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Carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs: 113 cases (1985–1995)

Laurel E. Williams DVM, DACVIM1,2, John M. Gliatto VMD, DACVP3, Richard K. Dodge MS4, Jeffrey L. Johnson MS5, Rance M. Gamblin DVM, DACVIM6,7, Douglas H. Thamm VMD, DACVIM8,9, Susan E. Lana DVM, DACVIM10, Mary Szymkowski DVM11, and Antony S. Moore MVSc, DACVIM12
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  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.
  • | 3 Antech Diagnostics, 410 Union Ave, Framingham, MA 01702.
  • | 4 Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.
  • | 5 Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.
  • | 6 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 7 Present address is Metropolitan Veterinary Hospital, 1053 S Cleveland Massillon Rd, Akron, OH 44321.
  • | 8 Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 9 Present second address is Animal Emergency Center, 2100 W Silver Spring Dr, Glendale, WI 53209.
  • | 10 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 11 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 12 Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the signalment, clinical signs, biological behavior, and response to treatment of carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—113 dogs with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac.

Procedure—Data on signalment, clinical signs, and staging were reviewed and analyzed along with treatment modality for potential association with survival time.

Results—Sex distribution was approximately equal (54% female, 46% male). One hundred four dogs underwent treatment consisting of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or multimodal treatment. Median survival for treated dogs was 544 days (range, 0 to 1,873 days). Dogs treated with chemotherapy alone had significantly shorter survival (median, 212 days) than those receiving other treatments (median, 584 days). Dogs not treated with surgery had significantly shorter survival (median, 402 days) than those that underwent surgery as part of their treatment (median, 548 days). Dogs with tumors ≥ 10 cm2 had significantly shorter survival (median, 292 days) than dogs with tumors ≥ 10 cm2 (median, 584 days). Hypercalcemia was identified in 27% (n = 29) of dogs, and those dogs had significantly shorter survival (median, 256 days), compared with those that were normocalcemic (median, 584 days). Dogs with pulmonary metastasis had significantly shorter survival (median, 219 days) than dogs without evidence of pulmonary metastasis (median, 548 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Unlike most previous reports, this study revealed an approximately equal sex distribution, and results suggest a more favorable prognosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: 825–831)

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the signalment, clinical signs, biological behavior, and response to treatment of carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—113 dogs with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac.

Procedure—Data on signalment, clinical signs, and staging were reviewed and analyzed along with treatment modality for potential association with survival time.

Results—Sex distribution was approximately equal (54% female, 46% male). One hundred four dogs underwent treatment consisting of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or multimodal treatment. Median survival for treated dogs was 544 days (range, 0 to 1,873 days). Dogs treated with chemotherapy alone had significantly shorter survival (median, 212 days) than those receiving other treatments (median, 584 days). Dogs not treated with surgery had significantly shorter survival (median, 402 days) than those that underwent surgery as part of their treatment (median, 548 days). Dogs with tumors ≥ 10 cm2 had significantly shorter survival (median, 292 days) than dogs with tumors ≥ 10 cm2 (median, 584 days). Hypercalcemia was identified in 27% (n = 29) of dogs, and those dogs had significantly shorter survival (median, 256 days), compared with those that were normocalcemic (median, 584 days). Dogs with pulmonary metastasis had significantly shorter survival (median, 219 days) than dogs without evidence of pulmonary metastasis (median, 548 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Unlike most previous reports, this study revealed an approximately equal sex distribution, and results suggest a more favorable prognosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: 825–831)