• 1

    Ganong W. Hormonal control of calcium metabolism and the physiology of bone. Review of medical physiology. New York: Lang Medical Books/McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division, 2001;369382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Boyer T. Metabolic bone disease. In:Mader D, ed.Reptile medicine and surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1996;385392.

  • 3

    Ferguson G, Gehrmann W & Chen T, et al. Effects of artificial ultraviolet light exposure on reproductive success of female panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) in captivity. Zoo Biol 2002;21:525537.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Ferguson G, Jones J & Gehrmann W, et al. Indoor husbandry of the panther chameleon Chamaeleo (Furcifer) pardalis: effect of dietary vitamins A and D and ultraviolet irradiation on pathology and life-history traits. Zoo Biol 1996;15:279299.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Webb AR, Holick MF. The role of sunlight in the cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Annu Rev Nutr 1988;8:375399.

  • 6

    Webb AR, Kline L, Holick MF. Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988;67:373378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    How KL, Hazewinkel HA, Mol JA. Dietary vitamin D dependence of cat and dog due to inadequate cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D. Gen Comp Endocrinol 1994;96:1218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Laing CJ, Trube A & Shea GM, et al. The requirement for natural sunlight to prevent vitamin D deficiency in iguanian lizards. J Zoo Wildl Med 2001;32:342348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Fraser DR. Vitamin D. Lancet 1995;345:104107.

  • 10

    Jones J, Ferguson G & Gehrmann W, et al. Vitamin D nutritional status influences voluntary behavioral photoregulation in a lizard. In: Holick MF, Jung EG, ed.Biologic effects of light. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co, 1995;4955.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Laing CJ, Fraser DR. The vitamin D system in iguanian lizards. Comp Biochem Physiol 1999;123:373379.

  • 12

    Holick MF, Tian XQ, Allen M. Evolutionary importance for the membrane enhancement of the production of vitamin D3 in the skin of poikilothermic animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995;92:31243126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Ferguson GW, Gehrmann WH & Karsten KB, et al. Do panther chameleons bask to regulate endogenous vitamin D3 production? Physiol Biochem Zool 2003;76:5259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Ferguson GW, Gehrmann WH & Karsten KB, et al. Ultraviolet exposure and vitamin D synthesis in a sun-dwelling and a shade-dwelling species of Anolis: are there adaptations for lower ultraviolet B and dietary vitamin D3 availability in the shade? Physiol Biochem Zool 2005;78:193200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Carman E, Ferguson GW & Gehrmann WH, et al. Photobiosynthetic opportunity and ability for UV-B generated vitamin D synthesis in free-living house geckos (Hemidactylus turcicus) and Texas spiny lizards (Sceloporus olivaceous). Copeia 2000;1:245250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Allen M, Chen TC & Holick MF, et al. Evaluation of vitamin D status in the green iguana (Iguana iguana): oral administration vs UVB exposure. In: Biologic effects of light. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1998;99101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Manning B, Grigg G. Basking is not of thermoregulatory significance in the “basking” freshwater turtle Emydura signata. Copeia 1997;3:579584.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Gehrmann WH. Ultraviolet irradiances of various lamps used in animal husbandry. Zoo Biol 1987;6:117127.

  • 19

    Gehrmann WH. Artificial lighting. In:Mader D, ed.Reptile medicine and surgery. St Louis: Saunders, 2006;10811084.

Advertisement

Effects of ultraviolet radiation on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 synthesis in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans)

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70810.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70810.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70810.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70810.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether there are increased concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitaminn D3 in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after exposure to UV radiation.

Animals—12 yearling turtles recently removed from aestivation.

Procedures—Turtles were randomly allocated to 2 groups (6 turtles/group). An initial blood sample was collected from all turtles for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations. Turtles of 1 group were then provided no supplemental lighting, whereas turtles of the other group were exposed to full-spectrum coil bulbs at a distance of 22.86 cm. The UV-A and UV-B radiation generated by the supplemental lighting was measured by use of a radiometer-photometer at weekly intervals. Measurements were collected 2.54 and 22.86 cm from the bulb surface. The study was continued for a 4-week period. At the end of the study, a second blood sample was collected from all turtles for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.

Results—Mean ± SD 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations differed significantly between turtles provided supplemental UV radiation (71.7 ± 46.9 nmol/L) and those not provided UV radiation (31.4 ± 13.2 nmol/L).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Appropriate husbandry recommendations for raising and maintaining red-eared slider turtles should include use of sunlight that is unobstructed by UV-B filtering material or provision of an artificial source of UV-B radiation.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether there are increased concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitaminn D3 in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after exposure to UV radiation.

Animals—12 yearling turtles recently removed from aestivation.

Procedures—Turtles were randomly allocated to 2 groups (6 turtles/group). An initial blood sample was collected from all turtles for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations. Turtles of 1 group were then provided no supplemental lighting, whereas turtles of the other group were exposed to full-spectrum coil bulbs at a distance of 22.86 cm. The UV-A and UV-B radiation generated by the supplemental lighting was measured by use of a radiometer-photometer at weekly intervals. Measurements were collected 2.54 and 22.86 cm from the bulb surface. The study was continued for a 4-week period. At the end of the study, a second blood sample was collected from all turtles for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.

Results—Mean ± SD 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations differed significantly between turtles provided supplemental UV radiation (71.7 ± 46.9 nmol/L) and those not provided UV radiation (31.4 ± 13.2 nmol/L).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Appropriate husbandry recommendations for raising and maintaining red-eared slider turtles should include use of sunlight that is unobstructed by UV-B filtering material or provision of an artificial source of UV-B radiation.

Contributor Notes

Supported by Fluker Farms.

Address correspondence to Dr. Acierno.