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Assessment of iris vasculature abnormalities in dogs with diabetes mellitus

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  • 1 From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify and characterize abnormalities of iris vasculature in dogs with diabetes mellitus, compared to clinically normal, age-matched control dogs, by means of anterior segment angiography.

ANIMALS

10 dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus and 10 age-matched control dogs with no ocular or systemic disease.

PROCEDURES

The day before iris vasculature abnormality (IVA) assessment, all dogs underwent complete physical and ophthalmic examinations and baseline clinicopathologic analyses. For diabetic dogs, serum fructosamine concentration and a 12-hour blood glucose concentration curve were generated. The next day, all dogs were sedated and anterior segment angiography (following IV injection of indocyanine green [1 mg/kg] and subsequently sodium fluorescein [20 mg/kg]) was performed with a full-spectrum camera and camera adapter system. Group findings were compared, and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify potential factor associations with IVAs.

RESULTS

During anterior segment angiography, the arterial, capillary, and venous phases were identified in all dogs. Times to onset of all phases in diabetic dogs were significantly less than those in control dogs. Vascular disruptions within the peripupillary region (evident following sodium fluorescein administration) were common in diabetic dogs. Severity of dye leakage into the iris stroma and aqueous humor was significantly greater in diabetic dogs than in control dogs. Duration of disease, mean blood glucose concentration, and serum fructosamine concentration were significantly associated with IVAs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In diabetic dogs, anterior segment angiography revealed IVAs that were not evident in control dogs. The severity of those changes appeared to be associated with disease duration and blood glucose regulation.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify and characterize abnormalities of iris vasculature in dogs with diabetes mellitus, compared to clinically normal, age-matched control dogs, by means of anterior segment angiography.

ANIMALS

10 dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus and 10 age-matched control dogs with no ocular or systemic disease.

PROCEDURES

The day before iris vasculature abnormality (IVA) assessment, all dogs underwent complete physical and ophthalmic examinations and baseline clinicopathologic analyses. For diabetic dogs, serum fructosamine concentration and a 12-hour blood glucose concentration curve were generated. The next day, all dogs were sedated and anterior segment angiography (following IV injection of indocyanine green [1 mg/kg] and subsequently sodium fluorescein [20 mg/kg]) was performed with a full-spectrum camera and camera adapter system. Group findings were compared, and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify potential factor associations with IVAs.

RESULTS

During anterior segment angiography, the arterial, capillary, and venous phases were identified in all dogs. Times to onset of all phases in diabetic dogs were significantly less than those in control dogs. Vascular disruptions within the peripupillary region (evident following sodium fluorescein administration) were common in diabetic dogs. Severity of dye leakage into the iris stroma and aqueous humor was significantly greater in diabetic dogs than in control dogs. Duration of disease, mean blood glucose concentration, and serum fructosamine concentration were significantly associated with IVAs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In diabetic dogs, anterior segment angiography revealed IVAs that were not evident in control dogs. The severity of those changes appeared to be associated with disease duration and blood glucose regulation.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Pirie (piriechr@cvm.msu.edu).