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Evaluation of circulating concentrations of glucose homeostasis biomarkers, progesterone, and growth hormone in healthy Elkhounds during anestrus and diestrus

Malin Mared DVM1,2, Brian Catchpole BVetMed, PhD3, Olle Kämpe MD, PhD4, and Tove Fall DVM, PhD5,6
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  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 756 51 Uppsala, Sweden.
  • | 2 Distriktsveterinärstationen, Marahällan 28, 911 94 Vännäs, Sweden.
  • | 3 Department of Pathology & Infectious Diseases, The Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, England.
  • | 4 Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 756 51 Uppsala, Sweden.
  • | 6 Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Box 281, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

Objective—To investigate whether circulating concentrations of biomarkers of glucose homeostasis, progesterone, and growth hormone in healthy female Elkhounds differ during diestrus and anestrus and to compare those findings with data from dogs of other breeds.

Animals—22 healthy female dogs of Elkhound breeds (known to have a high incidence of diestrus-associated diabetes mellitus) and 18 healthy female non-Elkhound dogs.

Procedures—For each dog, a blood sample (12 mL) was collected once during anestrus and once 2 to 8 weeks after cessation of estrual bleeding. Serum or whole blood samples were analyzed for glucose, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, C-peptide, fructosamine, and glycated hemoglobin A1c concentrations. Homeostasis model assessments (HOMAs) of pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin secretion were calculated.

Results—In Elkhounds, C-peptide concentration and the HOMA for beta-cell function (markers of insulin secretion) were higher in samples obtained during diestrus, compared with findings in samples obtained during anestrus. The HOMA for insulin sensitivity was lower (albeit not significantly) during diestrus than it was during anestrus in Elkhounds. Markers of insulin secretion and sensitivity were similar during anestrus and diestrus in the dogs of other breeds. Serum progesterone concentrations were greater during diestrus than during anestrus in Elkhounds and non-Elkhound dogs. All other variables did not differ between diestrus and anestrus within or between the 2 breed groupings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provided evidence that circulating insulin concentrations during diestrus are higher than those during anestrus in Elkhounds, which could contribute to development of diestrus-associated diabetes mellitus.

Abstract

Objective—To investigate whether circulating concentrations of biomarkers of glucose homeostasis, progesterone, and growth hormone in healthy female Elkhounds differ during diestrus and anestrus and to compare those findings with data from dogs of other breeds.

Animals—22 healthy female dogs of Elkhound breeds (known to have a high incidence of diestrus-associated diabetes mellitus) and 18 healthy female non-Elkhound dogs.

Procedures—For each dog, a blood sample (12 mL) was collected once during anestrus and once 2 to 8 weeks after cessation of estrual bleeding. Serum or whole blood samples were analyzed for glucose, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, C-peptide, fructosamine, and glycated hemoglobin A1c concentrations. Homeostasis model assessments (HOMAs) of pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin secretion were calculated.

Results—In Elkhounds, C-peptide concentration and the HOMA for beta-cell function (markers of insulin secretion) were higher in samples obtained during diestrus, compared with findings in samples obtained during anestrus. The HOMA for insulin sensitivity was lower (albeit not significantly) during diestrus than it was during anestrus in Elkhounds. Markers of insulin secretion and sensitivity were similar during anestrus and diestrus in the dogs of other breeds. Serum progesterone concentrations were greater during diestrus than during anestrus in Elkhounds and non-Elkhound dogs. All other variables did not differ between diestrus and anestrus within or between the 2 breed groupings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provided evidence that circulating insulin concentrations during diestrus are higher than those during anestrus in Elkhounds, which could contribute to development of diestrus-associated diabetes mellitus.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the European Commission (FP7-LUPA, GA-201370), Agria Pet Insurance Research Foundation, and The Swedish Research Council.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

The authors thank Dr. Åsa Juberget for assistance with sample collection.

Address correspondence to Dr. Fall (tove.fall@ki.se).