Evaluation of administration of West Nile virus vaccine to pregnant broodmares

Dickie J. Vest DVM1, Noah D. Cohen VMD, MPH, PhD, DACVIM2, Christopher J. Berezowski DVM3, James P. Morehead DVM4, Glenn P. Blodgett DVM5, and Terry L. Blanchard DVM, MS, DACT6
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  • 1 Department of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.
  • | 2 Department of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.
  • | 3 Department of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.
  • | 4 Equine Medical Associates, PSC, PO Box 13116, Lexington, KY 40583-3116.
  • | 5 6666 Ranch, PO Box 130, Guthrie, TX 79236.
  • | 6 Department of Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether administration of killed West Nile virus vaccine was associated with pregnancy loss among broodmares.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—595 mares.

Procedure—Records of pregnant mares with known vaccination history from 4 farms were reviewed. Information obtained from 595 mares included mare's identification; farm; age; breed; reproductive status; last breeding date; date last known pregnant; vaccination date; age of conceptus at vaccination; vaccination during the early embryonic, early fetal, and late fetal periods; and whether an early embryonic death (EED), early fetal loss (EFL), or late fetal loss (LFL) occurred. The relationships between the dichotomous outcomes of loss (eg, EED, EFL, LFL) and independent categoric variables (eg, vaccination during the early embryonic, early fetal, or late fetal periods) were examined.

Results—Vaccination of pregnant mares during any period of gestation was not associated with increased incidence of pregnancy loss.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Many mares are already pregnant at the onset of mosquito season, when mares are more likely to be vaccinated than at other times. Our findings provide evidence that vaccine administration will not compromise pregnancy in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1894–1897)

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether administration of killed West Nile virus vaccine was associated with pregnancy loss among broodmares.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—595 mares.

Procedure—Records of pregnant mares with known vaccination history from 4 farms were reviewed. Information obtained from 595 mares included mare's identification; farm; age; breed; reproductive status; last breeding date; date last known pregnant; vaccination date; age of conceptus at vaccination; vaccination during the early embryonic, early fetal, and late fetal periods; and whether an early embryonic death (EED), early fetal loss (EFL), or late fetal loss (LFL) occurred. The relationships between the dichotomous outcomes of loss (eg, EED, EFL, LFL) and independent categoric variables (eg, vaccination during the early embryonic, early fetal, or late fetal periods) were examined.

Results—Vaccination of pregnant mares during any period of gestation was not associated with increased incidence of pregnancy loss.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Many mares are already pregnant at the onset of mosquito season, when mares are more likely to be vaccinated than at other times. Our findings provide evidence that vaccine administration will not compromise pregnancy in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1894–1897)