• 1.

    Griffin B. Kittens: coming now to a shelter near you: strategies for coping with kitten season. Animal Sheltering 2010;Jul/Aug:4751.

  • 2.

    Newbury S, Blinn MK, Bushby PA, et al. Guidelines for standards of care in animal shelters. Washington, DC: The Association of Shelter Veterinarians, 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Eilts BE. Pregnancy termination in the bitch and queen. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 2002; 17:116123.

  • 4.

    AVMA. AVMA guidelines on euthanasia (formerly Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia). June 2007. Available at: www.avma.org/issues/animal_welfare/euthanasia.pdf. Accessed Sep 18, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Looney AL, Bohling MW, Bushby PA, et al. The Association of Shelter Veterinarians veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 233:7486.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Windle WF, Griffin AM. Observations on embryonic and fetal movements of the cat. J Comp Neurol 1931; 52:149188.

  • 7.

    Windle WF, O'Donnell JE, Glass-Hagle EE. The early development of spontaneous and reflex behavior in cat embryos and fetuses. Physiol Zool 1933; 6:521541.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Windle WF. Genesis of somatic motor function in mammalian embryos: a synthesizing article. Physiol Zool 1944; 17:247260.

  • 9.

    Yeager AE, Mohammed HO, Meyers-Wallen V, et al. Ultrasonographic appearance of the uterus, placenta, fetus, and fetal membranes throughout accurately timed pregnancy in Beagles. Am J Vet Res 1992; 53:342351.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Teppema LJ, Dahan A. The ventilatory response to hypoxia in mammals: mechanisms, measurement, and analysis. Physiol Rev 2010; 90:675754.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Windle WF, Monnier M, Steele AG. Fetal respiratory movements in the cat. Physiol Zool 1938; 11:425433.

  • 12.

    Levene MI, Tudehope DI, Thearle MJ. Fetal physiology, assessment of fetal wellbeing, and adaptation to extrauterine life. In: Essentials of neonatal medicine. 3rd ed. Oxford, England: Blackwell Science Ltd, 2000;411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Ross MG, Nijland MJM. Fetal swallowing: relation to amniotic fluid regulation. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1997; 40:352365.

  • 14.

    MedicineNet.com. Definition of fetal distress. Available at: www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=3418. Accessed Sep 18, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Obstetric Practice. Opinion number 326: inappropriate use of the terms fetal distress and birth asphyxia. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 106:14691470.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Mellor DJ, Diesch TJ. Onset of sentience: the potential for suffering in fetal and newborn farm animals. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2006; 100:4857.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Reynolds F. Placental transfer of drugs. Curr Anaesth Crit Care 1991; 2:108116.

  • 18.

    Reynolds F. The effects of maternal labour analgesia on the fetus. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2010; 24:289302.

  • 19.

    Harris WH. Hazards of administering drugs to pregnant animals: a review. Can Vet J 1977; 18:309312.

  • 20.

    Gerdin E, Rane A, Lindberg B. Transplacental transfer of morphine in man. J Perinat Med 1990; 18:305312.

  • 21.

    Ellingson A, Haram K, Sagen N, et al. Transplacental passage of ketamine after intravenous administration. Acta Anaesth Scand 1977; 21:4144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Sakamoto H, Kirihara H, Fujiki M, et al. The effects of medetomidine on maternal and fetal cardiovascular and pulmonary function, intrauterine pressure and uterine blood flow in pregnant goats. Exp Anim 1997; 46:6773.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Bachman CR, Biehl DR, Sitar D, et al. Isoflurane potency and cardiovascular effects during short exposures in the foetal lamb. Can Anaesth Soc J 1986; 33:4147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Rosen T, Schimmel MS. A short review of perinatal pharmacology. Bull N Y Acad Med 1983; 59:669677.

  • 25.

    Antognini JF, Barter L, Carstens E. Overview movement as an index of anesthetic depth in humans and experimental animals. Comp Med 2005; 55:413418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Mellor DJ, Diesch TJ, Johnson CB. Legal and animal welfare implications of when consciousness first appears in developing young and of the potential for delayed onset of increased pain sensitivity, in Proceedings. AAWS08 Int Anim Welf Conf 2008;18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Diesch TJ, Mellor DJ, Johnson CB, et al. Responsiveness to painful stimuli in anaesthetised newborn and young animals of varying neurological maturity (wallaby joeys, rat pups and lambs). AATEX J 2008; 14:549552.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Lee SJ, Ralston HJ, Drey EA, et al. Fetal pain: a systematic multi-disciplinary review of the evidence. JAMA 2005; 294:947954.

  • 29.

    Ellingson RJ, Rose GH. Ontogenesis of the electroencephalogram. In: Himwich WA, ed. Developmental neurobiology. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1970;441474.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Petersen J, Di Perri R, Himwich WA. The comparative development of the EEG in rabbit, cat, and dog. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 1964; 17:557563.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Mellor DJ, Patterson-Kane E, Stafford KJ. Integrated perspectives: sleep, developmental stage and animal welfare. In: The sciences of animal welfare. Oxford, England: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009;161185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Mellor DJ, Diesch TJ, Gunn AJ, et al. The importance of ‘awareness’ for understanding fetal pain. Brain Res Rev 2005; 49:455471.

  • 33.

    Mellor DJ. Galloping colts, fetal feelings, and reassuring regulations: putting animal-welfare science into practice. J Vet Med Educ 2010; 37:94100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Leist KH, Grauwiler J. Fetal pathology in rats following uterine-vessel clamping on day 14 of gestation. Teratology 1974; 10:5568.

  • 35.

    Bennet L, Rossenrode S, Gunning MI, et al. The cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses of the immature fetal sheep to acute umbilical cord occlusion. J Physiol 1999; 517:247257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Klaunberg BA, O'Malley J, Clark T, et al. Euthanasia of mouse fetuses and neonates. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2004; 43:2934.

  • 37.

    Glass HG, Snyder FF, Webster E. The rate of decline in resistance to anoxia of rabbits, dogs and guinea pigs from the onset of viability to adult life. Am J Physiol 1944; 140:609615.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Koos BJ, Mason BA, Punla O, et al. Hypoxic inhibition of breathing in fetal sheep: relationship to brain adenosine concentrations. J Appl Physiol 1994; 77:27342739.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Clewlow F, Dawes GS, Johnston BM, et al. Changes in breathing, electrocortical and muscle activity in unanaesthetized fetal lambs with age. J Physiol 1983; 341:463476.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Response of the rat fetus to acute umbilical cord occlusion: an ontogenic adaptation? Physiol Behav 1988; 44:131135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Lotgering FK, Bishai JM, Struijk PC, et al. Ten-minute umbilical cord occlusion markedly reduces cerebral blood flow and heat production in fetal sheep. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 198:233238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Kaneko M, White S, Homan J, et al. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in relation to electrocortical activity with severe umbilical cord occlusion in the near-term ovine fetus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 188:961972.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Hunter CJ, Bennet L, Power GG, et al. Key neuroprotective role for endogenous adenosine A1 receptor activation during asphyxia in the fetal sheep. Stroke 2003; 34:22402245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Prevention of fetal suffering during ovariohysterectomy of pregnant animals

View More View Less
  • 1 Spay ASAP Inc, 163 Clay Hill Rd, Hartland, VT 05048.

Veterinarians who neuter cats and dogs sometimes find, for a variety of reasons, that they are required to spay pregnant animals. Ovariohysterectomy of pregnant animals in animal shelters and humane societies, for example, is commonly recommended to help reduce the overpopulation of unwanted dogs and cats and because shelters have a limited capacity to care for neonatal animals and neonatal animals often fare poorly in shelter environments.1,2 For feral cat control programs, ovariohysterectomy of pregnant females furthers the mission of population control and allows all animals brought to the clinic to be spayed the same day, eliminating the

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. White (swhitevt@mac.com).