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Fluid balance, glomerular filtration rate, and urine output in dogs anesthetized for an orthopedic surgical procedure

Pedro Boscan DVM, PhD1, Bruno H. Pypendop DrMedVet, DrVetSci2, Kristine T. Siao3, Thierry Francey DVM4, Kristy Dowers DVM5, Larry Cowgill DVM, PhD6, and Jan E. Ilkiw BVSc, PhD7
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  • 1 Department of Surgical & Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Department of Surgical & Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 Department of Surgical & Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 6 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 7 Department of Surgical & Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

Objective—To determine fluid retention, glomerular filtration rate, and urine output in dogs anesthetized for a surgical orthopedic procedure.

Animals—23 dogs treated with a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

Procedures—12 dogs were used as a control group. Cardiac output was measured in 5 dogs, and 6 dogs received carprofen for at least 14 days. Dogs received oxymorphone, atropine, propofol, and isoflurane for anesthesia (duration, 4 hours). Urine and blood samples were obtained for analysis every 30 minutes. Lactated Ringer's solution was administered at 10 mL/kg/h. Urine output was measured and glomerular filtration rate was estimated. Fluid retention was measured by use of body weight, fluid balance, and bioimpedance spectroscopy.

Results—No difference was found among control, cardiac output, or carprofen groups, so data were combined. Median urine output and glomerular filtration rate were 0.46 mL/kg/h and 1.84 mL/kg/min. Dogs retained a large amount of fluids during anesthesia, as indicated by increased body weight, positive fluid balance, increased total body water volume, and increased extracellular fluid volume. The PCV, total protein concentration, and esophageal temperature decreased in a linear manner.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs anesthetized for a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy retained a large amount of fluids, had low urinary output, and had decreased PCV, total protein concentration, and esophageal temperature. Evaluation of urine output alone in anesthetized dogs may not be an adequate indicator of fluid balance.

Abstract

Objective—To determine fluid retention, glomerular filtration rate, and urine output in dogs anesthetized for a surgical orthopedic procedure.

Animals—23 dogs treated with a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

Procedures—12 dogs were used as a control group. Cardiac output was measured in 5 dogs, and 6 dogs received carprofen for at least 14 days. Dogs received oxymorphone, atropine, propofol, and isoflurane for anesthesia (duration, 4 hours). Urine and blood samples were obtained for analysis every 30 minutes. Lactated Ringer's solution was administered at 10 mL/kg/h. Urine output was measured and glomerular filtration rate was estimated. Fluid retention was measured by use of body weight, fluid balance, and bioimpedance spectroscopy.

Results—No difference was found among control, cardiac output, or carprofen groups, so data were combined. Median urine output and glomerular filtration rate were 0.46 mL/kg/h and 1.84 mL/kg/min. Dogs retained a large amount of fluids during anesthesia, as indicated by increased body weight, positive fluid balance, increased total body water volume, and increased extracellular fluid volume. The PCV, total protein concentration, and esophageal temperature decreased in a linear manner.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs anesthetized for a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy retained a large amount of fluids, had low urinary output, and had decreased PCV, total protein concentration, and esophageal temperature. Evaluation of urine output alone in anesthetized dogs may not be an adequate indicator of fluid balance.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Boscan's present address is Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Supported by the Center for Companion Animal Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis.

The authors thank Cristina Moreno, Cheryl Stafford, and John Kirby for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Boscan (pboscan@colostate.edu).