• 1.

    Nomoto K. Prevention of infections by probiotics. J Biosci Bioeng 2005;100:583592.

  • 2.

    Dotan I, Rachmilewitz D. Probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: possible mechanisms of action. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2005;21:426430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Isolauri E, Salminen S. Probiotics, gut inflammation and barrier function. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2005;34:437450.

  • 4.

    Tannock GW. New perceptions of the gut microbiota: implications for future research. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2005;34:361382.

  • 5.

    Schaible UE, Kaufmann SH. A nutritive view on the host-pathogen interplay. Trends Microbiol 2005;13:373380.

  • 6.

    Shahani KM, Ayeb AD. Role of dietary lactobacilli in gastrointestinal microecology. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33 (suppl 11):24482457.

  • 7.

    Welkos SL, Toskes PP, Baer H. Importance of anaerobic bacteria in the cobalamin malabsorption of the experimental rat blind loop syndrome. Gastroenterology 1981;80:313320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Takahashi M, Maeda Y, Tashiro H, et al. A new simple test for evaluation of intestinal bacteria. World J Surg 1990;14:628634.

  • 9.

    Brosey BP, Hill RC, Scott KC. Gastrointestinal volatile fatty acid concentrations and pH in cats. Am J Vet Res 2000;61:359361.

  • 10.

    Stevens CS, Hume ID. Contributions of microbes in vertebrate gastrointestinal tract to production and conservation of nutrients. Physiol Rev 1998;78:393427.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Herschel DA, Argenzio RA, Southworth M, et al. Absorption of volatile fatty acid, Na, and H2O by the colon of the dog. Am J Vet Res 1981;42:11181124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Marteau P, Seksik P, Lepage P, et al. Cellular and physiological effects of probiotics and prebiotics. Mini Rev Med Chem 2004;4:889896.

  • 13.

    Van Immerseel F, Russell JB, Flythe MD, et al. The use of organic acids to combat Salmonella in poultry: a mechanistic explanation of the efficacy. Avian Pathol 2006;35:182188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Nava GM, Castaneda MP, Juarez MA. Effective probiotic therapy (lett). Clin Nutr 2005;24:478.

  • 15.

    Timmerman HM, Veldman A, van den Elsen E, et al. Mortality and growth performance of broilers given drinking water supplemented with chicken-specific probiotics. Poult Sci 2006;85:13831388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Zhao T, Tkalcic S, Doyle MP, et al. Pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in neonatal calves and evaluation of fecal shedding by treatment with probiotic Escherichia coli. J Food Prot 2003;66:924930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Ohya T, Marubashi T, Ito H. Significance of fecal volatile fatty acids in shedding of Escherichia coli O157 from calves: experimental infection and preliminary use of a probiotic product. J Vet Med Sci 2000;62:11511155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Zhao T, Doyle MP, Harmon BG, et al. Reduction of carriage of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle by inoculation with probiotic bacteria. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:641647.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Kyriakis SC, Tsiloyiannis VK, Vlemmas J, et al. The effect of probiotic LSP 122 on the control of post-weaning diarrhoea syndrome of piglets. Res Vet Sci 1999;67:223228.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Schroeder B, Duncker S, Barth S, et al. Preventive effects of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 on acute secretory diarrhea in a pig model of intestinal infection. Dig Dis Sci 2006;51:724731.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Underdahl NR. The effect of feeding Streptococcus faecium upon Escherichia coli induced diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Prog Food Nutr Sci 1983;7:512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Sauter SN, Allenspach K, Gaschen F, et al. Cytokine expression in an ex vivo culture system of duodenal samples from dogs with chronic enteropathies: modulation by probiotic bacteria. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2005;29:605622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    MacDonald TT, Gordon JN. Bacterial regulation of intestinal immune responses. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2005;34:401412.

  • 24.

    Rioux KP, Madsen KL, Fedorak RN. The role of enteric microflora in inflammatory bowel disease: human and animal studies with probiotics and prebiotics. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2005;34:465482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Schell MA, Karmirantzou M, Snel B, et al. The genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum reflects its adaptation to the human gastrointestinal tract. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002;99:1442214427.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB. Dietary modulation of the colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 1995;125:14011412.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Zentek J, Van der Steen I, Rohde J, et al. Dietary effects of the occurrence and enterotoxin production of Clostridium perfringens in the canine. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 1998;80:250252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Zentek J, Marquart B, Pietrzak T, et al. Dietary effects on bifidobacteria and Clostridium perfringens in the canine intestinal tract. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2003;87:397407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Banta CA, Clemens ET, Krinsky MM, et al. Sites of organic acid production and patterns of digesta movement in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs. J Nutr 1979;109:15921600.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Martineau B, Laflamme DP. Effect of diet on markers of intestinal health. Res Vet Sci 2002;72:223227.

  • 31.

    de Vrese M, Marteau PR. Probiotics and prebiotics: effects on diarrhea. J Nutr 2007;137:803S811S.

  • 32.

    Allen SJ, Okoko B, Martinez E, et al. Probiotics for treating infectious diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;2:CD003048.

  • 33.

    Majamaa H, Isolauri E. Probiotics: a novel approach in patients with food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:179185.

  • 34.

    Isolauri E, Arvola T, Sutas Y, et al. Probiotics in the management of atopic eczema. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30:16041610.

  • 35.

    Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Nielsen SD, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:389395.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, et al. Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361:18691871.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Gill HS, Darragh AJ, Cross ML. Optimizing immunity and gut function in the elderly. J Nutr Health Aging 2001;5:8091.

  • 38.

    Isolauri E, Joensuu J, Suomalainen H, et al. Improved immunogenicity of oral D × RRv reassortant rotavirus vaccine by Lactobacillus casei GG. Vaccine 1995;13:310312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Reid G, Bruce AW. Probiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: the rationale and evidence. World J Urol 2006;24:2832.

  • 40.

    Ohashi Y, Nakai S, Tsukamoto T, et al. Habitual intake of lactic acid bacteria and risk reduction of bladder cancer. Urol Int 2002;68:273280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Hoppe B, Beck B, Gatter N, et al. Oxalobacter formigenes: a potential tool for the treatment of primary hyperoxaluria type 1. Kidney Int 2006;70:13051311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Bengmark S. Bio-ecological control of acute pancreatitis: the role of enteral nutrition, pro and synbiotics. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2005;8:557561.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Olah A, Belagyi T, Issekutz A, et al. Randomized clinical trial of specific lactobacillus and fibre supplement to early enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 2002;89:11031107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Roos K, Holm S. The use of probiotics in head and neck infections. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2002;4:211216.

  • 45.

    Johnston K, Lamport A, Batt RM. An unexpected bacterial flora in the proximal small intestine of normal cats. Vet Rec 1993;132:362363.

  • 46.

    Marshall-Jones ZV, Baillon ML, Croft JM, et al. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM13241 as a probiotic in healthy adult cats. Am J Vet Res 2006;67:10051012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Strompfova V, Marcinakova M, Simonova M, et al. Application of potential probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum AD1 strain in healthy dogs. Anaerobe 2006;12:7579.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Strompfova V, Laukova A, Ouwehand AC. Lactobacilli and enterococci—potential probiotics for dogs. Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2004;49:203207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Manninen TJK, Rinkinen ML, Beasley SS, et al. Alteration of the canine small-intestinal lactic acid bacterium microbiota by feeding of potential probiotics. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006;72:65396543.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Rinkinen M, Jalava K, Westermarck E, et al. Interaction between probiotic lactic acid bacteria and canine enteric pathogens: a risk factor for intestinal Enterococcus faecium colonization? Vet Microbiol 2003;92:111119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Weese JS, Anderson RE. Preliminary evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG, a potential probiotic in dogs. Can Vet J 2002;43:771774.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Sauter SN, Benyacoub J, Allenspach K, et al. Effects of probiotic bacteria in dogs with food responsive diarrhoea treated with an elimination diet. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2006;90:269277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Nava GM, Bielke LR, Callaway TR, et al. Probiotic alternatives to reduce gastrointestinal infections: the poultry experience. Anim Health Res Rev 2005;6:105118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Lallès JP, Bosi P, Smidt H, et al. Nutritional management of gut health in pigs around weaning. Proc Nutr Soc 2007;66:260268.

  • 55.

    Sargeant JM, Amezcua MR, Waddell L, et al. Pre-harvest interventions to reduce the shedding of E. coli O157 in the faeces of weaned domestic ruminants: a systematic review. Zoonoses Public Health 2007;54:260277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Czarnecki-Maulden GL, Cavadini C, Lawler D. The role of probiotics in GI tract health. St Louis: Nestlé Purina, 2006.

  • 57.

    Vahjen W, Manner K. The effect of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium product in diets of healthy dogs on bacteriological counts of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Clostridium spp. in faeces. Arch Tierernahr 2003;57:229233.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Bauer E, Williams BA, Smidt H, et al. Influence of the gastrointestinal microbiota on development of the immune system in young animals. Curr Issues Intest Microbiol 2006;7:3551.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Liong MT. Probiotics: a critical review of their potential role as antihypertensives, immune modulators, hypocholesterolemics, and perimenopausal treatments. Nutr Rev 2007;68:316328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Madsen IK. Probiotics and the immune response. J Clin Gastroenterol 2006;40:232234.

  • 61.

    Corthésy B, Gaskins HR, Mercenier A. Cross-talk between probiotic bacteria and the host immune system. J Nutr 2007;137 (suppl 2):781S790S.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    Benyacoub J, Czarnecki-Maulden GL, Cavadini C, et al. Supplementation of food with Enterococcus faecium (SF68) stimulates immune functions in young dogs. J Nutr 2003;133:11581162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Ranganathan N, Patel B, Ranganathan P, et al. Probiotic amelioration of azotemia in 5/6th nephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. Sci World J 2005;5:652660.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Ranganathan N, Patel BG, Ranganathan P, et al. In vitro and in vivo assessment of intraintestinal bacteriotherapy in chronic kidney disease. ASAIO J 2006;52:7079.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    Palmquist R. A preliminary clinical evaluation of Kibow Biotics®, a probiotic agent, on feline azotemia. J Am Holistic Vet Med Assoc 2006;24:2327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    Sahin T, Aydin S, Yuksel O, et al. Effects of the probiotic agent Saccharomyces boulardii on the DNA damage in acute necrotizing pancreatitis induced rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 2007;26:653661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Muftuoglu MA, Isikgor S, Tosun S, et al. Effects of probiotics on the severity of experimental acute pancreatitis. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60:464468.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    Kecskés G, Belágyi T, Oláh A. Early jejunal nutrition with combined pre- and probiotics in acute pancreatitis—prospective, randomized, double-blind investigations [in Hungarian]. Magy Seb 2003;56:38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Mangiante G, Colucci G, Canepari P, et al. Lactobacillus plantarum reduces infection of pancreatic necrosis in experimental acute pancreatitis. Dig Surg 2001;18:4750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    van Minnen LP, Timmerman HM, Lutgendorff F, et al. Modification of intestinal flora with multispecies probiotics reduces bacterial translocation and improves clinical course in a rat model of acute pancreatitis. Surgery 2007;141:470480.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Xu GF, Lu Z, Gao J, et al. Effect of ecoimmunonutrition supports on maintenance of integrity of intestinal mucosal barrier in severe acute pancreatitis in dogs. Chin Med J (Engl) 2006;119:656661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Qin HL, Su ZD, Gao Q, et al. Early intrajejunal nutrition: bacterial translocation and gut barrier function of severe acute pancreatitis in dogs. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2002;1:150154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73.

    Salminen MK, Rautelin H, Tynkkyne S, et al. Lactobacillus bacteremia, clinical significance, and patient outcome, with special focus on probiotic L. rhamnosus GG. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:6269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    Alberda C, Gramlich L, Meddings J, et al. Effects of probiotic therapy in critically ill patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:816823.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    De Groote MA, Frank DN, Dowell E, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a child with short gut syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24:278280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    Montalto M, Vastola M, Marigo L, et al. Probiotic treatment increases salivary counts of lactobacilli: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Digestion 2004;69:5356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77.

    Enache-Angoulvant A, Hennequin C. Invasive Saccharomyces infection: a comprehensive review. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:15591568.

  • 78.

    Oggioni MR, Pozzi G, Valensin PE, et al. Recurrent septicemia in an immunocompromised patient due to probiotic strains of Bacillus subtilis. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:325326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79.

    Product Review. Probiotic supplements (including Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium, and others). Available at: www.ConsumerLab.com. Accessed Feb 12, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80.

    Weese JS. Microbiologic evaluation of commercial probiotics. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:794797.

  • 81.

    Lata J, Juránková J, Doubek J, et al. Labelling and content evaluation of commercial veterinary probiotics. Acta Vet (Brno) 2006;75:139144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82.

    Weese JS, Arroyo L. Bacteriological evaluation of dog and cat diets that claim to contain probiotics. Can Vet J 2003;44:212216.

  • 83.

    Biourge V, Vallet C, Levesque A, et al. The use of probiotics in the diet of dogs. J Nutr 2007;128 (suppl 12):2730S2732S.

  • 84.

    Briand V, Buffet P, Genty S, et al. Absence of efficacy of nonviable Lactobacillus acidophilus for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Clin Infect Dis 2006;43:11701175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85.

    Sanders ME, Hamilton J, Reid G, et al. A nonviable preparation of Lactobacillus acidophilus is not a probiotic (lett). Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:886.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Probiotics in veterinary practice

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.