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Quantification of renal T2 relaxation rate by use of blood oxygen level–dependent magnetic resonance imaging before and after furosemide administration in healthy Beagles

Sang-Kwon Lee DVM, PhD1, Juryeong Lee DVM2, Seolyn Jang DVM2, Eunji Lee DVM2, Chang-Yeop Jeon3, Kyung-Seob Lim DVM, PhD3, Yeung Bae Jin DVM, PhD4, and Jihye Choi DVM, PhD5
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  • 1 From the College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, South Korea;
  • | 2 the College of Veterinary Medicine and BK21 Plus Project Team, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea;
  • | 3 National Primate Research Center and Futuristic Animal Resource and Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Cheongju 28116, Republic of Korea;
  • | 4 the College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea;
  • | 5 the Department of Veterinary Medical Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, South Korea.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the feasibility of blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) MRI for measurement of the renal T2* relaxation rate (R2*; proxy for renal oxygenation) before and after furosemide administration and to evaluate the reliability and repeatability of those measurements in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

8 healthy adult Beagles (4 males and 4 females).

PROCEDURES

Each dog was anesthetized and underwent BOLD MRI before (baseline) and 3 minutes after administration of furosemide (1 mg/kg, IV) twice, with a 1-week interval between scanning sessions. Mapping software was used to process MRI images and measure R2* and the difference in R2* (∆R2*) before and after furosemide administration. The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess measurement reliability, and the coefficient of variation and Bland-Altman method were used to assess measurement repeatability.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD baseline R2* in the renal medulla (24.5 ± 3.8 seconds−1) was significantly greater than that in the renal cortex (20.6 ± 2.7 seconds−1). Mean R2* in the renal cortex (18.6 ± 2.6 seconds−1) and medulla (17.8 ± 1.5 seconds−1) decreased significantly after furosemide administration. Mean ∆R2* in the medulla (6.7 ± 2.4 seconds−1) was significantly greater than that in the renal cortex (2.1 ± 0.7 seconds−1). All R2* and ∆R2* values had good or excellent reliability and repeatability, except the cortical ∆R2*, which had poor repeatability.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that BOLD MRI, when performed before and after furosemide administration, was noninvasive and highly reliable and repeatable for dynamic evaluation of renal oxygenation in healthy dogs.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the feasibility of blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) MRI for measurement of the renal T2* relaxation rate (R2*; proxy for renal oxygenation) before and after furosemide administration and to evaluate the reliability and repeatability of those measurements in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

8 healthy adult Beagles (4 males and 4 females).

PROCEDURES

Each dog was anesthetized and underwent BOLD MRI before (baseline) and 3 minutes after administration of furosemide (1 mg/kg, IV) twice, with a 1-week interval between scanning sessions. Mapping software was used to process MRI images and measure R2* and the difference in R2* (∆R2*) before and after furosemide administration. The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess measurement reliability, and the coefficient of variation and Bland-Altman method were used to assess measurement repeatability.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD baseline R2* in the renal medulla (24.5 ± 3.8 seconds−1) was significantly greater than that in the renal cortex (20.6 ± 2.7 seconds−1). Mean R2* in the renal cortex (18.6 ± 2.6 seconds−1) and medulla (17.8 ± 1.5 seconds−1) decreased significantly after furosemide administration. Mean ∆R2* in the medulla (6.7 ± 2.4 seconds−1) was significantly greater than that in the renal cortex (2.1 ± 0.7 seconds−1). All R2* and ∆R2* values had good or excellent reliability and repeatability, except the cortical ∆R2*, which had poor repeatability.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that BOLD MRI, when performed before and after furosemide administration, was noninvasive and highly reliable and repeatable for dynamic evaluation of renal oxygenation in healthy dogs.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Choi (imsono@snu.ac.kr).