• 1.

    Hayden DW, Johnston SD, Kiang DT, et al. Feline mammary hypertrophy/fibroadenoma complex: clinical and hormonal aspects. Am J Vet Res 1981;42:16991703.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    de las Mulas JM, Millan Y, Bautista MJ, et al. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors in feline fibroadenomatous change: an immunohistochemical study. Res Vet Sci 2000;68:1521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    MacDougall LD. Mammary fibroadenomatous hyperplasia in a young cat attributed to treatment with megestrol acetate. Can Vet J 2003;44:227229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Chisolm H. Massive mammary enlargement in a cat. Can Vet J 1993;34:315.

  • 5.

    Mol JA, Lanteega-van Leeuwen IS, van Garderen E, et al. Mammary growth hormone and tumorigenesis—lessons from the dog. Vet Q 1999;21:111115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Khandwala HM, McCutcheon IE, Flyvbjerg A, et al. The effects of insulin-like growth factors on tumorigenesis and neoplastic growth. Endocr Rev 2000;21:215244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Johnston SD. Mastitis. In: Kirk R, ed. Current veterinary therapy XII, small animal practice. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1983;960961.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Gruffydd-Jones TJ. Acute mastitis in a cat. Feline Pract 1980;10(6):4142.

  • 9.

    Skorupski KA, Overley B, Shofer FS, et al. Clinical characteristics of mammary carcinoma in male cats. J Vet Intern Med 2005;19:5255.

  • 10.

    Petterino C, Ratto A, Podesta G, et al. Immunohistochemical evaluation of STAT3-p-tyr705 expression in feline mammary gland tumours and correlation with histologic grade. Res Vet Sci 2007;82:218224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    de las Mulas JM, van Niel M, Millan Y, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen receptors in feline mammary gland benign and malignant lesions: comparison with biochemical assay. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2000;18:111125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Wehrend A, Hospes R, Gruber AD. Treatment of feline mammary fibroadenomatous hyperplasia with a progesterone-antagonist. Vet Rec 2001;148:346347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Görlinger S, Kooistra H, van den Broek A, et al. Treatment of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia in cats with aglépristone. J Vet Intern Med 2002;16:710713.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Hinton M, Gaskell C. Non-neoplastic mammary hypertrophy in the cat associated either with pregnancy or with oral progestagen therapy. Vet Rec 1977;100:277280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Management of mastitis and abscessation of mammary glands secondary to fibroadenomatous hyperplasia in a primiparturient cat

Uri Burstyn BVSc1
View More View Less
  • 1 Vancouver Animal Emergency Clinic, 1590 W 4th Ave, Vancouver, BC V6J 1L7, Canada.

Abstract

Case Description—A 1-year-old sexually intact female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of an 8-week history of pronounced mammary gland hyperplasia that had progressed to mastitis and abscessation of the mammary glands since parturition 7 days earlier. The cat was anorectic, was febrile, and had signs of discomfort. Its kittens were weak and appeared to have difficulty nursing.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed pyrexia, mastitis with abscessation in the 6 caudal mammary glands, skin ulceration over the nipples, and areas of skin necrosis over the abscessed mammary glands. A CBC revealed nonregenerative anemia and leukocytosis with a left shift (2.160 × 109 band cells/L) and toxic changes. Mastitis and incipient septicemia were considered the most likely causes. The history of mammary gland hyperplasia since the second week of pregnancy suggested a diagnosis of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia that predisposed the cat to subsequent mastitis.

Treatment and Outcome—Surgical drainage of the abscessed mammary glands, debridement of necrotic skin, and placement of a Penrose drain resulted in rapid improvement in clinical status. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment (amoxicillin–clavulanic acid) was prescribed, and the cat was discharged from the hospital. Mastitis and fibroadenomatous mammary gland hyperplasia resolved rapidly afterward.

Clinical Relevance—Management of abscessed mammary glands through surgical drainage and drain placement is an option for treatment of cats with complications of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia. In the cat of this report, the treatment approach resulted in rapid resolution of mastitis, was less invasive than mastectomy, and avoided the potential complications of treatment with a progesterone-receptor antagonist.

Abstract

Case Description—A 1-year-old sexually intact female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of an 8-week history of pronounced mammary gland hyperplasia that had progressed to mastitis and abscessation of the mammary glands since parturition 7 days earlier. The cat was anorectic, was febrile, and had signs of discomfort. Its kittens were weak and appeared to have difficulty nursing.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed pyrexia, mastitis with abscessation in the 6 caudal mammary glands, skin ulceration over the nipples, and areas of skin necrosis over the abscessed mammary glands. A CBC revealed nonregenerative anemia and leukocytosis with a left shift (2.160 × 109 band cells/L) and toxic changes. Mastitis and incipient septicemia were considered the most likely causes. The history of mammary gland hyperplasia since the second week of pregnancy suggested a diagnosis of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia that predisposed the cat to subsequent mastitis.

Treatment and Outcome—Surgical drainage of the abscessed mammary glands, debridement of necrotic skin, and placement of a Penrose drain resulted in rapid improvement in clinical status. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment (amoxicillin–clavulanic acid) was prescribed, and the cat was discharged from the hospital. Mastitis and fibroadenomatous mammary gland hyperplasia resolved rapidly afterward.

Clinical Relevance—Management of abscessed mammary glands through surgical drainage and drain placement is an option for treatment of cats with complications of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia. In the cat of this report, the treatment approach resulted in rapid resolution of mastitis, was less invasive than mastectomy, and avoided the potential complications of treatment with a progesterone-receptor antagonist.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Burstyn (uburstyn@gmail.com).