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Risk factors associated with short-term outcome and development of perioperative complications in dogs undergoing surgery because of gastric dilatation-volvulus: 166 cases (1992–2003)

Jennifer J. Beck DVM, MS1, Andrew J. Staatz DVM, MS, DACVS2, Davyd H. Pelsue DVM, MS, DACVS3, Simon T. Kudnig BVSc, MVS, MS, DACVS4, Catriona M. MacPhail DVM, DACVS5, Howard B. Seim III DVM, DACVS6, and Eric Monnet DVM, PhD, DACVS7
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  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 7 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate risk factors associated with death and development of perioperative complications in dogs undergoing surgery for treatment of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—166 dogs.

Procedures—Records of dogs with confirmed GDV that underwent surgery were reviewed. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with development of complications (ie, hypotension, arrhythmias, gastric necrosis necessitating gastrectomy, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peritonitis, sepsis, postoperative dilatation, postoperative vomiting, and incisional problems) and with short-term outcome (ie, died vs survived to the time of suture removal).

Results—Short-term mortality rate was 16.2% (27/166). Risk factors significantly associated with death prior to suture removal were clinical signs for > 6 hours prior to examination, combined splenectomy and partial gastrectomy, hypotension at any time during hospitalization, peritonitis, sepsis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Partial gastrectomy was not a significant risk factor for death but was for peritonitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, sepsis, and arrhythmias. Age, gastrectomy, and disseminated intravascular coagulation were risk factors for development of hypotension. Use of a synthetic colloid or hypertonic saline solution was associated with a significantly decreased risk of hypotension.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the prognosis for dogs undergoing surgery because of GDV is good but that certain factors are associated with an increased risk that dogs will develop perioperative complications or die.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate risk factors associated with death and development of perioperative complications in dogs undergoing surgery for treatment of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—166 dogs.

Procedures—Records of dogs with confirmed GDV that underwent surgery were reviewed. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with development of complications (ie, hypotension, arrhythmias, gastric necrosis necessitating gastrectomy, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peritonitis, sepsis, postoperative dilatation, postoperative vomiting, and incisional problems) and with short-term outcome (ie, died vs survived to the time of suture removal).

Results—Short-term mortality rate was 16.2% (27/166). Risk factors significantly associated with death prior to suture removal were clinical signs for > 6 hours prior to examination, combined splenectomy and partial gastrectomy, hypotension at any time during hospitalization, peritonitis, sepsis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Partial gastrectomy was not a significant risk factor for death but was for peritonitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, sepsis, and arrhythmias. Age, gastrectomy, and disseminated intravascular coagulation were risk factors for development of hypotension. Use of a synthetic colloid or hypertonic saline solution was associated with a significantly decreased risk of hypotension.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the prognosis for dogs undergoing surgery because of GDV is good but that certain factors are associated with an increased risk that dogs will develop perioperative complications or die.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Beck's present address is US Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234.

Dr. Staatz's present address is Veterinary Surgical Associates, 1410 Monument Blvd, Ste 100, Concord, CA 94520.

Dr. Pelsue's present address is Veterinary Specialists of Nevada, 932 Ryland St, Reno, NV 89502.

Dr. Kudnig's present address is Melbourne Veterinary Referral Centre, 70 Blackbourne Rd, Glen Waverly, Victoria, 3150, Australia.

Address correspondence to Dr. Beck.