• 1

    Levy JK, Crawford PC. Humane strategies for controlling feral cat populations. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:13541360.

  • 2

    American Pet Products Manufacturers Association. 2005/2006 national pet owners survey. Greenwich, Conn: American Pet Products Manufacturers Association, 2006;80.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Levy JK, Woods JE, Turick SL, et al. Number of unowned free-roaming cats in a college community in the southern United States and characteristics of community residents who feed them. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:202205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Jessup DA. The welfare of feral cats and wildlife. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:13771383.

  • 5

    Stoskopf MK, Nutter FB. Analyzing approaches to feral cat management—one size does not fit all. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:13611364.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Winter L. Trap-neuter-release programs: the reality and the impacts. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:13691376.

  • 7

    Slater MR. Understanding issues and solutions for unowned, free-roaming cat populations. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:13501354.

  • 8

    Wallace JL, Levy JK. Population characteristics of feral cats admitted to seven trap-neuter-return programs in the United States. J Feline Med Surg 2006;8:279284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Levy JK, Gale DW, Gale LA. Evaluation of the effect of a long-term trap-neuter-return and adoption program on a free-roaming cat population. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:4246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Pietrini D, Pusateri A, Tosi F, et al. Infectious diseases of childhood and their anesthetic implications. Minerva Anestesiol 2005;71:385389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Greene CE, Schultz RD. Immunoprophylaxis. In:Greene CE, ed.Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. 3rd ed.Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2006;10691119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Atkinson WL, Pickering LK, Schwartz B, et al. General recommendations on immunization. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). MMWR Recomm Rep 2002;51 (RR-2):135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Saffle JR. A comprehensive practice guideline is needed to make vaccination practices more consistent. J Trauma 2002;53:10261027.

  • 14

    Glaser R, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Malarkey WB, et al. The influence of psychological stress on the immune response to vaccines. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1998;840:649655.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Cunnick JE, Cohen S, Rabin BS, et al. Alterations in specific antibody production due to rank and social instability. Brain Behav Immun 1991;5:357369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Nelson CJ, Lysle DT. Severity, time and β-adrenergic receptor involvement in surgery-induced immune alterations. J Surg Res 1998;80:115122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Toft P, Svendsen P, Tonnesen E, et al. Redistribution of lymphocytes after major surgical stress. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1993;37:245249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Tonnesen E, Wahlgreen C. Influence of extradural and general anaesthesia on natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte sub-populations in patients undergoing hysterectomy. Br J Anaesth 1988;60:500507.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Stevenson GW, Hall SC, Rudnick S, et al. The effect of anesthetic agents on the human immune response. Anesthesiology 1990;72:542552.

  • 20

    Dhabhar FS, McEwen BS. Enhancing versus suppressive effects of stress hormones on skin immune function. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1999;96:10591064.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Dhabhar FS. Stress-induced augmentation of immune function—the role of stress hormones, leukocyte trafficking and cytokines. Brain Behav Immun 2002;16:785798.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Dhabhar FS, McEwen BS. Acute stress enhances while chronic stress suppresses cell-mediated immunity in vivo: a potential role for leukocyte trafficking. Brain Behav Immun 1997;11:283306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Dhabhar FS. Stress-induced enhancement of cell-mediated immunity. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1998;840:359372.

  • 24

    Viswanathan K, Daugherty C, Dhabhar FS. Stress as an endogenous adjuvant: augmentation of the immunization phase of cell-mediated immunity. Int Immunol 2005;17:10591069.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Petrie KJ, Booth RJ, Pennebaker JW, et al. Disclosure of trauma and immune response to a hepatitis B vaccination program. J Consult Clin Psychol 1995;63:787792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Williams LS, Levy JK, Robertson SA, et al. Use of the anesthetic combination of tiletamine, zolazepam, ketamine, and xylazine for neutering feral cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:14911495.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Cistola AM, Golder FJ, Centonze LA, et al. Anesthetic and physiologic effects of tiletamine, zolazepam, ketamine, and xylazine combination (TKX) in feral cats undergoing surgical sterilization. J Feline Med Surg 2004;6:297303.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Mouzin DE, Lorenzen MJ, Haworth JD, et al. Duration of serologic response to three viral antigens in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:6166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Scott FW, Geissinger CM. Long-term immunity in cats vaccinated with an inactivated trivalent vaccine. Am J Vet Res 1999;60:652658.

  • 30

    Mansfield KL, Burr PD, Snodgrass DR, et al. Factors affecting the serological response of dogs and cats to rabies vaccination. Vet Rec 2004;154:423426.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Coman BJ, Jones EH, Westbury HA. Protozoan and viral infections of feral cats. Aust Vet J 1981;57:319323.

  • 32

    Ostrowski S, Van Vuuren M, Lenain DM, et al. A serologic survey of wild felids from central west Saudi Arabia. J Wildl Dis 2003;39:696701.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Nakamura K, Ikeda Y, Miyazawa T, et al. Comparison of prevalence of feline herpesvirus type 1, calicivirus and parvovirus infections in domestic and leopard cats in Vietnam. J Vet Med Sci 1999;61:13131315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Deem SL, Davis R, Pacheco LF. Serologic evidence of nonfatal rabies exposure in a free-ranging oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus) in Cotapata National Park, Bolivia. J Wildl Dis 2004;40:811815.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Almeida MF, Massad E, Aguiar EA, et al. Neutralizing antirabies antibodies in urban terrestrial wildlife in Brazil. J Wildl Dis 2001;37:394398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Scott KC, Levy JK, Crawford PC. Characteristics of free-roaming cats evaluated in a trap-neuter-return program. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:11361138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Soulebot JP, Brun A, Chappuis G, et al. Experimental rabies in cats: immune response and persistence of immunity. Cornell Vet 1981;71:311325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    Coyne MJ, Burr JH, Yule TD, et al. Duration of immunity in cats after vaccination or naturally acquired infection. Vet Rec 2001;149:545548.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    Lappin MR, Andrews J, Simpson D, et al. Use of serologic tests to predict resistance to feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, and feline parvovirus infection in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:3842.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    The National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians. Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2006. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;228:858864.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    Kelly GE, Webster A. The effect of surgery in dogs on the response to concomitant distemper vaccination. Aust Vet J 1980;56:556567.

  • 42

    Mayr B, Honig A, Gutbrod F, et al. The effectiveness and safety of an immunization against parvovirus and rabies in anesthetized puppies. Tierarztl Prax 1990;18:165169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43

    Miyamoto T, Taura Y, Une S, et al. Immunological responses after vaccination pre- and post-surgery in dogs. J Vet Med Sci 1995;57:2932.

  • 44

    Nara PL, Krakowka S, Powers TE. Effects of prednisolone on the development of immune responses to canine distemper virus in beagle pups. Am J Vet Res 1979;40:17421747.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    Rosatte RC, Howard DR, Campbell JB, et al. Intramuscular vaccination of skunks and raccoons against rabies. J Wildl Dis 1990;26:225230.

  • 46

    Citino SB. Use of a subunit feline leukemia virus vaccine in exotic cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988;192:957959.

  • 47

    Salo M, Viljanen M, Kangas L, et al. Effect of halothane anaesthesia on primary antibody response in the chicken. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1979;23:344348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48

    Janakova L, Bakke H, Haugen IL, et al. Influence of intravenous anesthesia on mucosal and systemic antibody responses to nasal vaccines. Infect Immun 2002;70:54795484.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49

    Barringer M, Meredith W, Sterchi M, et al. Effect of anesthesia and splenectomy on antibody response to pneumococcal polysaccharide immunization. Am Surg 1982;48:628633.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50

    Richards JR, Elston TH, Ford RB, et al. The 2006 American Association of Feline Practitioners Feline Vaccine Advisory Panel Report. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229:14051441.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Response of feral cats to vaccination at the time of neutering

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610
  • | 2 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610
  • | 3 Animal Health Diagnostic Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14852
  • | 4 Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506
  • | 5 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610
  • | 6 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610
  • | 7 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610
  • | 8 Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506
  • | 9 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether administration of inactivated virus or modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines to feral cats at the time of neutering induces protective serum antiviral antibody titers.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—61 feral cats included in a trap-neuter-return program in Florida.

Procedures—Each cat received vaccines against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline herpes virus (FHV), feline calicivirus (FCV), FeLV, and rabies virus (RV). Immediately on completion of surgery, vaccines that contained inactivated RV and FeLV antigens and either MLV or inactivated FPV, FHV, and FCV antigens were administered. Titers of antiviral antibodies (except those against FeLV) were assessed in serum samples obtained immediately prior to surgery and approximately 10 weeks later.

Results—Prior to vaccination, some of the cats had protective serum antibody titers against FPV (33%), FHV (21%), FCV (64%), and RV (3%). Following vaccination, the overall proportion of cats with protective serum antiviral antibody titers increased (FPV [90%], FHV [56%], FCV [93%], and RV [98%]). With the exception of the FHV vaccine, there were no differences in the proportions of cats protected with inactivated virus versus MLV vaccines.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that exposure to FPV, FHV, and FCV is common among feral cats and that a high proportion of cats are susceptible to RV infection. Feral cats appeared to have an excellent immune response following vaccination at the time of neutering. Incorporation of vaccination into trap-neuter-return programs is likely to protect the health of individual cats and possibly reduce the disease burden in the community.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether administration of inactivated virus or modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines to feral cats at the time of neutering induces protective serum antiviral antibody titers.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—61 feral cats included in a trap-neuter-return program in Florida.

Procedures—Each cat received vaccines against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline herpes virus (FHV), feline calicivirus (FCV), FeLV, and rabies virus (RV). Immediately on completion of surgery, vaccines that contained inactivated RV and FeLV antigens and either MLV or inactivated FPV, FHV, and FCV antigens were administered. Titers of antiviral antibodies (except those against FeLV) were assessed in serum samples obtained immediately prior to surgery and approximately 10 weeks later.

Results—Prior to vaccination, some of the cats had protective serum antibody titers against FPV (33%), FHV (21%), FCV (64%), and RV (3%). Following vaccination, the overall proportion of cats with protective serum antiviral antibody titers increased (FPV [90%], FHV [56%], FCV [93%], and RV [98%]). With the exception of the FHV vaccine, there were no differences in the proportions of cats protected with inactivated virus versus MLV vaccines.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that exposure to FPV, FHV, and FCV is common among feral cats and that a high proportion of cats are susceptible to RV infection. Feral cats appeared to have an excellent immune response following vaccination at the time of neutering. Incorporation of vaccination into trap-neuter-return programs is likely to protect the health of individual cats and possibly reduce the disease burden in the community.

Contributor Notes

The authors thank Maury Swee, Michael Reese, Erin Patterson, Kristin MacDonald, Ray Smith, Chi Frost, Susan M. Moore, Lindsay Smith, Jen Regis, Linda Wilks, Terry Darling, and Beth Orcutt for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Levy.