• 1.

    Krogh A, Krogh M. A study of the diet and metabolism of Eskimos. Meddr Grönland 1914; 51:1.

  • 2.

    Heinbecker P. Studies on the metabolism of Eskimos. J Biol Chem 1928; 80:461475.

  • 3.

    Bang HO, Dyerberg J, Nielsen AB. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein pattern in Greenlandic west-coast Eskimos. Lancet 1971; 297:11431146.

  • 4.

    Dyerberg J, Bang HO. Dietary fat and thrombosis. Lancet 1978; 311:152.

  • 5.

    Bang HO, Dyerberg J, Sinclair HM. The composition of the Eskimo food in northwestern Greenland. Am J Clin Nutr 1980; 33:26572661.

  • 6.

    Burr ML, Fehily AM, Gilbert JF, et al. Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet 1989; 2:757761.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    DeLorgeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, et al. Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation 1999; 99:779785.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Wang C, Harris WS, Chung MM, et al. Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary and secondary prevention studies; a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 83:517.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Sinclair AJ. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the mammalian brain. Proc Nutr Soc 1975; 34:287291.

  • 10.

    Anderson GJ, Connor WE, Corliss JD. Docosahexaenoic acid is the preferred dietary n-3 fatty acid for the development of the brain, retina. Pediatr Res 1990; 27:8997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Jeffrey BG, Mitchell DC, Gibson RA, et al. n-3 Fatty acid deficiency alters recovery of the rod photoresponse in rhesus monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002; 43:28062814.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    James MJ, Gibson RA, Cleland LG. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71:343S348S.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Calder PC. Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids. Proc Nutr Soc 2002; 61:345358.

  • 14.

    Lee TH, Hoover RL, Williams JD, et al. Effect of dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on in vitro neutrophil and monocyte leukotriene generation and neutrophil function. N Engl J Med 1985; 312:12171224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Appel LJ, Miller ER, Seidler AJ, et al. Does supplementation of diet with “fish oil” reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med 1993; 153:14291438.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    De Caterina R, Caprioli R, Giannessi D, et al. n-3 fatty acids reduce proteinuria in patients with chronic glomerular disease. Kidney Int 1993; 44:843850.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Donadio JV Jr, Bergstralh EJ, Offord KP, et al. A controlled trial of fish oil in IgA nephropathy. Mayo Nephrology Collaborative Group. N Engl J Med 1994; 331:11941199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Stenson WF, Cort D, Rodgers J, et al. Dietary supplementation with fish oil in ulcerative colitis. Ann Intern Med 1992; 116:609614.

  • 19.

    Belluzzi A, Brignola C, Campieri M, et al. Effect of an enteric-coated fish-oil preparation on relapses in Crohn's disease. N Engl J Med 1996; 334:15571560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Simopoulos AP. Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70 (suppl): 560S569S.

  • 21.

    Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ. Fish consumption, fish oil, n-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2002; 106:27472757.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Logas D, Beale KM, Bauer JE. Potential clinical benefits of dietary supplementation with marine-life oil. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991; 199:16311636.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    National Research Council. Nutrient requirements and dietary nutrient concentrations. In: Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2006; 359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Logas D, Kunkle GA. Double-blinded crossover study with marine oil supplementation containing high dose eicosapentaenoic acid for the treatment of canine pruritic skin disease. Vet Dermatol 1994; 5:99104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Abba C, Mussa PP, Vercelli A, et al. Essential fatty acids supplementation in different-stage atopic dogs fed on a controlled diet. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2005; 89:203207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Mueller RS, Fieseler KV, Fettman MJ, et al. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid on canine atopic dermatitis. J Small Anim Pract 2004; 45:293297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Kirby NA, Hester SL, Rees CA, et al. Skin surface lipids and skin and hair coat condition in dogs fed increased total fat diets containing polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2009; 93:505511.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Freeman LM, Rush JE, Kehayias JJ, et al. Nutritional alterations and the effect of fish oil supplementation in dogs with heart failure. J Vet Intern Med 1998; 12:440448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Rush JE, Freeman LM, Brown DJ, et al. Clinical, echocardiographic, and neurohumoral effects of a sodium-restricted diet in dogs with heart failure. J Vet Intern Med 2000; 14:513520.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Endres S, Ghorbani R, Kelley VE. Effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells. N Engl J Med 1989; 320:265271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Meydani SN, Endres S, Woods MM. Oral (n-3) fatty acid supplementation suppresses cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation. J Nutr 1991; 121:547555.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Freeman LM, Rush JE, Markwell PJ. Effects of dietary modification in dogs with early chronic valvular disease. J Vet Intern Med 2006; 20:11161126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Laurent G, Moe G, Hu X, et al. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce atrial vulnerability in a novel canine pacing model. Cardiovasc Res 2008; 77:8997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Sarrazin J-F, Comeau G, Daleau P, et al. Reduced incidence of vagally induced atrial fibrillation and expression levels of connexins by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dogs. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 50:15051512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Oskarsson HJ, Godwin J, Gunnar RM, et al. Dietary fish oil supplementation reduces myocardial infarct size in a canine model of ischemia and reperfusion. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993; 21:12801285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Smith CE, Freeman LM, Rush JE, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids in boxer dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med 2007; 21:265273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Freeman LM, Rush JE. Cardiovascular diseases: nutritional modulation. In: Pibot P, Biourge V, Elliott D, eds. Encyclopedia of canine clinical nutrition. Aimargues, France: Aniwa SAS-Royal Canin, 2006; 316341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Brown SA, Brown CA, Crowell WA, et al. Beneficial effects of chronic administration of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dogs with renal insufficiency. J Clin Lab Med 1998; 131:447455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Brown SA, Brown CA, Crowell WA, et al. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in early renal insufficiency in dogs. J Lab Clin Med 2000; 135:275286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Brown SA. Oxidative stress and chronic kidney disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2008; 38:157166.

  • 41.

    Forrester DS, Adams LG, Allen TA. Chronic kidney disease. In: Hand MS, Thatcher CD, Remillard RL, et al, eds. Small animal clinical nutrition, 5th ed. Topeka, Kan: Mark Morris Institute, 2010; 765800.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Goldring MB, Marcu KB. Cartilage homeostasis in health and rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Res Ther [serial online] 2009; 11:224. Available at: arthritis-research.com/content/11/3/224. Accessed May 19, 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Curtis CL, Rees SG, Little CG, et al. Pathologic indicators of degradation and inflammation in human osteoarthritic cartilage are abrogated by exposure to n-3 fatty acids. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46:15441553.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Watkins BA, Li Y, Lippmann HE, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and skeletal health. Exp Biol Med 2001; 226:485497.

  • 44.

    Lascelles BDX, King S, Roe S, et al. Expression and activity of COX-1 and 2 and 5-LOX in joint tissues from dogs with naturally occurring coxofemoral joint osteoarthritis. J Orthop Res 2009; 27:12041208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Hansen RA, Harris MA, Pluhar GE, et al. Fish oil decreases matrix metalloproteinases in knee synovia of dogs with inflammatory joint disease. J Nutr Biochem 2008; 19:101108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Roush JK, Dodd CE, Fritsch DA, et al. Multicenter veterinary practice assessment of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on osteoarthritis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010; 236:5966.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Roush JK, Cross AR, Rengerb WC, et al. Evaluation of the effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010; 236:6773.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Bauer JE. Evaluation and dietary considerations in idiopathic hyperlipidemia in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995; 206:16841688.

  • 49.

    Schenck PA. Canine hyperlipidemia: causes and nutritional management. In: Pibot P, Biourge V, Elliott D, eds. Encyclopedia of canine clinical nutrition. Aimargues, France: Aniwa SAS-Royal Canin, 2006; 222245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Ontsouka CE, Burgener LA, Mani O, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diets used for the treatment of canine chronic enteropathies decrease the abundance of selected genes of cholesterol homeostasis. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2010; 38:3237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Davenport DJ, Jergens AE, Remillard RL. Inflammatory bowel disease. In: Hand MS, Thatcher CD, Remillard RL, et al, eds. Small animal clinical nutrition. 5th ed. Topeka, Kan: Mark Morris Institute, 2010; 10661076.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Larsson SC, Kumlin M, Ingelman-Sundberg M, et al. Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 29:935945.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Attar-Bashi NM, Orseszko K, Slocombe RF, et al. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of canine prostate tissue. Lipids 2003; 38:665668.

  • 54.

    Freeman VI, Meydani M, Hur K, et al. Inverse association between prostatic polyunsaturated fatty acid and risk of locally advanced prostate cancer. Cancer 2004; 101:27442754.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Uva P, Aurisicchio L, Watters J, et al. Comparative expression pathway analysis of human and canine mammary tumors. BMC Genomics [serial online] 2009; 10:135. Available at: www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/10/135. Accessed Mar 27, 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Kawai K, Uetsuka K, Doi K, et al. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in mammary tumors of dogs and rats. J Vet Med Sci 2006; 68:105111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Corrocher R, Casarill M, Bellisota G, et al. Reduction of liver glutathione peroxidase activity and deficiency of serum selenium in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Tumori 1986; 72:617619.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Hardman WWE, Barnes CJ, Knight CW, et al. Effects of iron supplementation and ET-18-OCH3 on MDA-MB 231 breast carcinomas in nude mice consuming a fish oil diet. Br J Cancer 1997; 76:347354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Ogilvie GK, Fettman MJ, Mallickrodt CH, et al. Effect of fish oil, arginine, and doxorubicin chemotherapy on remission and survival time for dogs with lymphoma. Cancer 2000; 88:19161928.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Dodd CE, Zicker SC, Jewell DE. Can a fortified food affect behavioral manifestations of age-related cognitive decline in dogs? Vet Med 2003; 98:396408.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Christie L-A, Pop V, Landsberg GM, et al. Cognitive dysfunction in dogs. In: Hand MS, Thatcher CD, Remillard RL, et al, eds. Small animal clinical nutrition. 5th ed. Topeka, Kan: Mark Morris Institute, 2010; 715730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    Scorza FA, Cavalheiro EA, Arida RM, et al. Positive impact of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in a dog with drug-resistant epilepsy: a case study. Epilepsy Behav 2009; 15:527528.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Ferrari D, Cysneiros RM, Scorza CA, et al. Neuroprotective activity of omega-3 fatty acids against epilepsy-induced hippocampal damage: quantification with immunohistochemical for calcium-binding proteins. Epilepsy Behav 2008; 13:3642.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Re S, Zanoletti M, Emanuele E. Aggressive dogs are characterized by low omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Vet Res Comm 2008; 32:225230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    Watson TDG. Diet and skin disease in dogs and cats. J Nutr 1998; 128:2783S2789S.

  • 66.

    Harvey RG. Effect of varying proportions of evening primrose oil and fish oil on cats with crusting dermatosis (‘miliary dermatitis’). Vet Rec 1993; 133:208211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Harvey RG. Management of feline military dermatitis by supplementing the diet with essential fatty acids. Vet Rec 1991; 128:326329.

  • 68.

    Harvey RG. A comparison of evening primrose oil and sunflower oil for the management of papulocrustous dermatitis in cats. Vet Rec 1993; 133:571573.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Miller WH Jr., Scott DW, Wellington JR. Efficacy of DVM Derm Caps Liquid in the management of allergic and inflammatory dermatoses of the cat. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1993; 29:3740.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Filburn CR, Griffen D. Effects of supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid-enriched salmon oil on total plasma and plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition in the cat. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med 2005; 3:116123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Bright JM, Sullivan PS, Melton SL, et al. The effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on bleeding time, plasma fatty acid composition and in vitro platelet aggregation in cats. J Vet Intern Med 1994; 8:247252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Chew BP, Park HJ, Park JS, et al. Role of omega-3 fatty acids on immunity and inflammation in cats. In: Reinhart GA, Carey DP, eds. Recent advances in canine and feline nutrition. Vol III. Iams Nutrition Symposium Proceedings. Wilmington, Ohio: Orange Frazer Press, 2000; 5567.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73.

    Saker KE, Eddy AL, Thatcher CD, et al. Manipulation of dietary (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids alters platelet function in cats. J Nutr 1998; 128:2845S2647S.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    Plantinga EA, Everts H, Kastelein AM, et al. Retrospective study of the survival of cats with acquired chronic renal insufficiency offered different commercial diets. Vet Rec 2005; 157:185187.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    Brown SA. Effects of dietary lipids on renal function in dogs and cats. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1999; 21 (suppl K): 1114.

  • 76.

    Lascelles BDX, DePuy V, Hansen TB, et al. Evaluation of a therapeutic diet for feline degenerative joint disease. J Vet Intern Med 2010; 24:487495.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77.

    Pérez-Alenza MD, Jiménez A, Nieto AI, et al. First description of feline inflammatory mammary carcinoma: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of three cases. Breast Cancer Res 2004; 6:R300R307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78.

    Eguchi H, Iwaki K, Shibata K, et al. Protease-activated receptor-2 regulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human bile duct cancer via the pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor kappa B. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2011; 18:147153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79.

    Wilkins C, Long RC Jr., Waldron M, et al. Assessment of the influence of fatty acids on indices of insulin sensitivity and myocellular lipid content by use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in cats. Am J Vet Res 2004; 65:10901099.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80.

    Dunbar BL, Bauer JE. Conversion of essential fatty acids by delta 6-desaturase in dog liver microsomes. J Nutr 2002; 132:1701S1703S.

  • 81.

    Heinemann KM, Waldron MK, Bigley KE, et al. Long-chain (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are more efficient than α-linolenic acid in improving electroretinogram responses of puppies exposed during gestation, lactation, and weaning. J Nutr 2005; 135:19601966.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Therapeutic use of fish oils in companion animals

John E. Bauer DVM, PhD, DACVN1
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Bauer (jbauer@cvm.tamu.edu.