• 1 Collins SN, van Eps AW, Pollitt CC, et al. The lamellar wedge. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2010; 26: 179195.

  • 2 van Eps AW, Collins SN, Pollitt CC. Supporting limb laminitis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2010; 26: 287302.

  • 3 Kameya T. Clinical studies on laminitis in the racehorse. Exp Rep Equine Health Lab 1973; 10: 1940.

  • 4 Stick JA, Lann HW, Scott EA, et al. Pedal bone rotation as a prognostic sign in laminitis of horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982; 180: 251253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5 Linford RL, O'Brien TR, Trout DR. Qualitative and morphometric radiographic findings in the distal phalanx and digital soft tissues of sound Thoroughbred racehorses. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 3851.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6 Cripps PJ, Eustace RA. Factors involved in the prognosis of equine laminitis in the UK. Equine Vet J 1999; 31: 433442.

  • 7 Herthel D, Hood DM. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and prognosis of chronic laminitis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 1999; 15: 375394.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8 Walker M, Taylor TS, Slater M, et al. Radiographic appearance of the feet of mammoth donkeys and the findings of subclinical laminitis. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1995; 35: 3237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9 Collins SN, Dyson SJ, Murray RC, et al. Radiological anatomy of the donkey foot: objective characterisation of the normal and laminitic donkey foot. Equine Vet J 2011; 43: 478486.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10 Baxter GM. Equine laminitis caused by distal displacement of the distal phalanx: 12 cases (1976–1985). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986; 189: 326329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11 Williams GE, Silverman BW, Wilson AM, et al. Disease-specific changes in equine ground reaction force data documented by use of principal component analysis. Am J Vet Res 1999; 60: 549555.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12 Williams GE. Locomotor characteristics of horses with navicular disease. Am J Vet Res 2001; 62: 206210.

  • 13 Pfau T, Robilliard JJ, Weller R, et al. Assessment of mild hind limb lameness during over ground locomotion using linear discriminant analysis of inertial sensor data. Equine Vet J 2007; 39: 407413.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14 Deene JS. Classification, postgraduate continuing professional training in industrial data modelling. Leicester, England: Industrial Data Modelling Unit, De Montfort University, 2000;180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15 Scan chemometric analysis software user's guide. State College, Pa: Minitab Inc, 1998;287.

  • 16 Koblik PD, O'Brien TR, Coyne CP. Effects of dorsopalmar obliquity on radiographic measurement of distal phalangeal rotation angle in horses with laminitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988; 192: 346349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17 Timm NH. Applied multivariate analysis. New York: Springer-Verlag Inc, 2002;693.

  • 18 Breiman LJ, Friedman CJ, Stone R, et al. Classification and regression trees. Boca Raton, Fla: Chapman and Hall/CRC, 1984;168.

  • 19 Hastie T, Tibshirani R, Friedman J. The elements of statistical learning: data mining, inference, and prediction. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag Inc, 2009;739.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20 Multivariate analysis: principal components and calibration, postgraduate continuing professional training in data modelling. Leicester, England: Department of Biomedical Statistics, De Montfort University, 2000;364.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21 Webb AR. Statistical pattern recognition. 2nd ed. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2002;534.

  • 22 Crane M. Hoof disorders of the donkey, in Proceedings. 10th Geneva Cong Equine Med Surg 2007;153156.

  • 23 Kummer M, Geyer H, Imboden I, et al. The effect of foot trimming on radiographic measurements of the front feet of normal Warmblood horses. Vet J 2006; 172: 5866.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24 Moleman M, van Heel M, van Weeren, et al. Hoof growth between 2 shoeings leads to a substantial increase of the moment about the distal, but not the proximal, interphalangeal joint. Equine Vet J 2006; 38: 170174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25 Reilly JD. The donkey's foot and its care. In: Svendsen ED, ed. The professional handbook of the donkey. 2nd ed. London: Whitter Books, 1997;7193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26 Eley JL. Keeping your donkey healthy. Edenbridge, Kent, England: Donkey Breed Society, 1998;156.

Advertisement

Development of a quantitative multivariable radiographic method to evaluate anatomic changes associated with laminitis in the forefeet of donkeys

View More View Less
  • 1 Orthopaedic Research Group, Centre for Equine Studies, Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, Suffolk, CB8 7UU, England.
  • | 2 Australian Equine Laminitis Research Unit, School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia.
  • | 3 Orthopaedic Research Group, Centre for Equine Studies, Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, Suffolk, CB8 7UU, England.
  • | 4 Orthopaedic Research Group, Centre for Equine Studies, Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, Suffolk, CB8 7UU, England.
  • | 5 Centre for Preventative Medicine, Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, Suffolk, CB8 7UU, England.
  • | 6 Donkey Sanctuary, Slade House Farm, Dunscombe Lane, Sidmouth, Devon, EX10 0NU, England.
  • | 7 Donkey Sanctuary, Slade House Farm, Dunscombe Lane, Sidmouth, Devon, EX10 0NU, England.

Abstract

Objective—To establish and validate an objective method of radiographic diagnosis of anatomic changes in laminitic forefeet of donkeys on the basis of data from a comprehensive series of radiographic measurements.

Animals—85 donkeys with and 85 without forelimb laminitis for baseline data determination; a cohort of 44 donkeys with and 18 without forelimb laminitis was used for validation analyses.

Procedures—For each donkey, lateromedial radiographic views of 1 weight-bearing forelimb were obtained; images from 11 laminitic and 2 nonlaminitic donkeys were excluded (motion artifact) from baseline data determination. Data from an a priori selection of 19 measurements of anatomic features of laminitic and nonlaminitic donkey feet were analyzed by use of a novel application of multivariate statistical techniques. The resultant diagnostic models were validated in a blinded manner with data from the separate cohort of laminitic and nonlaminitic donkeys.

Results—Data were modeled, and robust statistical rules were established for the diagnosis of anatomic changes within laminitic donkey forefeet. Component 1 scores ≤ −3.5 were indicative of extreme anatomic change, and scores from −2.0 to 0.0 denoted modest change. Nonlaminitic donkeys with a score from 0.5 to 1.0 should be considered as at risk for laminitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the radiographic procedures evaluated can be used for the identification, assessment, and monitoring of anatomic changes associated with laminitis. Screening assessments by use of this method may enable early detection of mild anatomic change and identification of at-risk donkeys.

Abstract

Objective—To establish and validate an objective method of radiographic diagnosis of anatomic changes in laminitic forefeet of donkeys on the basis of data from a comprehensive series of radiographic measurements.

Animals—85 donkeys with and 85 without forelimb laminitis for baseline data determination; a cohort of 44 donkeys with and 18 without forelimb laminitis was used for validation analyses.

Procedures—For each donkey, lateromedial radiographic views of 1 weight-bearing forelimb were obtained; images from 11 laminitic and 2 nonlaminitic donkeys were excluded (motion artifact) from baseline data determination. Data from an a priori selection of 19 measurements of anatomic features of laminitic and nonlaminitic donkey feet were analyzed by use of a novel application of multivariate statistical techniques. The resultant diagnostic models were validated in a blinded manner with data from the separate cohort of laminitic and nonlaminitic donkeys.

Results—Data were modeled, and robust statistical rules were established for the diagnosis of anatomic changes within laminitic donkey forefeet. Component 1 scores ≤ −3.5 were indicative of extreme anatomic change, and scores from −2.0 to 0.0 denoted modest change. Nonlaminitic donkeys with a score from 0.5 to 1.0 should be considered as at risk for laminitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the radiographic procedures evaluated can be used for the identification, assessment, and monitoring of anatomic changes associated with laminitis. Screening assessments by use of this method may enable early detection of mild anatomic change and identification of at-risk donkeys.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Collins was supported by The Donkey Sanctuary.

Address correspondence to Dr. Collins (s.collins4@uq.edu.au).