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Pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine after intraperitoneal administration to cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy

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  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, St-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Biomedicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, St-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Biomedicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, St-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, St-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada.
  • | 5 Comparative Pain Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, St-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine after IP administration to cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

ANIMALS 8 healthy cats.

PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, IV) and meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, SC) were administered. A 20-gauge catheter was inserted into a jugular vein for blood sample collection. A ventral midline incision was made, and a solution of 0.5% bupivacaine (2 mg/kg) diluted with an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (final concentration, 0.25% bupivacaine) was injected into the peritoneal space over the right and left ovarian pedicles and caudal aspect of the uterus before ovariohysterectomy. Cats were monitored for signs of bupivacaine toxicosis. Venous blood samples (2 mL) were collected before (time 0) and 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after bupivacaine administration. Plasma bupivacaine concentrations were determined with a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by data plotting followed by analysis with a noncompartmental model.

RESULTS No signs of bupivacaine toxicosis were observed. Maximum bupivacaine plasma concentration was 1,030 ± 497.5 ng/mL at a mean ± SD value of 30 ± 24 minutes after administration. Mean elimination half-life was 4.79 ± 2.7 hours. Mean clearance indexed by bioavailability and volume of distribution indexed by bioavailability were 0.35 ± 0.18 L•h/kg and 2.10 ± 0.84 L/kg, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Intraperitoneal administration of bupivacaine resulted in concentrations that did not cause observable toxicosis. Studies to investigate analgesic effects for this technique in cats are warranted.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine after IP administration to cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

ANIMALS 8 healthy cats.

PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, IV) and meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, SC) were administered. A 20-gauge catheter was inserted into a jugular vein for blood sample collection. A ventral midline incision was made, and a solution of 0.5% bupivacaine (2 mg/kg) diluted with an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (final concentration, 0.25% bupivacaine) was injected into the peritoneal space over the right and left ovarian pedicles and caudal aspect of the uterus before ovariohysterectomy. Cats were monitored for signs of bupivacaine toxicosis. Venous blood samples (2 mL) were collected before (time 0) and 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after bupivacaine administration. Plasma bupivacaine concentrations were determined with a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by data plotting followed by analysis with a noncompartmental model.

RESULTS No signs of bupivacaine toxicosis were observed. Maximum bupivacaine plasma concentration was 1,030 ± 497.5 ng/mL at a mean ± SD value of 30 ± 24 minutes after administration. Mean elimination half-life was 4.79 ± 2.7 hours. Mean clearance indexed by bioavailability and volume of distribution indexed by bioavailability were 0.35 ± 0.18 L•h/kg and 2.10 ± 0.84 L/kg, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Intraperitoneal administration of bupivacaine resulted in concentrations that did not cause observable toxicosis. Studies to investigate analgesic effects for this technique in cats are warranted.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Steagall (psteagall@gmail.com).