• 1.

    American Association of Equine Practitioners. Guide to veterinary services for horse shows. 7th ed. Lexington, Ky: American Association of Equine Practitioners, 1999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Levels of evidence (March 2009). Available at: www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1025. Accessed Sep 18, 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Santschi EM, Adams SB, Murphey ED. How to perform equine intravenous digital perfusion, in Proceedings. 44th Annu Conv Am Assoc Equine Pract 1998;198201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Adams SB. How to treat septic joints with constant intra-articular infusion of gentamicin or amikacin, in Proceedings. 46th Annu Conv Am Assoc Equine Pract 2000;188192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Cimetti LJ, Merriam JG, D'Oench SN. How to perform intravenous regional limb perfusion using amikacin and DMSO, in Proceedings. 50th Annu Conv Am Assoc Equine Pract 2004;219223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Palmer SE. How to perform regional limb profusion in the standing horse, in Proceedings. 45th Annu Conv Am Assoc Equine Pract 1999;124127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Errico JA, Trumble TN, Bueno AC, et al. Comparison of two indirect techniques for local delivery of a high dose of an antimicrobial in the distal portion of forelimbs of horses. Am J Vet Res 2008;69:334342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Lapointe JM, Laverty S, Lavoie JP. Septic arthritis in 15 Standardbred racehorses after intra-articular injection. Equine Vet J 1992;24:430434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Schneider RK. Common bacteria encountered in septic arthritis, in Proceedings. 44th Annu Conv Am Assoc Equine Pract 1998;152158.

  • 10.

    Schneider RK, Bramlage LR, Mecklenburg LM, et al. Open drainage, intra-articular and systemic antibiotics in the treatment of septic arthritis/tenosynovitis in horses. Equine Vet J 1992;24:443449.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Honnas CM, Welch RD, Ford TS, et al. Septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in 12 horses. Vet Surg 1992;21:261268.

  • 12.

    McClure SR, Hooper RN, Watkins JP. Intermittent antimicrobial infusion for management of a septic distal interphalangeal joint in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993;202:973975.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Orsini JA, Soma LR, Rourke JE, et al. Pharmacokinetics of amikacin in the horse following intravenous and intramuscular administration. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1985;8:194201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Butt TD, Bailey JV, Dowling PM, et al. Comparison of 2 techniques for regional antibiotic delivery to the equine forelimb: intraosseous perfusion vs. intravenous perfusion. Can Vet J 2001;42:617622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Murphey ED, Santschi EM, Papich MG. Regional intravenous perfusion of the distal limb of horses with amikacin sulfate. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1999;22:6871.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Moore RM, Schneider RK, Kowalski J, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from 233 horses with musculoskeletal infection during 1979–1989. Equine Vet J 1992;24:450456.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Clark C, Greenwood S, Boison JO, et al. Bacterial isolates from equine infections in western Canada (1998–2003). Can Vet J 2008;49:153160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Ensink JM, van Klingeren B, Houwers DJ, et al. In-vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs of bacterial isolates from horses in The Netherlands. Equine Vet J 1993;25:309313.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Orsini JA, Moate PJ, Engiles J, et al. Cefotaxime kinetics in plasma and synovial fluid following intravenous administration in horses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2004;27:293298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Gardner SY, Sweeney RW, Divers TJ. Pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in neonatal pony foals. Am J Vet Res 1993;54:576579.

Advertisement

What Is The Evidence?

Virginia R. Fajt DVM, PhD, DACVCP1, Angela M. Van House DVM2, and Clifford M. Honnas DVM, DACVS3
View More View Less
  • 1 Departments of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843

Contributor Notes

Dr. Van House's present address is Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

Dr. Honnas' present address is Texas Equine Hospital, 13688 S State Hwy 6, Bryan TX 77807.

Address correspondence to Dr. Fajt (vfajt@cvm.tamu.edu).