• 1. Brockman DJ, Holt DE. Management protocol for acute gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in dogs. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 2000; 22:10251034.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Glickman LT, Glickman NW, Schellenberg DB, et al. Incidence of and breed-related risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 216:4045.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Brockman DJ, Washabau RJ, Drobatz KJ. Canine gastric dilatation/volvulus syndrome in a veterinary critical care unit: 295 cases (1986–1992). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995; 207:460464.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Beck JJ, Staatz AJ, Pelsue DH, et al. Risk factors associated with short-term outcome and development of perioperative complications in dogs undergoing surgery because of gastric dilatation-volvulus: 166 Cases (1992–2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 229:19341939.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Glickman LT, Glickman NW, Pérez CM, et al. Analysis of risk factors for gastric dilatation and dilatation-volvulus in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1994; 204:14651471.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Glickman LT, Lantz GC, Schellenberg DB, et al. A prospective study of survival and recurrence following the acute gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in 136 dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1998; 34:253259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Mackenzie G, Barnhart M, Kennedy S, et al. A retrospective study of factors influencing survival following surgery for gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in 306 dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2010; 46:97102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Glickman LT, Glickman NW, Schellenberg DB, et al. Multiple risk factors for the gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in dogs: a practitioner/owner case-control Study. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1997; 33:197204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Glickman L, Emerick T, Glickman N, et al. Radiological assessment of the relationship between thoracic conformation and the risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1996; 37:174180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Glickman LT, Glickman NW, Schellenberg DB, et al. Nondietary risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus in large and giant breed dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 217:14921499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Elwood CM. Risk factors for gastric dilatation in Irish Setter dogs. J Small Anim Pract 1998; 39:185190.

  • 12. Theyse LFH, Van de Brom WE, Van Sluijs FJ. Small size of food particles and age as risk factors for gastric dilatation volvulus in Great Danes. Vet Rec 1998; 143:4850.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Raghavan M, Glickman N, McCabe G, et al. Diet-related risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs of high-risk breeds. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2004; 40:192203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Braun L, Lester S, Kuzma AB, et al. Gastric dilatation-volvulus in the dog with histological evidence of preexisting inflammatory bowel disease: a retrospective study of 23 cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1996; 32:287290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Van Kruiningen HJ, Wojan LD, Stake PE, et al. The influence of diet and feeding frequency on gastric function in the dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1987; 23:14553.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Burrows CF, Bright RM, Spencer CP. Influence of dietary composition on gastric emptying and motility in dogs: potential involvement in acute gastric dilatation. Am J Vet Res 1985; 46:26092612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Herbold JR, Moore GE, Gosch TL, et al. Relationship between incidence of gastric dilatation-volvulus and biometeorologic events in a population of military working dogs. Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:4752.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Moore GE, Levine M, Anderson JD, et al. Meteorological influence on the occurrence of gastric dilatation-volvulus in military working dogs in Texas. Int J Biometeorol 2008; 52:219222.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Dennler R, Koch D, Hassig M, et al. Climatic conditions as a risk factor in canine gastric dilatation-volvulus. Vet J 2005; 169:97101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Bi L, Triadafilopoulos G. Exercise and gastrointestinal function and disease: an evidence-based review of risks and benefits. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 1:345355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Guilford WG. Gastric dilatation, gastric dilatation-volvulus, and chronic gastric volvulus. In: Guilford WG, Center SA, Strombeck DR, et al, eds. Strombeck's small animal gastroenterology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1996;303–317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Rawlings CA, Mahaffey MB, Bement S, et al. Prospective evaluation of laparoscopic-assisted gastropexy in dogs susceptible to gastric dilatation. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 221:15761581.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Ward MP, Patronek GJ, Glickman LT. Benefits of prophylactic gastropexy for dogs at risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus. Prev Vet Med 2003; 60:319329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

An Internet-based survey of risk factors for surgical gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs

Marko Pipan DVM, DACVECC1, Dorothy Cimino Brown DVM, MSCE, DACVS2, Carmelo L. Battaglia PhD3, and Cynthia M. Otto DVM, PhD, DACVECC4
View More View Less
  • 1 Section of Critical Care, Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 2 Section of Surgery, Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 3 American Kennel Club, 260 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016.
  • | 4 Section of Critical Care, Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in a large number of privately owned dogs across a wide geographic area.

Design—Internet-based, cross-sectional study.

Animals—2,551 privately owned dogs.

Procedures—A questionnaire addressed dog-specific, management, environmental, and personality-associated risk factors for GDV in dogs. Respondents were recruited through the posting of the electronic link to the questionnaire on websites for dog owners; the information was also disseminated at meetings of dog owners and via newsletters, e-mail lists for dog owners and breeders, owner-oriented dog publications, and e-mails forwarded by participants. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed.

Results—Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of GDV were being fed dry kibble, anxiety, residence in the United Kingdom, being born in the 1990s, being a family pet, and spending at least 5 hours a day with the owner. Factors associated with a decreased risk of GDV were playing with other dogs and running the fence after meals, fish and egg dietary supplements, and spending equal time indoors and outdoors. A significant interaction between sex and neuter status was observed, with sexually intact females having the highest risk for GDV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with a high risk of GDV, regular moderate daily and postprandial activity appeared to be beneficial. Feeding only commercial dry dog food may not be the best choice for dogs at risk; however, supplements with fish or eggs may reduced this risk. The effect of neuter status on GDV risk requires further characterization.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in a large number of privately owned dogs across a wide geographic area.

Design—Internet-based, cross-sectional study.

Animals—2,551 privately owned dogs.

Procedures—A questionnaire addressed dog-specific, management, environmental, and personality-associated risk factors for GDV in dogs. Respondents were recruited through the posting of the electronic link to the questionnaire on websites for dog owners; the information was also disseminated at meetings of dog owners and via newsletters, e-mail lists for dog owners and breeders, owner-oriented dog publications, and e-mails forwarded by participants. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed.

Results—Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of GDV were being fed dry kibble, anxiety, residence in the United Kingdom, being born in the 1990s, being a family pet, and spending at least 5 hours a day with the owner. Factors associated with a decreased risk of GDV were playing with other dogs and running the fence after meals, fish and egg dietary supplements, and spending equal time indoors and outdoors. A significant interaction between sex and neuter status was observed, with sexually intact females having the highest risk for GDV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with a high risk of GDV, regular moderate daily and postprandial activity appeared to be beneficial. Feeding only commercial dry dog food may not be the best choice for dogs at risk; however, supplements with fish or eggs may reduced this risk. The effect of neuter status on GDV risk requires further characterization.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Pipan's present address is Toplica Veterinary Clinic, Topolsica 15, 3326 Topolsica, Slovenia.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Address correspondence to Dr. Otto (cmotto@vet.upenn.edu).