• 1.

    Ferasin L, Sturgess CP, Cannon MJ, et al. Feline idiopathic cardiomyopathy: a retrospective study of 106 cats (1994–2001). J Feline Med Surg 2003;5:151159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Rush JE, Freeman LM, Fenollosa NK, et al. Population and survival characteristics of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: 260 cases (1990–1999). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:202207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Atkins CE, Gallo AM, Kurzman ID, et al. Risk factors, clinical signs, and survival in cats with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: 74 cases (1985–1989). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992;201:613618.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Côté E, Manning AM, Emerson D, et al. Assessment of the prevalence of heart murmurs in overtly healthy cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:384388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Grover SL, Olson JK. Cardiac cats. Vet Forum 2005:3741.

  • 6.

    Riesen SC, Kovacevic A, Lombard CW, et al. Prevalence of heart disease in symptomatic cats: an overview from 1998 to 2005. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2007;149:6571.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Braunwald E, Perloff JK. Physical examination of the heart and circulation. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow R, et al, eds. Braunwald's heart disease: a textbook of cardiovascular medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2005;77106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Thomas WP, Gaber CE, Jacobs GJ, et al. Recommendations for standards in transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiography in the dog and cat. Echocardiography Committee of the Specialty of Cardiology, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. J Vet Intern Med 1993;7:247252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Weyman AE. Principles and practice of echocardiography. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1994;600.

  • 10.

    Abbott JA, MacLean HN. Two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of the feline left atrium. J Vet Intern Med 2006;20:111119.

  • 11.

    Fox PR, Liu SK, Maron BJ. Echocardiographic assessment of spontaneously occurring feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. An animal model of human disease. Circulation 1995;92:26452651.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Fox PR, Maron BJ, Basso C, et al. Spontaneously occurring arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in the domestic cat: a new animal model similar to the human disease. Circulation 2000;102:18631870.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Rishniw M, Thomas WP. Dynamic right ventricular outflow obstruction: a new cause of systolic murmurs in cats. J Vet Intern Med 2002;16:547552.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Grandy JL, Dunlop CI, Hodgson DS, et al. Evaluation of the Doppler ultrasonic method of measuring systolic arterial blood pressure in cats. Am J Vet Res 1992;53:11661169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Maron BJ. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a systematic review. JAMA 2002;287:13081320.

  • 16.

    Maron BJ, McKenna WJ, Danielson GK, et al. American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology clinical expert consensus document on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:16871713.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Kittleson MD, Meurs KM, Munro MJ, et al. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in maine coon cats: an animal model of human disease. Circulation 1999;99:31723180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Meurs KM, Sanchez X, David RM, et al. A cardiac myosin binding protein C mutation in the Maine Coon cat with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hum Mol Genet 2005;14:35873593.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Altman DG, Bland JM. Diagnostic tests. 1: sensitivity and specificity. BMJ 1994;308:1552.

  • 20.

    Hennekens CHH, Buring JE. In: Mayrent SL, ed. Epidemiology in medicine. Boston: Little, Brown & Co, 1987;5498,327347.

  • 21.

    Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Diagnostic tests 4: likelihood ratios. BMJ 2004;329:168169.

  • 22.

    Zocchetti C, Consonni D, Bertazzi PA. Relationship between prevalence rate ratios and odds ratios in cross-sectional studies. Int J Epidemiol 1997;26:220223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Binder J, Ommen SR, Gersh BJ, et al. Echocardiography-guided genetic testing in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: septal morphological features predict the presence of myofilament mutations. Mayo Clin Proc 2006;81:459467.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Prevalence of cardiomyopathy in apparently healthy cats

Christopher F. Paige MS, DVM, DACVIM1, Jonathan A. Abbott DVM, DACVIM2, François Elvinger Dr med vet, PhD, DACVPM3, and R. Lee Pyle VMD, MS, DACVIM4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
  • | 2 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
  • | 3 Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
  • | 4 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of cardiomyopathy and the relationship between cardiomyopathy and heart murmurs in apparently healthy cats.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—103 privately owned, apparently healthy domestic cats.

Procedures—Cats were physically and echocardiographically examined by 2 investigators independently. Left ventricular wall thickness was determined via 2-dimensional echocardiography in short-axis and long-axis planes. Left ventricular hypertrophy was identified when end-diastolic measurements of the interventricular septum or posterior wall were ≥ 6 mm. Cats with left ventricular hypertrophy but without left ventricular dilatation were considered to have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The associations between heart murmurs and Doppler echocardiographic velocity profiles indicative of dynamic ventricular outflow tract obstruction were evaluated.

Results—Heart murmurs were detected in 16 (15.5%; 95% confidence interval, 9.2% to 24.0%) cats; of these, 5 had cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy was also identified in 16 (15.5%; 95% confidence interval, 9.2% to 24.0%) cats; 15 had HCM, and 1 had arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Of the cats with HCM, 11 had segmental left ventricular hypertrophy, 3 had diffuse left ventricular hypertrophy, and 1 had borderline left ventricular hypertrophy with marked systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. Sensitivity and specificity of auscultatory detection of a heart murmur for diagnosing cardiomyopathy were 31% and 87%, respectively. Echocardiographic evidence of late systolic acceleration within ventricular outflow tracts was associated with the existence of a heart murmur.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cardiomyopathy was common in the healthy cats evaluated in this study. In apparently healthy cats, detection of a heart murmur is not a reliable indicator of cardiomyopathy.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Paige's present address is VCA Animal Referral and Emergency Center of Arizona, 1648 N Country Club Dr, Mesa, AZ 85201.

Supported by a grant from the Virginia Veterinary Medical Association Veterinary Memorial Fund.

Presented as a poster at the 24th Annual American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, Louisville, June 2006.

The authors thank Drs. Stephen Werre and Daniel Ward for statistical analyses and Terry Lawrence for the schematic drawing.

Address correspondence to Dr. Abbott.