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Associations between dry dietary factors and canine calcium oxalate uroliths

Chalermpol LekcharoensukMinnesota Urolith Center, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.
Present address is Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand 73140.

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Carl A. OsborneMinnesota Urolith Center, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.

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Jody P. LulichMinnesota Urolith Center, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.

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Rosama PusoonthornthumDepartment of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand 10330.

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Claudia A. KirkHill's Science and Technology Center, 1035 NE 43rd St, Topeka, KS 66617.

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Lisa K. UlrichMinnesota Urolith Center, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.

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Lori A. KoehlerMinnesota Urolith Center, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.

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Kathleen A. CarpenterMinnesota Urolith Center, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.

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Laurie L. SwansonMinnesota Urolith Center, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108.

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Abstract

Objective—To identify factors in dry diets associated with the occurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in dogs.

Animals—600 dogs with CaOx uroliths and 898 dogs without urinary tract diseases.

Procedure—Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed.

Results—Compared with diets with the highest concentrations of sodium, dry diets with the lowest concentrations of sodium, phosphorus, calcium, chloride, protein, magnesium, or potassium were linearly associated with increased risk of CaOx urolith formation. Significant nonlinear associations between increased occurrence of CaOx uroliths and urine acidifying potential and low moisture content were observed. Significant nonlinear associations between decreased occurrence of CaOx uroliths and carbohydrate and fiber contents were observed. A significant association between the occurrence of CaOx uroliths and dietary fat was not observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that dry diets formulated to contain high concentrations of protein, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride may minimize formation of CaOx uroliths. In addition, comparison of risk and protective factors of various diet ingredients fed to dogs with CaOx uroliths suggests that although similar findings were observed in canned and dry formulations, in general, greater risk is associated with dry formulations. However, before these hypotheses about dietary modifications are adopted by food manufacturers, they must be investigated by use of appropriately designed clinical studies of dogs with CaOx urolithiasis. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:330–337)

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors in dry diets associated with the occurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in dogs.

Animals—600 dogs with CaOx uroliths and 898 dogs without urinary tract diseases.

Procedure—Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed.

Results—Compared with diets with the highest concentrations of sodium, dry diets with the lowest concentrations of sodium, phosphorus, calcium, chloride, protein, magnesium, or potassium were linearly associated with increased risk of CaOx urolith formation. Significant nonlinear associations between increased occurrence of CaOx uroliths and urine acidifying potential and low moisture content were observed. Significant nonlinear associations between decreased occurrence of CaOx uroliths and carbohydrate and fiber contents were observed. A significant association between the occurrence of CaOx uroliths and dietary fat was not observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that dry diets formulated to contain high concentrations of protein, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride may minimize formation of CaOx uroliths. In addition, comparison of risk and protective factors of various diet ingredients fed to dogs with CaOx uroliths suggests that although similar findings were observed in canned and dry formulations, in general, greater risk is associated with dry formulations. However, before these hypotheses about dietary modifications are adopted by food manufacturers, they must be investigated by use of appropriately designed clinical studies of dogs with CaOx urolithiasis. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:330–337)