Association between dietary factors and calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis in cats

Chalermpol Lekcharoensuk Minnesota Urolith Center, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.

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Carl A. Osborne Minnesota Urolith Center, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.

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Jody P. Lulich Minnesota Urolith Center, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.

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Rosama Pusoonthornthum Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand 10330.

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Claudia A. Kirk Hill's Science and Technology Center, 1035 NE 43rd St, Topeka, KS 66617.

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Lisa K. Ulrich Minnesota Urolith Center, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.

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Lori A. Koehler Minnesota Urolith Center, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.

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Kathleen A. Carpenter Minnesota Urolith Center, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.

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Laurie L. Swanson Minnesota Urolith Center, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.

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Abstract

Objective—To identify dietary factors associated with the increase in occurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths and the decrease in occurrence of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) uroliths in cats.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—173 cats with CaOx uroliths, 290 cats with MAP uroliths, and 827 cats without any urinary tract diseases.

Procedure—Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed.

Results—Cats fed diets low in sodium or potassium or formulated to maximize urine acidity had an increased risk of developing CaOx uroliths but a decreased risk of developing MAP uroliths. Additionally, compared with the lowest contents, diets with the highest moisture or protein contents and with moderate magnesium, phosphorus, or calcium contents were associated with decreased risk of CaOx urolith formation. In contrast, diets with moderate fat or carbohydrate contents were associated with increased risk of CaOx urolith formation. Diets with the highest magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, chloride, or fiber contents and moderate protein content were associated with increased risk of MAP urolith formation. On the other hand, diets with the highest fat content were associated with decreased risk of MAP urolith formation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that diets formulated to contain higher protein, sodium, potassium, moisture, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium contents and with decreased urine acidifying potential may minimize formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Diets formulated to contain higher fat content and lower protein and potassium contents and with increased urine acidifying potential may minimize formation of MAP uroliths. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1228–1237)

Abstract

Objective—To identify dietary factors associated with the increase in occurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths and the decrease in occurrence of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) uroliths in cats.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—173 cats with CaOx uroliths, 290 cats with MAP uroliths, and 827 cats without any urinary tract diseases.

Procedure—Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed.

Results—Cats fed diets low in sodium or potassium or formulated to maximize urine acidity had an increased risk of developing CaOx uroliths but a decreased risk of developing MAP uroliths. Additionally, compared with the lowest contents, diets with the highest moisture or protein contents and with moderate magnesium, phosphorus, or calcium contents were associated with decreased risk of CaOx urolith formation. In contrast, diets with moderate fat or carbohydrate contents were associated with increased risk of CaOx urolith formation. Diets with the highest magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, chloride, or fiber contents and moderate protein content were associated with increased risk of MAP urolith formation. On the other hand, diets with the highest fat content were associated with decreased risk of MAP urolith formation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that diets formulated to contain higher protein, sodium, potassium, moisture, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium contents and with decreased urine acidifying potential may minimize formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Diets formulated to contain higher fat content and lower protein and potassium contents and with increased urine acidifying potential may minimize formation of MAP uroliths. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1228–1237)

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