upper respiratory disease. Am J Vet Res 1968; 29:21412147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Appel M, Percy DH. SV-5-like parainfluenza virus in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1970; 156:17781781.

  • 9.

    Cornwell HJ, McCandlish I, Thompson H, et al. Isolation of paramyxovirus SV5 from dogs with respiratory disease. Vet Rec 1976; 98:301302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    McCandlish IA, Thompson H, Cornwell HJ, et al. A study of dogs with kennel cough. Vet Rec 1978; 102:293301.

  • 11.

    Binn LN, Alford JP, Marchwicki RH, et al. Studies of respiratory disease in random source laboratory dogs: viral infections in unconditioned dogs. Lab Anim Sci 1979; 29:4852.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Lazar EC, Swango LJ, Binn LN. Serologic and infectivity studies of canine SV-5 virus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1970; 135:173176.

  • 13.

    Chatziandreou N, Stock N, Young D, et al. Relationships and host range of human, canine, simian, and porcine isolates of simian virus 5 (parainfluenza virus 5). J Gen Virol 2004; 85:30073016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Hsiung GD. Parainfluenza-5 virus. Infection of man and animal. Prog Med Virol 1972; 14:241274.

  • 15.

    Murphy FA, Gibbs PJ, Horzinek MC, et al. Paramyxoviridae. In: Veterinary virology. 3rd ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1999;418.

  • 16.

    Chanock RM, Johnson KM, Cook MK, et al. The hemadsorption technique with a special reference to the problem of naturally occurring simian parainfluenza viruses. Am Rev Respir Dis 1961; 83:125129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Karron RA, Collins PL. Parainfluenza viruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, eds. Fields virology. Vol 1. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2007;14971526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Rosenberg FJ, Lief FS, Todd JD, et al. Studies of canine respiratory viruses. I. Experimental infection of dogs with an SV5-like canine parainfluenza agent. Am J Epidemiol 1971; 94:147165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Emery JB, House JA, Bittle JL. A canine parainfluenza viral vaccine: immungenicity and safety. Am J Vet Res 1976; 37:13231324.

  • 20.

    Chladek DW, Williams JM, Gerber DL, et al. Canine parainfluenza-Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccine immunogenicity. Am J Vet Res 1981; 42:266270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Ford RB. Canine infectious tracheobronchitis. In: Greene CE, ed. Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2006;5461.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Wagener JS, Minnich L, Sobonya R, et al. Parainfluenza type II infection in dogs: a model for viral lower respiratory tract infection in humans. Am Rev Respir Dis 1983; 127:771775.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Baumgaertner WK, Krakowka S, Koestner A, et al. Acute encephalitis and hydrocephalus in dogs caused by canine parainfluenza virus. Vet Pathol 1982; 19:7992.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Ueland K. Serological, bacteriological and clinical observations on an outbreak of canine infectious tracheobronchitis in Norway. Vet Rec 1990; 126:481483.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Englund L, Jacobs AAC, Klingeborn B, et al. Seroepidemiological survey of Bordetella bronchiseptica and canine parainfluenza-2 virus in dogs in Sweden. Vet Rec 2003; 152:251254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Erles K, Dubovi EJ, Brooks JW, et al. Longitudinal study of viruses associated with canine infectious respiratory disease. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42:45244529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Mochizuki M, Yachi A, Ohshima T, et al. Etiologic study of upper respiratory infections in household dogs. J Vet Med Sci 2008; 70:563569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Takimoto T, Portner A. Molecular mechanism of paramyxovirus budding. Virus Res 2004; 106:133145.

  • 29.

    Saona Black L, Lee KM. Infection of dogs and cats with a canine parainfluenza virus and application of congutinating-complement aborption test on cat serums. Cornell Vet 1970; 60:120134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Baumgartner W, Krakowka S, Durchfeld B. In vitro cytopathogenicity and in vivo virulence of two strains of canine parainfluenza virus. Vet Pathol 1991; 28:324331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Baumgartner W, Krakowka S, Blakeslee J. Evolution of in vitro persistence of two strains of canine parainfluenza virus. Arch Virol 1987; 93:147154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Yonezawa Y. Genome analysis of virulent and attenuated strains of canine parainfluenza virus. Br Vet J 1985; 141:192194.

  • 33.

    Southern JA, Young DF, Heaney F, et al. Identification of an epitope on the P and V proteins of simian virus 5 that distinguishes between two isolates with different biological characteristics. J Gen Virol 1991; 72:15511557.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Baty DU, Southern JA, Randall RE. Sequence comparison between haemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes of simian, canine and human isolates of simian virus 5. J Gen Virol 1991; 72:31033107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Cook KM, Andrews BE, Fox HH, et al. Antigenic relationships among the “newer” myxoviruses (parainfluenza). Am J Hyg 1959; 69:250264.

  • 36.

    Randall RE, Young DF, Goswani KA, et al. Isolation and characterization of mononclonal antibodies to simian virus 5 and their use in revealing antigenic differences between human, canine, and simian isolates. J Gen Virol 1987; 68:27692780.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Bryson DG, McNulty MS, McCracken RM, et al. Ultrastructural features of experimental parainfluenza type 3 virus pneumonia in calves. J Comp Pathol 1983; 93:397414.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Appel M, Binn LN. Canine parainfluenzvirus. In: Appel M, ed. Virus infections of carnivores. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1987;125132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Damian M, Morales E, Salas G, Trigo FJ. Immunohistochemical detection of antigens of distemper, adenovirus and parainfluenza viruses in domestic dogs with pneumonia. J Comp Pathol 2005; 133:289293.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Ito M, Nishio M, Komada H, et al. An amino acid in the heptad repeat 1 domain is important for the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase-independent fusing activity of simian virus 5 fusion protein. J Gen Virol 2000; 81:719727.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Seth S, Vincent A, Compans RW. Mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of a paramyxovirus fusion glycoprotein rescue syncytium formation and eliminate the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein requirement for membrane fusion. J Virol 2003; 77:167178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Nagai Y. Virus activation by host proteinases. A pivotal role in the spread of infection, tissue tropism and pathogenicity. Microbiol Immunol 1995; 39:19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Rodriguez Boulan E, Sabatini DD. Asymmetric budding of viruses in epithelial monolayers: a model system for the study of epithelial polarity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1978; 75:50715075.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Fink SL, Cookson BT. Apoptosis, pyroptosis, and necrosis: mechanistic description of dead and dying eukaryotic cells. Infect Immun 2005; 73:19071916.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Choppin PW. Multiplication of a myovirus (SV5) with minimal cytopathic effects and without interference. Virol 1964; 23:224233.

  • 46.

    He B, Lin GY, Durbin JE, et al. The SH integral membrane protein of paramyxovirus simian virus 5 is required to block apoptosis in MDBK. J Virol 2001; 75:40684079.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Wansley EK, Grayson JM, Parks GD. Apoptosis induction and interferon signalling but not IFN-beta promoter induction by an SV5 P/V mutant are rescued by coinfection with wild-type SV5. Virol 2003; 316:4154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Lin GY, Lamb RA. The paramyxovirus simian virus 5 V protein slows progression of the cell cycle. J Virol 2000; 74:91529166.

  • 49.

    Lemen RJ, Quan SF, Witten ML, et al. Canine parainfluenza type 2 bronchiolitis increases histimine responsiveness in Beagle puppies. Am Rev Resp Dis 1990; 141:199207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Quan SF, Lemen RJ, Witten ML, et al. Changes in lung mechanics and reactivity with age after viral bronchiolitis in Beagle puppies. J Appl Physiol 1990; 69:20342042.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Quan SF, Lemen RJ, Grad R, et al. Changes in lung mechanics and histamine responsiveness after sequential canine adenovirus 2 and canine parainfluenza 2 virus infection in Beagle puppies. Pediat Pulmonol 1991; 10:236243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Quan SF, Witten ML, Dambro NN, et al. Canine parainfluenza type 2 and Bordetella bronchiseptica infection produces increased bronchoalveolar lavage thromboxane concentrations in Beagle puppies. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1991; 44:171175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Dambro NN, Grad R, Witten ML, et al. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology reflects airway inflammation in Beagle puppies with acute bronchiolitis. Pediat Pulmonol 1992; 12:213220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Kontor EJ, Wegrzyn RJ, Goodnow RA. Canine infectious tracheobronchitis: effects of an intranasal live canine parainfluenza-Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccine on viral shedding and clinical tracheobronchitis (kennel cough). Am J Vet Res 1981; 42:16941698.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Ellis JA. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus. Vet Clin North Am 2010; 26:575593.

  • 56.

    Tizard IR. Immunity at body surfaces. In: Veterinary immunology: an introduction. 8th ed. St Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2009;242.

  • 57.

    Wagener JS, Sobonya R, Minnich L, et al. Role of canine parainfluenza virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica in kennel cough. Am J Vet Res 1984; 45:18621866.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Anderton TL, Maskell DJ, Preston A. Ciliostasis is a key early event during colonization of canine tracheal tissue by Bordetella bronchiseptica. Microbiology 2004; 150:28432855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Horvath CM. Weapons of STAT destruction: interferon evasion by paramyxo-virus V proteins. Eur J Biochem 2004; 271:46214628.

  • 60.

    Poole E, He B, Lamb RA, et al. The V proteins of simian virus 5 and other paramyxoviruses inhibit induction of interferon beta. Virology 2002; 303:3346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Didock L, Young DF, Goodbourn S, et al. The V protein of simian virus 5 inhibits interferon signalling by targeting STAT1 for proteasome-mediated degradation. J Virol 1999; 73:99289933.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    Young VA, Parks GD. Simian virus 5 is a poor inducer of chemokine secretion from human lung epithelial cells: identification of viral mutants that activate interleukin-8 secretion by distinct mechanisms. J Virol 2003; 77:71247130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Powe JR, Castleman WL. Canine influenza virus replicates in alveolar macrophages and induces TNF-α. Vet Pathol 2009; 46:11871196.

  • 64.

    Myers LJ, Nusbaum KE, Swango LJ, et al. Dysfunction of sense of smell caused by canine parainfluenza virus infection of dogs. Am J Vet Res 1988; 49:188190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    Brown AL, Bihr JG, Vitamvas JA, et al. An alternative method for evaluating potency of modified live canine parainfluenza virus vaccine. J Biol Stand 1978; 6:271281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    Tizard IR. Vaccines and their production. In: Veterinary immunology: an introduction. 8th ed. St Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2009;259260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    West K, Petrie L, Haines DM, et al. The effect of formalin-inactivated vaccine on respiratory disease associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves. Vaccine 1999; 17:809820.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    Evermann JF, Lincoln JD, McKiernan AJ. Isolation of a paramyxovirus from the cerebrospinal fluid of a dog with posterior paresis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1980; 177:11321134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Macartney L, Cornwell HJ, McCandlish LA, et al. Isolation of a novel paramyxovirus from a dog with enteric disease. Vet Rec 1985; 117:205207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Vieler E, Herbst W, Baumgartner W, et al. Isolation of a parainfluenza virus from the prostatic fluid of a dog. Vet Rec 1994; 135:384385.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Cuadrado RR. An epidemiological study on parainfluenza, DA, and mumps virus infections in domestic animals in New England. Bull Wld Hlth Org 1965; 33:803808.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Paterson RG, Lamb RA, Moss B, et al. Comparison of the relative roles of F and HN surface glycoproteins of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 in inducing protective immunity. J Virol 1987; 61:19721977.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73.

    Bittle JL, Emery JB. The epizootiology of canine parainfluenza virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1970; 156:17711773.

  • 74.

    Binn LN, Lazar EC, Helms J, et al. Viral Antibody patterns in laboratory dogs with respiratory disease. Am J Vet Res 1970; 31:697702.

  • 75.

    Binn LN, Lazar EC. Comments on the epizootiology of parainfluenza SV5 in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1970; 156:17741777.

  • 76.

    Holzman S, Conroy MJ, Davidson WR. Diseases, parasites and survival of coyotes in south-central Georgia. J Wildlife Dis 1992; 28:572580.

  • 77.

    Davidson WR, Appel MJ, Doster GL, et al. Diseases and parasites of red foxes, gray foxes, and coyotes from commercial sources selling to fox-chasing enclosures. J Wildlife Dis 1992; 28:581589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78.

    Philippa J, Leighton FA, Daoust PY, et al. Antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in Canada. Vet Rec 2004; 155:135140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79.

    Durchfeld B, Baumgartner W, Krakowka S. Intranasal infection of ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) with canine parainfluenza virus. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 1991; 38:505512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80.

    Baumgartner W, Krakowka S, Gorham JR. Canine parainfluenza virus-induced encephalitis in ferrets. J Comp Pathol 1989; 100:6776.

  • 81.

    Kimber KR, Kollias GV, Dubovi EJ. Serologic survey of selected viral agents in recently captured wild North American river otters (Lontra canadensis). J Zoo Wildlife Med 2000; 31:168175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82.

    Philippa J, Fournier-Chambrillon C, Fournier P, et al. Serologic survey for selected viral pathogens in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other mustelids from south-western France. J Wildlife Dis 2008; 44:791801.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83.

    Chang PW, Hsiung GD. Experimental infection of parainfluenza virus type 5 in mice, hamsters and monkeys. J Immunol 1965; 95:591601.

  • 84.

    Haley PJ. Species differences in the structure and function of the immune system. Toxicology 2003; 188:4971.

  • 85.

    Didock L, Young DF, Goodbourn S, et al. Sendai virus and simian virus 5 block activation of interferon responsive genes: importance for virus pathogenesis. J Virol 1999; 73:31253133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86.

    Young DF, Randall RE, Hoyle JA, et al. Clearance of a persistent paramyovirus infection is mediated by cellular immune responses but not by serum neutralizing antibody. J Virol 1990; 64:54035411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87.

    He B, Paterson RG, Stock N, et al. Recovery of simian paramyxovirus 5 with a V protein lacking the conserved cysteine-rich domain: the multifunctional V protein blocks both interferon-β induction and interferon signaling. Virology 2002; 303:1532.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88.

    Hsiung GD, Isacson P, McCollum RW. Studies of a myxovirus isolated from human blood: I. Isolation and properties. J Immunol 1962; 88:284290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 89.

    Angulo FJ, Glaser CA, Juranek DD, et al. Caring for pets of immunocompromised owners. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1994; 205:17111718.

  • 90.

    Packard ME, Grafton-Packard B. The effect of canine parainfluenza vaccine on the spread of tracheobronchial coughs in a boarding kennel. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1979; 15:241244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91.

    Alkire LT, Chladek DW. Field evaluation of an intranasally administered canine parainfluenza-Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccine. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 1980; 75:10031005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92.

    Glickman LT, Appel MJ. Intranasal vaccine trial for canine infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough). Lab Anim Sci 1981; 31:397399.

  • 93.

    Edinboro CH, Ward MP, Glickman LT. A placebo-controlled trial of two intranasal vaccines to prevent tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) in dogs entering a humane shelter. Vet Microbiol 2004; 62:8999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94.

    Jacobs AA, Theelen RP, Jaspers R, et al. Protection of dogs for 13 months against Bordetella bronchiseptica and canine parainfluenza virus with a modified live vaccine. Vet Rec 2005; 157:1923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95.

    Mouzin DE, Lorenzen MJ, Haworth JD, et al. Duration of serologic response to five viral antigens in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224:5560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96.

    American Animal Hospital Association website. 2011 AAHA canine vaccine guidelines. Available at: www.aaha.org. Accessed Dec 30, 2011.

Advertisement

A review of canine parainfluenza virus infection in dogs

John A. Ellis DVM, PhD, DACVP, DACVM1 and G. Steven Krakowka DVM, PhD, DACVP2
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Canine parainfluenza virus has been recognized as an infectious cofactor in the canine respiratory disease complex or CITB (commonly known as kennel cough) for almost 50 years. It was shown to be a prevalent and highly communicable agent that was commonly implicated in outbreaks of CITB whenever thorough etiologic investigations were undertaken. Soon after its discovery, it was included in vaccines for dogs. Although poorly documented, there is undoubtedly less CPIV-associated disease in vaccinated populations, and as for many pathogens, especially in small animal medicine where there are usually no economic incentives to do so, definitive etiologic diagnoses of CPIV

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Ellis (John.ellis@usask.ca).