• 1.

    Johnson JA, Austin C, Breur GJ. Incidence of canine appendicular musculoskeletal disorders in 16 veterinary teaching hospitals from 1980 through 1989. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 1994;7:5669.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Wilke VL, Robinson DA, Evans RB, et al. Estimate of the annual economic impact of treatment of cranial cruciate ligament injury in dogs in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:16041607.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Whitehair JG, Vasseur PB, Willits NH. Epidemiology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993;203:10161019.

  • 4.

    Priester WA, Mulvinill JJ. Canine hip dysplasia: relative risk by sex, size, and breed, and comparative aspects. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1972;160:735739.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Paster ER, LaFond E, Biery DN, et al. Estimates of prevalence of hip dysplasia in Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers and the influence of bias on published prevalence figures. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:387392.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Keller GG, Corley EA. Canine hip dysplasia. Investigating the sex predilection and the frequency of unilateral canine hip dysplasia. Vet Med (Praha) 1989;84:11621166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Corley EA. Role of the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals in the control of canine hip dysplasia. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1992;22:579593.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Riser WH, Larsen JS. Influence of breed somatotypes on prevalence of hip dysplasia in the dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1974;165:7981.

  • 9.

    Lampman TJ, Lund EM, Lipowitz AJ. Cranial cruciate disease: current status of diagnosis, surgery, and risk for disease. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2003;16:122126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Rettenmaier JL, Keller GG, Lattimer JC, et al. Prevalence of canine hip dysplasia in a veterinary teaching hospital population. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2002;43:313318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Martin SW, Kirby K, Pennock PW. Canine hip dysplasia: breed effects. Can Vet J 1980;21:293296.

  • 12.

    Bennett D, Tennant B, Lewis DG, et al. A reappraisal of anterior cruciate ligament disease in the dog. J Small Anim Pract 1988;29:275297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Duval JM, Budsberg SC, Flo GL, et al. Breed, sex, and body weight as risk factors for rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in young dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:811814.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Kaneene JB, Mostosky UV, Padgett GA. Retrospective cohort study of changes in hip joint phenotype in dogs in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:15421544.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Swenson L, Audell L, Hedhammar A. Prevalence and inheritance of and selection for hip dysplasia in seven breeds of dogs in Sweden and benefit:cost analysis of a screening and control program. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:207214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Pride C, et al. Prevalence of obesity in dogs examined by Australian veterinary practices and the risk factors involved. Vet Rec 2005;156:695702.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Edney AT, Smith PB. Study of obesity in dogs visiting veterinary practices in the United Kingdom. Vet Rec 1986;118:391396.

  • 18.

    Robertson ID. The association of exercise, diet and other factors with owner-perceived obesity in privately owned dogs from metropolitan Perth, WA. Prev Vet Med 2003;58:7583.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Prevalence of and risk factors for hip dysplasia and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency in dogs

Tige H. Witsberger DVM1, J. Armando Villamil DVM, MS2, Loren G. Schultz DVM, MS, DACVPM3, Allen W. Hahn DVM, PhD, DACVIM4, and James L. Cook DVM, PhD, DACVS5
View More View Less
  • 1 Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 2 Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 3 Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 4 Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 5 Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate prevalence of and risk factors for hip dysplasia (HD) and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency (CCLD) in dogs and determine change in prevalence over time.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—1,243,681 dogs for which information was reported to the Veterinary Medical Database between 1964 and 2003.

Procedures—Information on breed, sex, and age was collected, and prevalences and odds ratios were calculated.

Results—Castrated male dogs were significantly more likely than other dogs to have HD (odds ratio [OR], 1.21), and castrated male (OR, 1.68) and spayed female (OR, 2.35) dogs were significantly more likely to have CCLD. Dogs up to 4 years old were significantly more likely to have HD (OR for dogs 2 months to 1 year old, 1.22; OR for dogs > 1 to 4 years old, 1.48), whereas dogs > 4 years old were significantly more likely to have CCLD (OR for dogs > 4 to 7 years old, 1.82; OR for dogs > 7 years old, 1.48). In general, large- and giant-breed dogs were more likely than other dogs to have HD, CCLD, or both. Prevalences of HD and CCLD increased significantly over the 4 decades for which data were examined.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that sex, age, and breed were risk factors for HD, CCLD, or both in dogs and that prevalences of HD and CCLD have increased over time.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate prevalence of and risk factors for hip dysplasia (HD) and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency (CCLD) in dogs and determine change in prevalence over time.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—1,243,681 dogs for which information was reported to the Veterinary Medical Database between 1964 and 2003.

Procedures—Information on breed, sex, and age was collected, and prevalences and odds ratios were calculated.

Results—Castrated male dogs were significantly more likely than other dogs to have HD (odds ratio [OR], 1.21), and castrated male (OR, 1.68) and spayed female (OR, 2.35) dogs were significantly more likely to have CCLD. Dogs up to 4 years old were significantly more likely to have HD (OR for dogs 2 months to 1 year old, 1.22; OR for dogs > 1 to 4 years old, 1.48), whereas dogs > 4 years old were significantly more likely to have CCLD (OR for dogs > 4 to 7 years old, 1.82; OR for dogs > 7 years old, 1.48). In general, large- and giant-breed dogs were more likely than other dogs to have HD, CCLD, or both. Prevalences of HD and CCLD increased significantly over the 4 decades for which data were examined.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that sex, age, and breed were risk factors for HD, CCLD, or both in dogs and that prevalences of HD and CCLD have increased over time.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Witsberger's present address is the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.

Address correspondence to Dr. Cook.