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Evaluation of transplantation of autologous bone marrow stromal cells into the cerebrospinal fluid for treatment of chronic spinal cord injury in dogs

Hidetaka Nishida DVM, PhD1,2, Masanari Nakayama DVM, PhD3, Hiroshi Tanaka DVM, PhD4, Masahiko Kitamura DVM5, Shingo Hatoya DVM, PhD6, Kikuya Sugiura DVM, PhD7, Yoshihisa Suzuki MD, PhD8, Chizuka Ide MD, PhD9, and Toshio Inaba DVM, PhD10
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  • 1 Nakayama Veterinary Hospital, 6-1 Minamifukuro, Nara, Nara, 630-8106, Japan
  • | 2 Department of Advanced Pathobiology, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-58 Rinku Ourai Kita, Izumisano, Osaka, 598-8531, Japan
  • | 3 Nakayama Veterinary Hospital, 6-1 Minamifukuro, Nara, Nara, 630-8106, Japan
  • | 4 Nakayama Veterinary Hospital, 6-1 Minamifukuro, Nara, Nara, 630-8106, Japan
  • | 5 Nakayama Veterinary Hospital, 6-1 Minamifukuro, Nara, Nara, 630-8106, Japan
  • | 6 Department of Advanced Pathobiology, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-58 Rinku Ourai Kita, Izumisano, Osaka, 598-8531, Japan
  • | 7 Department of Advanced Pathobiology, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-58 Rinku Ourai Kita, Izumisano, Osaka, 598-8531, Japan
  • | 8 Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kitano Hospital, Tazuke Research Institute, 2-4-20 Ohgimachi, Kita-ku, Osaka, 530-8480, Japan
  • | 9 Aino Institute of Regeneration and Rehabilitation, Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Nursing and Rehabilitation, Aino University, 4-5-4 Higashiohda, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0012, Japan.
  • | 10 Department of Advanced Pathobiology, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-58 Rinku Ourai Kita, Izumisano, Osaka, 598-8531, Japan

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into the CSF for the treatment of chronic spinal cord injury in dogs that had not responded by 1 month after decompressive surgery.

Animals—23 dogs.

Procedures—Dogs with paraplegia and loss of nociception in the pelvic limbs for at least 1 month after decompressive surgery were assigned to transplantation or control groups. Dogs in the transplantation group received BMSCs injected into the CSF 1 to 3 months after decompressive surgery. Dogs in the control group did not receive additional treatments. Improvements in gait, proprioceptive positioning, and nociception were evaluated by use of the Texas Spinal Cord Injury Scale for ≥ 6 months after BMSC transplantation.

Results—6 of 10 dogs in the transplantation group regained the ability to walk, whereas only 2 of 13 dogs in the control group regained the ability to walk. Scores for the Texas Spinal Cord Injury Scale in the transplantation group were significantly higher than scores in the control group at the endpoint of the study (6 months after BMSC transplantation or after decompressive surgery for the transplantation and control groups, respectively). Only 1 dog (transplantation group) recovered nociception. All dogs from both groups had fecal and urinary incontinence. No complications were observed in relation to BMSC transplantation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Injection of BMSCs into the CSF caused no complications and could have beneficial effects on pelvic limb locomotion in dogs with chronic spinal cord injuries.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into the CSF for the treatment of chronic spinal cord injury in dogs that had not responded by 1 month after decompressive surgery.

Animals—23 dogs.

Procedures—Dogs with paraplegia and loss of nociception in the pelvic limbs for at least 1 month after decompressive surgery were assigned to transplantation or control groups. Dogs in the transplantation group received BMSCs injected into the CSF 1 to 3 months after decompressive surgery. Dogs in the control group did not receive additional treatments. Improvements in gait, proprioceptive positioning, and nociception were evaluated by use of the Texas Spinal Cord Injury Scale for ≥ 6 months after BMSC transplantation.

Results—6 of 10 dogs in the transplantation group regained the ability to walk, whereas only 2 of 13 dogs in the control group regained the ability to walk. Scores for the Texas Spinal Cord Injury Scale in the transplantation group were significantly higher than scores in the control group at the endpoint of the study (6 months after BMSC transplantation or after decompressive surgery for the transplantation and control groups, respectively). Only 1 dog (transplantation group) recovered nociception. All dogs from both groups had fecal and urinary incontinence. No complications were observed in relation to BMSC transplantation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Injection of BMSCs into the CSF caused no complications and could have beneficial effects on pelvic limb locomotion in dogs with chronic spinal cord injuries.

Contributor Notes

Supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) No. 20380174 and for Challenging Exploratory Research No. 22658101 from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

The authors thank Dr. Jonathan LaMarre for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Inaba (inaba@vet.osakafu-u.ac.jp).