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Clinical characteristics and muscle glycogen concentrations in warmblood horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy

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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 3 Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 5 Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical findings for polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) in warmblood horses with type 1 PSSM (PSSM1; caused by mutation of the glycogen synthase 1 gene) and type 2 PSSM (PSSM2; unknown etiology).

SAMPLE Database with 3,615 clinical muscle biopsy submissions.

PROCEDURES Reported clinical signs and serum creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were retrospectively analyzed for horses with PSSM1 (16 warmblood and 430 nonwarmblood), horses with PSSM2 (188 warmblood and 646 nonwarmblood), and warmblood horses without PSSM (278). Lameness examinations were reviewed for 9 warmblood horses with PSSM2. Muscle glycogen concentrations were evaluated for horses with PSSM1 (14 warmblood and 6 nonwarmblood), warmblood horses with PSSM2 (13), and horses without PSSM (10 warmblood and 6 nonwarmblood).

RESULTS Rhabdomyolysis was more common for horses with PSSM1 (12/16 [75%] warmblood and 223/303 [74%] nonwarmblood) and nonwarmblood horses with PSSM2 (221/436 [51%]) than for warmblood horses with PSSM2 (39/147 [27%]). Gait abnormality was more common in warmblood horses with PSSM2 (97/147 [66%]) than in warmblood horses with PSSM1 (1/16 [7%]), nonwarmblood horses with PSSM2 (176/436 [40%]), and warmblood horses without PSSM (106/200 [53%]). Activities of CK and AST were similar in warmblood horses with and without PSSM2. Muscle glycogen concentrations in warmblood and nonwarmblood horses with PSSM1 were significantly higher than concentrations in warmblood horses with PSSM2.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICIAL RELEVANCE Rhabdomyolysis and elevated muscle glycogen concentration were detected in horses with PSSM1 regardless of breed. Most warmblood horses with PSSM2 had stiffness and gait abnormalities with CK and AST activities and muscle glycogen concentrations within reference limits.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical findings for polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) in warmblood horses with type 1 PSSM (PSSM1; caused by mutation of the glycogen synthase 1 gene) and type 2 PSSM (PSSM2; unknown etiology).

SAMPLE Database with 3,615 clinical muscle biopsy submissions.

PROCEDURES Reported clinical signs and serum creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were retrospectively analyzed for horses with PSSM1 (16 warmblood and 430 nonwarmblood), horses with PSSM2 (188 warmblood and 646 nonwarmblood), and warmblood horses without PSSM (278). Lameness examinations were reviewed for 9 warmblood horses with PSSM2. Muscle glycogen concentrations were evaluated for horses with PSSM1 (14 warmblood and 6 nonwarmblood), warmblood horses with PSSM2 (13), and horses without PSSM (10 warmblood and 6 nonwarmblood).

RESULTS Rhabdomyolysis was more common for horses with PSSM1 (12/16 [75%] warmblood and 223/303 [74%] nonwarmblood) and nonwarmblood horses with PSSM2 (221/436 [51%]) than for warmblood horses with PSSM2 (39/147 [27%]). Gait abnormality was more common in warmblood horses with PSSM2 (97/147 [66%]) than in warmblood horses with PSSM1 (1/16 [7%]), nonwarmblood horses with PSSM2 (176/436 [40%]), and warmblood horses without PSSM (106/200 [53%]). Activities of CK and AST were similar in warmblood horses with and without PSSM2. Muscle glycogen concentrations in warmblood and nonwarmblood horses with PSSM1 were significantly higher than concentrations in warmblood horses with PSSM2.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICIAL RELEVANCE Rhabdomyolysis and elevated muscle glycogen concentration were detected in horses with PSSM1 regardless of breed. Most warmblood horses with PSSM2 had stiffness and gait abnormalities with CK and AST activities and muscle glycogen concentrations within reference limits.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Lewis’ present address is Hagyard Equine Medical Institute, 4250 Iron Works Pike, Lexington, KY 40511.

Dr. Nicholson's present address is Wilhite and Frees Equine Hospital, 21215 S Peculiar Dr, Peculiar, MO 64078.

Address correspondence to Dr. Lewis (lewis506@umn.edu).