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Effect of vaccination on experimental infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs

John A. Ellis DVM, PhD, DACVP, DACVM1, Deborah M. Haines DVM, PhD2, Keith H. West DVM, PhD3, J. Hilty Burr DVM4, Arthur Dayton PhD5, Hugh G. G. Townsend DVM, MSc6, Edward W. Kanara DVM, DABVP7, Carrie Konoby BS8, Ann Crichlow BS9, Karen Martin10, and Garland Headrick BS11
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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5B4.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5B4.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5B4.
  • | 4 Pfizer Animal Health, 812 Springdale Dr, Exton, PA 19341-2803.
  • | 5 Pfizer Animal Health, 812 Springdale Dr, Exton, PA 19341-2803.
  • | 6 Department of Medicine, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5B4.
  • | 7 Pfizer Animal Health, 812 Springdale Dr, Exton, PA 19341-2803.
  • | 8 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5B4.
  • | 9 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5B4.
  • | 10 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5B4.
  • | 11 Pfizer Animal Health, 812 Springdale Dr, Exton, PA 19341-2803.

Abstract

Objective—To determine comparative efficacy of vaccines administered IM and intranasally, used alone or sequentially, to protect puppies from infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica and determine whether systemic or mucosal antibody response correlated with protection.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—50 specific-pathogen-free Beagle puppies.

Procedure—In 2 replicates of 25 dogs each, 14-weekold puppies that were vaccinated against canine distemper virus and parvovirus were vaccinated against B bronchiseptica via intranasal, IM, intranasal-IM, or IMintranasal administration or were unvaccinated controls. Puppies were challenge exposed via aerosol administration of B bronchiseptica 2 weeks after final vaccination. Clinical variables and systemic and mucosal antibody responses were monitored for 10 days after challenge exposure. Puppies in replicate 1 were necropsied for histologic and immunohistochemical studies.

Results—Control puppies that were seronegative before challenge exposure developed paroxysmal coughing, signs of depression, anorexia, and fever. Vaccinated puppies (either vaccine) that were seronegative before challenge exposure had fewer clinical signs. Puppies that received both vaccines had the least severe clinical signs and fewest lesions in the respiratory tract. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher concentrations of B bronchiseptica-reactive antibodies in serum saliva before and after challenge. Antibody concentrations were negatively correlated with bacterial growth in nasal cavity and pharyngeal samples after challenge exposure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Parenterally and intranasally administered vaccines containing B bronchiseptica may provide substantial protection from clinical signs of respiratory tract disease associated with infection by this bacterium. Administration of both types of vaccines in sequence afforded the greatest degree of protection against disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:367–375)

Abstract

Objective—To determine comparative efficacy of vaccines administered IM and intranasally, used alone or sequentially, to protect puppies from infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica and determine whether systemic or mucosal antibody response correlated with protection.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—50 specific-pathogen-free Beagle puppies.

Procedure—In 2 replicates of 25 dogs each, 14-weekold puppies that were vaccinated against canine distemper virus and parvovirus were vaccinated against B bronchiseptica via intranasal, IM, intranasal-IM, or IMintranasal administration or were unvaccinated controls. Puppies were challenge exposed via aerosol administration of B bronchiseptica 2 weeks after final vaccination. Clinical variables and systemic and mucosal antibody responses were monitored for 10 days after challenge exposure. Puppies in replicate 1 were necropsied for histologic and immunohistochemical studies.

Results—Control puppies that were seronegative before challenge exposure developed paroxysmal coughing, signs of depression, anorexia, and fever. Vaccinated puppies (either vaccine) that were seronegative before challenge exposure had fewer clinical signs. Puppies that received both vaccines had the least severe clinical signs and fewest lesions in the respiratory tract. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher concentrations of B bronchiseptica-reactive antibodies in serum saliva before and after challenge. Antibody concentrations were negatively correlated with bacterial growth in nasal cavity and pharyngeal samples after challenge exposure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Parenterally and intranasally administered vaccines containing B bronchiseptica may provide substantial protection from clinical signs of respiratory tract disease associated with infection by this bacterium. Administration of both types of vaccines in sequence afforded the greatest degree of protection against disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:367–375)