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Endoscopic nephrolithotomy for the removal of complicated nephroliths in dogs and cats: 16 kidneys in 12 patients (2005–2017)

Brian Petrovsky1Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Animal Medical Center, 510 E 62nd St, New York, NY 10065.

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Allyson C. Berent1Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Animal Medical Center, 510 E 62nd St, New York, NY 10065.

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Chick W. Weisse1Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Animal Medical Center, 510 E 62nd St, New York, NY 10065.

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Erinne Branter1Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Animal Medical Center, 510 E 62nd St, New York, NY 10065.

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Demetrius H. Bagley2Department of Urology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107.

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Kenneth E. Lamb3Lamb Statistical Consulting LLC, West Saint Paul, MN 55118.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe techniques and outcomes for dogs and cats undergoing endoscopic nephrolithotomy (ENL) for the removal of complicated nephroliths.

ANIMALS

11 dogs and 1 cat (n = 16 renal units) with complicated nephroliths that underwent ENL via a surgically assisted ENL approach (12 renal units) or a percutaneous nephrolithotomy approach (4 renal units) between December 2005 and June 2017.

PROCEDURES

Data were obtained from the medical records regarding preoperative, operative, and postoperative findings. Follow-up information on complications and outcomes was also collected.

RESULTS

Indications for nephrolith removal included massive calculi displacing parenchyma (n = 7), recurrent urinary tract infections (5), and ureteral outflow obstruction (4). Median nephrolith diameter was 2.5 cm (range, 0.5 to 5.7 cm). Nephrolith composition differed among patients; calcium oxalate was the most common type (n = 7 [including 2 mixed nephroliths containing ≥ 60% calcium oxalate]). Following ENL (median duration, 180 minutes), 15 of 16 renal units were completely nephrolith free. Procedure-related complications included renal puncture-associated hemorrhage requiring a blood transfusion (n = 1), renal capsule tear (1), and ureteral puncture (1); all were managed without adverse consequence. Five of 12 patients remained alive at the final follow-up (median, 557 days after ENL), and none died from the procedure.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

ENL as performed was safe and effective in removing complicated nephroliths in a renal-sparing manner for the patients in this study. This procedure requires technical training and could be considered for the treatment of complicated nephrolithiasis in dogs and possibly cats.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe techniques and outcomes for dogs and cats undergoing endoscopic nephrolithotomy (ENL) for the removal of complicated nephroliths.

ANIMALS

11 dogs and 1 cat (n = 16 renal units) with complicated nephroliths that underwent ENL via a surgically assisted ENL approach (12 renal units) or a percutaneous nephrolithotomy approach (4 renal units) between December 2005 and June 2017.

PROCEDURES

Data were obtained from the medical records regarding preoperative, operative, and postoperative findings. Follow-up information on complications and outcomes was also collected.

RESULTS

Indications for nephrolith removal included massive calculi displacing parenchyma (n = 7), recurrent urinary tract infections (5), and ureteral outflow obstruction (4). Median nephrolith diameter was 2.5 cm (range, 0.5 to 5.7 cm). Nephrolith composition differed among patients; calcium oxalate was the most common type (n = 7 [including 2 mixed nephroliths containing ≥ 60% calcium oxalate]). Following ENL (median duration, 180 minutes), 15 of 16 renal units were completely nephrolith free. Procedure-related complications included renal puncture-associated hemorrhage requiring a blood transfusion (n = 1), renal capsule tear (1), and ureteral puncture (1); all were managed without adverse consequence. Five of 12 patients remained alive at the final follow-up (median, 557 days after ENL), and none died from the procedure.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

ENL as performed was safe and effective in removing complicated nephroliths in a renal-sparing manner for the patients in this study. This procedure requires technical training and could be considered for the treatment of complicated nephrolithiasis in dogs and possibly cats.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Branter's present address is 1390 Neild Rd, Victoria, BC V9C 4H4, Canada.

Address correspondence to Dr. Berent (Alyson.Berent@amcny.org).