• 1.

    Tilley LP. Analysis of canine P-QRS-T deflections. In: Essentials of Canine and Feline Electrocardiography. 3rd ed. Lea & Febiger; 1992:5999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Oyama MA, Kraus MS, Gelzer AR. Evaluation of the electrocardiogram. In: Rapid Review of ECG Interpretation in Small Animal Practice. 2nd ed. CRC Press; 2020:17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Kittleson MD, Kienle RD. Drugs used in treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. In: Small Animal Cardiovascular Medicine. Mosby Inc; 1998:502524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Tilley LP. Analysis of common canine cardiac arrhythmias. In: Essentials of Canine and Feline Electrocardiography. 3rd ed. Lea & Febiger; 1992:127207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Dhingra RC, Denes P, Wu D, Chuquimia DR, Rosen KM. The significance of second degree atrioventricular block and bundle branch block: observations regarding site and type of block. Circulation. 1974;49(4):638646.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Kittleson MD, Kienle RD. Diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias (dysrhythmias). In: Small Animal Cardiovascular Medicine. Mosby Inc; 1998:449494.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Santilli R, Moise NS, Pariaut R, et al. Conduction disorder. In: Electrocardiography of the Dog and Cat. Diagnosis of Arrhythmias. 2nd ed. Edra; 2018:268302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Kittleson MD, Kienle RD. Electrocardiography: basic concepts, diagnosis of chamber enlargement, and intraventricular conduction disturbances. In: Small Animal Cardiovascular Medicine. Mosby Inc; 1998:7294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Narula OS, Scherlag BJ, Samet P, Javier RP. Atrioventricular block: localization and classification by His bundle recordings. Am J Med. 1971;50(2):146165.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Wesselowski S, Cusack K, Gordon SG, Jeffery N, Saunders AB. Artificial cardiac pacemaker placement in dogs with a cohort of myocarditis suspects and association of ultrasensitive cardiac troponin I with survival. J Vet Cardiol. 2019;22:8495.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Winter RL, Saunders AB, Gordon SG, et al. Analytical validation and clinical evaluation of a commercially available high-sensitivity immunoassay for the measurement of troponin I in humans for use in dogs. J Vet Cardiol. 2014;16(2):8189.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Fernández-Lozano I, Brugada J. Right bundle branch block: are we looking in the right direction? Eur Heart J. 2013;34(2):8688.

  • 13.

    Xiang L, Zhong A, You T, Chen J, Xu W, Shi M. Prognostic significance of right bundle branch block for patients with acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Med Sci Monit. 2016;22:9981004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Eriksson P, Wilhelmsen L, Rosengren A. Bundle-branch block in middle-aged men: risk of complications and death over 28 years. The Primary Prevention Study in Göteborg, Sweden. Eur Heart J. 2005;26(21):23002306.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Santilli R, Moise NS, Pariaut R, et al. Normal sinus rhythms. In: Electrocardiography of the Dog and Cat. Diagnosis of Arrhythmias. 2nd ed. Edra; 2018:9099.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Tilley LP. Uncommon complex arrhythmias. In: Essentials of Canine and Feline Electrocardiography. 3rd ed. Lea & Febiger; 1992:385418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Dadu RT, McPherson CA. The ventriculophasic response: relationship to sinus arrhythmia and the duration of interposed QRS complexes. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2013;18(4):336343.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

ECG of the Month

View More View Less
  • 1 San Diego Veterinary Cardiology/VCA Emergency Animal Hospital and Referral Center, San Diego, CA
Introduction

A 3.5-year-old 34.9-kg neutered male Rottweiler mix was presented to a referral emergency clinic for evaluation of multiple episodes of collapse. The owner had witnessed these collapse episodes and stated that the patient appeared conscious and responsive during them. On presentation, the patient was bright, alert, and responsive. Auscultation revealed bradycardia (50 beats/min) with an irregular rhythm and a grade II/VI left apical systolic murmur. Examination of thoracic radiographs obtained by the referring hospital did not reveal any clinically relevant abnormalities. Results of a CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, urine culture, measurement of thyroxine concentration, and tick-borne disease panel

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Cho (yeonjic75@gmail.com)