• 1.

    Packer RMA, Hendricks A, Tivers MS, Burn CC. Impact of facial conformation on canine health: brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0137496. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0137496

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Rutherford L, Beever L, Bruce M, Ter Haar G. Assessment of computed tomography derived cricoid cartilage and tracheal dimensions to evaluate degree of cricoid narrowing in brachycephalic dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2017;58(6):634646.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Auger M, Alexander K, Beauchamp G, Dunn M. Use of CT to evaluate and compare intranasal features in brachycephalic and normocephalic dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 2016;57(10):529536.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Grand JG, Bureau S. Structural characteristics of the soft palate and meatus nasopharynges in brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic dogs analysed by CT. J Small Anim Pract. 2011;52(5):232239.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Kaye BM, Boroffka SAEB, Haagsman AN, Ter Haar G. Computed tomographic, radiographic, and endoscopic tracheal dimensions in English bulldogs with grade 1 clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2015;56(6):609616.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Vilaplana Grosso F, Ter Haar G, Boroffka SAEB. Gender, weight, and age effects on prevalence of caudal aberrant nasal turbinates in clinically healthy english bulldogs: a computed tomographic study and classification. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2015;56(5):486493.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Fasanella FJ, Shivley JM, Wardlaw JL, Givaruangsawat S. Brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome in dogs: 90 cases (1991–2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2010;237(9):10481051.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Bertram S, Ter Haar G, De Decker S. Congenital malformations of the lumbosacral vertebral column are common in neurologically normal French Bulldogs, English Bulldogs, and Pugs, with breed-specific differences. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2019;60(4):400408.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Ryan R, Gutierrez-Quintana R, Ter Haar G, De Decker S. Prevalence of thoracic vertebral malformations in French bulldogs, Pugs and English bulldogs with and without associated neurological deficits. Vet J. 2017;221:2529.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Gutierrez-Quintana R, Guevar J, Stalin C, Faller K, Yeamans, Penderis J. A proposed radiographic classification scheme for congenital thoracic vertebral malformations in brachycephalic “screw-tailed” dog breeds. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2014;55(6):585591.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    De Lorenzi D, Bertoncello D, Drigo M. Bronchial abnormalities found in a consecutive series of 40 brachycephalic dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009;235(7):835840.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Riecks TW, Birchard SJ, Stephens JA. Surgical correction of brachycephalic syndrome in dogs: 62 cases (1991–2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;230(9):13241328.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Liu NC, Genain MA, Kalmar L, Sargan DR, Ladlow JF. Objective effectiveness of and indications for laser-assisted turbinectomy in brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Vet Surg. 2019;48(1):7987.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Padrid PA, Hornof WJ, Kurpershoek CJ, Cross CE. Canine chronic bronchitis: a pathophysiologic evaluation of 18 cases. J Vet Intern Med. 1990;4(3):172180.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Mair G, MacLay J, Miller JJ, et al. Airway dimensions in COPD: Relationships with clinical variables. Respir Med. 2010;104(11):16831690.

  • 16.

    Asker S, Asker M, Ozbay B. Evaluation of airway wall thickness via high-resolution computed tomography in mild intermittent asthma. Respir Care. 2014;59(4):550556.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Ketai L, Coutsias C, Williamson S, Coutsias V. Thin-section CT evidence of bronchial thickening in children with stable asthma: bronchoconstriction or airway remodeling? Acad Radiol. 2001;8(3):257264.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Sarıman N, Levent E, Çubuk R, Yurtlu S, Aksungar FB. Bronchial hyperreactivity and airway wall thickening in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Sleep Breath. 2011;15(3):341350.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Szabo D, Sutherland-Smith J, Barton B, Rozanski EA, Taeymans O. Accuracy of a computed tomography bronchial wall thickness to pulmonary artery diameter ratio for assessing bronchial wall thickening in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2015;56(3):264271.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Mortier JR, Mesquita L, Ferrandis I, McConnell JF, Maddox TW. Accuracy of and interobserver agreement regarding thoracic computed tomography for the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2018;253(6):757762.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Kim H, Kim YJ, Lee H, et al. Computed tomographic and radiographic bronchial collapse may be a normal characteristic of forced expiration in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2018;59(5):551563.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Yoon H, Yu J, An G, et al. CT and radiographic evaluation of bronchial collapsibility at forced expiration in asymptomatic brachycephalic dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2020;61(2):167180.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Cannon MS, Johnson LR, Pesavento, Kass PH, Wisner ER. Quantitative and qualitative computed tomographic characteristics of bronchiectasis in 12 dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2013;54(4):351357.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Ballegeer EA, Adams WM, Dubielzig RR, Paoloni MC, Klauer JM, Keuler NS. Computed tomography characteristics of canine tracheobronchial lymph node metastasis. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2010;51(4):397403.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Sutherland-Smith J, Hankin EJ, Cunningham SM, Sato AF, Barton BA. Comparison of a computed tomographic pulmonary trunk to aorta diameter ratio with echocardiographic indices of pulmonary hypertension in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2018;59(1):1826.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Clarke DL, Holt DE, King LG. Partial resolution of hypoplastic trachea in six English bulldog puppies with bronchopneumonia. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2011;47(5):329335.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Miles S, Schwarz T. Canine nasal septum deviation can be a normal variation and correlates with increasing skull indices. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2020;61(3):279284.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Hendricks JC, Kline LR, Kovalski RJ, et al. The English bulldog model of sleep-disordered breathing. In: Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders: Experimental Models and Therapeutic Potential. Informa Healthcare; 2002:297316. journals.physiology.org/journal/jappl. Accessed February 16, 2021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Hornby NL, Lamb CR. Does the computed tomographic appearance of the lung differ between young and old dogs? Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2017;58(6):647652.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Liu NC, Oechtering GU, Adams VJ, Kalmar L, Sargan DR, Ladlow JF. Outcomes and prognostic factors of surgical treatments for brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in 3 breeds. Vet Surg. 2017;46(2):271280.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Weisse C. Insights in tracheobronchial stenting. J Small Anim Pract. 2014;55(4):181184.

  • 32.

    Packer RMA, Hendricks A, Burn CC. Do dog owners perceive the clinical signs related to conformational inherited disorders as normal for the breed? A potential constraint to improving canine welfare. Anim Welf. 2012;21(1):8193.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Liu NC, Adams VJ, Kalmar L, Ladlow JF, Sargan DR. Whole-body barometric plethysmography characterizes upper airway obstruction in 3 brachycephalic breeds of dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2016;30(3):853865.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Riggs J, Liu NC, Sutton DR, Sargan D, Ladlow JF. Validation of exercise testing and laryngeal auscultation for grading brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in pugs, French bulldogs, and English bulldogs by using whole-body barometric plethysmography. Vet Surg. 2019;48(4):488496.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Prevalence of bronchial wall thickening and collapse in brachycephalic dogs with and without brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome and in nonbrachycephalic dogs

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Small Animal Clinical Science, University of Liverpool, Neston, UK
  • | 2 The Queen Mother Hospital for Animals, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, UK
  • | 3 Unité de Médecine—Imagerie Médicale, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, Maisons-Alfort, France

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the prevalence of bronchial wall thickening (BWT) and collapse in brachycephalic dogs with and without brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) and in nonbrachycephalic dogs.

ANIMALS

85 dogs with no history of lower respiratory tract disease that underwent CT of the thorax.

PROCEDURES

Electronical medical records for March 2011 through August 2019 were reviewed to identify brachycephalic dogs with BOAS (BOAS group) and brachycephalic dogs without BOAS (BDWB group) that did not have any evidence of lower respiratory tract disease and had undergone thoracic CT. A population of nonbrachycephalic dogs of similar weight (control dogs) was also retrospectively recruited.

RESULTS

BWT was identified in 28 of 30 (93.3%; 95% CI, 80.3% to 98.6%) dogs in the BOAS group, 15 of 26 (57.7%; 95% CI, 38.7% to 75.0%) dogs in the BDWB group, and 10 of 28 (35.7%; 95% CI, 20.1% to 54.2%) control dogs. On multivariable analysis, only brachycephalic conformation (P < 0.01) and body weight (P = 0.02) were significantly associated with the presence of BWT. Bronchial collapse was identified in 17 of 30 (56.7%; 95% CI, 39.0% to 73.1%) dogs in the BOAS group, 17 of 26 (65.4%; 95% CI, 46.3% to 81.3%) dogs in the BDWB group, and 3 of 28 (10.7%; 95% CI, 3.1% to 25.9%) control dogs. On multivariable analysis, only brachycephalic conformation was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with the presence of bronchial collapse.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A relationship between brachycephalic conformation and body weight with BWT was established, with heavier dogs having thicker bronchial walls. However, further studies are required to investigate the cause. Bronchial collapse was also more common in dogs with brachycephalic conformation, which is in agreement with the previously published literature.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Guillem (james.s.w.guillem@gmail.com)