Efficacy of protamine zinc insulin for treatment of diabetes mellitus in cats

Richard W. Nelson Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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 DVM, DACVIM
,
Randy C. Lynn

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 DVM, MS;
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Colette C. Wagner-Mann

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 DVM, PhD
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Gina M. Michels

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 DVM, MS

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of protamine zinc insulin (PZI) on control of glycemia in cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus or poorly controlled diabetes.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—67 diabetic cats.

Procedure—34 cats with newly diagnosed diabetes and 33 cats with poorly controlled diabetes were treated with PZI twice daily for 45 days. Control of glycemia was assessed on days 7, 14, 30, and 45 by evaluation of clinical response, change in body weight, serum fructosamine concentration, blood glucose concentration measured 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 hours after administration of PZI, lowest blood glucose concentration, and mean blood glucose concentration during the 9-hour period after administration. Adjustments in dosage of PZI were made as needed to attain control of glycemia.

Results—For all cats, a significant increase in mean dosage of PZI and significant decreases in 9-hour mean blood glucose concentration, lowest mean blood glucose concentration, and mean serum fructosamine concentration were detected. For cats with poorly controlled diabetes, 9-hour mean blood glucose concentration and mean serum fructosamine concentration were significantly decreased on day 45, compared with day 0. Ninety percent of owners reported improvement or resolution of clinical signs by day 45.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that PZI was effective for control of glycemia in cats with newly diagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes and may be used as an initial treatment or as an alternative treatment in cats that do not respond to treatment with other types of insulin. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:38–42)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of protamine zinc insulin (PZI) on control of glycemia in cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus or poorly controlled diabetes.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—67 diabetic cats.

Procedure—34 cats with newly diagnosed diabetes and 33 cats with poorly controlled diabetes were treated with PZI twice daily for 45 days. Control of glycemia was assessed on days 7, 14, 30, and 45 by evaluation of clinical response, change in body weight, serum fructosamine concentration, blood glucose concentration measured 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 hours after administration of PZI, lowest blood glucose concentration, and mean blood glucose concentration during the 9-hour period after administration. Adjustments in dosage of PZI were made as needed to attain control of glycemia.

Results—For all cats, a significant increase in mean dosage of PZI and significant decreases in 9-hour mean blood glucose concentration, lowest mean blood glucose concentration, and mean serum fructosamine concentration were detected. For cats with poorly controlled diabetes, 9-hour mean blood glucose concentration and mean serum fructosamine concentration were significantly decreased on day 45, compared with day 0. Ninety percent of owners reported improvement or resolution of clinical signs by day 45.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that PZI was effective for control of glycemia in cats with newly diagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes and may be used as an initial treatment or as an alternative treatment in cats that do not respond to treatment with other types of insulin. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:38–42)

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