Caprine whole blood appears sufficiently stable after 21 days in storage to be suitable for transfusion

Hannah M. Neill Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS

Search for other papers by Hannah M. Neill in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Clare M. Scully Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA

Search for other papers by Clare M. Scully in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS, DACT
,
Chin-Chi Liu Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA

Search for other papers by Chin-Chi Liu in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD, MApStat
, and
Rose E. Baker Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA

Search for other papers by Rose E. Baker in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BVMS, MS, DACVIM

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to determine hematologic changes of stored caprine whole blood in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution over a 28-day period.

SAMPLE

Ten 250-mL bags of whole blood were collected from 10 female Boer goats from Louisiana State University’s Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine herd.

METHODS

10 healthy blood donor goats were selected, and 250 mL of whole blood was drawn from each and stored at 2.78 °C. At the time of collection and every 7 days for a total of 28 days, samples were obtained from the blood bags to determine biochemical and hematologic values of collected blood. Only 5 of the 10 donors had baseline blood bag samples obtained for biochemical evaluation on day 0. At the end of 28 days, the remaining blood was submitted for aerobic and anaerobic culture.

RESULTS

Blood values remained within suitable limits for transfusion and below 1% hemolysis for up to 21 days in most samples. Packed cell volume did not change significantly from day 0 to day 28. Lactate significantly increased over the 28 days, though not as dramatically as expected on the basis of other blood storage studies. pH decreased due to anticoagulant acidity but did not drop below 7. Cultures were negative on all blood bags.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Changes over time are similar to that in other species, and caprine blood appears biochemically and hematologically stable for up to 21 days in storage. In vivo trials are needed for safety and efficacy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to determine hematologic changes of stored caprine whole blood in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution over a 28-day period.

SAMPLE

Ten 250-mL bags of whole blood were collected from 10 female Boer goats from Louisiana State University’s Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine herd.

METHODS

10 healthy blood donor goats were selected, and 250 mL of whole blood was drawn from each and stored at 2.78 °C. At the time of collection and every 7 days for a total of 28 days, samples were obtained from the blood bags to determine biochemical and hematologic values of collected blood. Only 5 of the 10 donors had baseline blood bag samples obtained for biochemical evaluation on day 0. At the end of 28 days, the remaining blood was submitted for aerobic and anaerobic culture.

RESULTS

Blood values remained within suitable limits for transfusion and below 1% hemolysis for up to 21 days in most samples. Packed cell volume did not change significantly from day 0 to day 28. Lactate significantly increased over the 28 days, though not as dramatically as expected on the basis of other blood storage studies. pH decreased due to anticoagulant acidity but did not drop below 7. Cultures were negative on all blood bags.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Changes over time are similar to that in other species, and caprine blood appears biochemically and hematologically stable for up to 21 days in storage. In vivo trials are needed for safety and efficacy.

Introduction

Anemia is a common affliction of small ruminants seen in practice. Causes of anemia frequently include parasitic anemia after chronic infestation with Haemonchus contortus, commonly referred to as the barber pole worm, as well as trauma, hemolysis caused by disease or toxic plants, and severe external parasitism. Acute blood loss and severe chronic anemia both present with animals that are lethargic, inappetent, and recumbent and have blanched mucous membranes. Dependent on the severity of anemia present, a blood transfusion may be clinically needed. Primary small ruminant practices frequently do not have readily available blood donors. Use of suitable herd mates to serve as donors might not be feasible, necessitating referral to facilities with donors on hand. While banking of whole blood and packed RBCs is now considered common practice in small animal medicine, this is not the case with large animal species. Blood is collected fresh when needed and administered to patients immediately upon collection. Data on the storage of caprine whole blood is limited, so blood that is collected but not utilized cannot reliably be saved for later use. Establishing the storage life of caprine whole blood would enhance guidance for blood banking protocols, making blood transfusions a more feasible option in both primary and emergency or referral practices.

Citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution (CPDA-1) is a commonly used anticoagulant in blood collection and is commercially available in premade collection bags. A study1 of horses compared 4 different anticoagulants and found CPDA-1 to have better viability than other anticoagulants. Further studies have been done evaluating hematologic and biochemical changes over time, specifically of CPDA-1 in horses showing whole blood stability over 28 days at 2 to 6 °C.2

Studies evaluating the hematologic and biochemical changes in caprine whole blood in storage are lacking. A single study3 out of Brazil looked at changes to stored caprine whole blood in both CPDA-1 and citrate phosphate dextrose with saline-glucose-mannitol over 42 days in 2 to 4 °C. Their findings were comparable to those of a second study that established hematologic and biochemical changes in ovine blood over 35 days in storage with CPDA-1 at 3 to 6 °C.4 To the authors’ knowledge, these studies make up the entirety of available literature for blood storage in small ruminants.

There is an abundance of research on stored canine blood, primarily packed RBCs due to the frequent use of stored blood products in small animal emergency medicine.510 One of these studies also evaluated the efficacy and safety of transfusions using stored canine blood.8 All published literature uses an accepted value of 1% hemolysis as a rejection criterion for viable blood for transfusion, a value that is extrapolated from human medical literature. Aside from percent hemolysis, there are no other established cutoff values for stored blood in veterinary medicine.

Across species, general analyte trends the above-mentioned studies have in common are a steadily decreasing pH, relatively steady PCV, increasing lactate, and increasing plasma hemoglobin (HgB) or percent hemolysis over a period of 21 or 28 days in refrigeration. The degree to which these changes occur differs from species to species.24,6,11

The primary objective of this study was to determine hematologic and biochemical changes of stored caprine whole blood in CPDA-1 over a 28-day period stored at 4 to 6 °C. A second objective was to evaluate whether any significant bacterial contamination occurred under common clinical collection and storage techniques. We hypothesized that caprine blood would remain stable in storage for up to 28 days and no bacterial contamination of samples would occur.

Methods

Study procedures were approved by Louisiana State University’s (LSU’s) IACUC (IACUCAM-21-110).

Ten healthy 2-year-old female Boer goats ranging in weight from 30.2 to 56.1 kg (mean, 42.5 kg) from the LSU Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine herd were selected as blood donors. These goats currently serve as blood donors for anemic patients at LSU. Therefore, to preserve a population of available blood donors for potential patients, the goats were divided into 2 separate collection groups (n = 5) for blood collection, with time of collection being separated by 2 weeks. Goats were randomly selected for each group. On day 0, each goat had a physical examination, Faffa Malan Chart or “FAMACHA” score, CBC, and biochemical analysis to ensure each animal was otherwise healthy. FAMACHA scoring is a 1 to 5 scoring system to objectively assess anemia in small ruminants in which 1 is red conjunctiva and 5 is white. After an exam was performed and blood drawn into tubes for a CBC and chemistry, goats were prepared for blood bag collection.

To facilitate blood collection, the goats were manually restrained. Each animal was clipped, and the skin over the jugular vein was aseptically prepared using chlorhexidine scrub and 70% isopropyl alcohol. The venipuncture site was blocked with 0.5 mL of 2% lidocaine, and a second aseptic skin preparation was performed. A commercially available 250-mL blood collection bag with CPDA-1 (JorVet J-520Q single collection 250-mL blood bag; Jorgensen Laboratories) was used to collect 250 mL of whole blood from each goat. The blood bags were gently rocked during collection to mix the collected blood with the anticoagulant. Blood bags were stored in a refrigerator at 2.78 °C immediately after collection. Each bag was mixed once a week, on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, when samples were collected from the blood bags for analysis. To facilitate repeated blood sample collection from each bag, immediately following initial collection (day 0), a Luer lock adapter (Clave Connector IV bag access device; ICU Medical Inc) was placed onto the IV port of the bag and remained unchanged for the duration of the study.

All procedures on the stored blood were performed by the same person (HN) for consistency. On days 7, 14, 21, and 28, 2.5 mL of blood was withdrawn from each blood bag after mixing the blood and disinfecting the Luer lock adapter with 70% isopropyl alcohol and allowing it to dry. One milliliter was placed in a preservative-free tube and submitted to the LSU clinical pathology service for a CBC and cytologic examination.

The remainder of the aliquot was used for several tests: first, a manual PCV and total protein (TP) were obtained. Total protein was obtained using a refractometer. Then the sample was analyzed for blood pH, potassium, sodium, glucose, and lactate on an Element Point-of-Care (EPOC; Heska Corp) unit. Finally, the remaining blood was spun down for 10 minutes at 2,900 rpm (Heraeus Megafuge 8 Centrifuge; Thermo Scientific) and the plasma was run on a HemoCue Plasma/Low HgB reader (HemoCue America) following the protocol in the product manual,12 which has shown accuracy in horses.13 The HemoCue provides an HgB reading on plasma, and using this and the HgB value obtained on the CBC, percent hemolysis was calculated using the following equation previously described in Dorneles et al2 regarding equine whole blood storage:

Percent hemolysis = {[100 – PCV(%)] X supernatant HgB(g/dL)} / total HgB(g/dL)

Aerobic and anaerobic culture was performed on the remaining blood at Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory after day 28.

Statistical analysis

A mixed-effects repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess the fixed effect of time with animal as a random effect for all analytes except potassium. Log transformation was applied to plasma HgB and percent hemolysis. Assumptions of these models (normality of residuals and homoscedasticity) were assessed by examining standardized residual and quantile plots. When a fixed effect was detected, Tukey post hoc comparisons were performed with least-square means for the effect. Potassium concentration was evaluated with a Friedman test with post hoc Dunn test, and a value > 12 was assigned to the highest rank. Associations between the variables were evaluated with Pearson correlation coefficients. All analyses were performed with commercially available statistical software (JMP Pro version 16.1.0; SAS Institute Inc). Values were presented in mean ± SD. Significance was set at P < .05.

Results

Goats

Initial assessment of the blood donors found them to be apparently healthy, with physical exam findings, CBC counts, and serum biochemistry results within normal limits.

Day 0 EPOCs were not performed on blood collected into the CPDA-1 bags for goats 1 through 5; all other testing was performed (hemogram, HemoCue, manual PCV, and TP). Due to this, the sample size for day 0 was 5 instead of 10 for statistical analysis of EPOC values.

Hematology

The mean PCV remained between 24% and 30%; however, PCV of 4 individual samples did transiently drop below 20% midstudy before rising again (Table 1). PCV did not change significantly from day 0 to day 28 (P = .0966), and there was no statistically significant change between day 0 and day 28 for TP (6.62 ± 0.38 g/dL and 6.46 ± 0.35 g/dL, respectively) and HgB (9.66 ± 1.18 mg/dL and 9.12 ± 1.38 mg/dL, respectively). Mean results for each analyte were used to determine significant changes between time points (Table 2). MCV decreased significantly from day 0 (19.86 ± 1.85 fL) to day 7 (19.37 ± 1.70 fL) and from day 14 (19.21 ± 1.74 fL) to day 21 (19.07 ± 1.87 fL), and all time points were significantly lower than day 0 (P < .0001). Mean corpuscular HgB concentration increased significantly (P < .0001) only from day 7 (38.4 ± 3.6 g/dL) to day 14 (41.3 ± 5.6 g/dL).

Table 1

Packed cell volume values for each blood sample at each sampling time point (days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 24) for stored caprine blood (n = 10). Bolded numbers indicate transient drop in PCV There was no statistically significant change between days 0 and 28.

PCV (%)
D0 D7 D14 D21 D28
Goat 1 31 19 22 25 26
Goat 2 22 23 29 18 27
Goat 3 28 22 27 28 25
Goat 4 30 20 30 34 33
Goat 5 30 21 18 15 29
Goat 6 28 30 25 33 32
Goat 7 32 16 20 22 20
Goat 8 28 27 29 34 31
Goat 9 35 35 35 35 41
Goat 10 26 33 24 29 30
Average 29 24.6 25.9 27.3 29.4
SD 3.5 6.4 5.1 7.1 5.6
Table 2

Mean ± SD values for hematologic values at each collection point (days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 24) of stored caprine blood (n = 10).

D0 D7 D14 D21 D28
PCV (%) 29 (± 3.5)a 24.6 (± 6.4)a 26.9 (± 5.9)a 27.3 (± 7.1)a 29.4 (± 5.6)a
TP (g/dL) 6.62 (± 0.38)a 6.34 (± 0.25)b 6.34 (± 0.27)b 6.46 (± 0.40)ab 6.46 (± 0.35)ab
HgB (g/dL) 9.66 (± 1.18)a 7.49 (± 2.17)b 8.82 (± 1.82)a 8.63 (± 2.32)ab 9.12 (± 1.38)a
Plasma HgB (mg/dL) 7 (± 11)d 37 (± 20)cd 68 (± 45)bc 103 (± 54)b 210 (± 111)a
Percent hemolysis 0.05 (± 0.08)d 0.37 (± 0.22)c 0.54 (± 0.28)bc 0.91 (± 0.51)b 1.69 (± 0.94)a
MCV (fL) 19.86 (± 1.85)a 19.37 (± 1.70)b 19.21 (± 1.74)bc 19.07 (± 1.87)c 19.11 (± 1.78)c
MCHC (g/dL) 35.9 (± 1.6)b 38.4 (± 3.6)b 41.3 (± 5.6)a 41.9 (± 6.1)a 41.6 (± 5.4)a
pH 7.18 (± 0.01)a 7.11 (± 0.04)b 7.09 (± 0.02)b 7.06 (± 0.03)c 7.04 (± 0.03)c
Sodium (mmol/L) 142.2 (± 1.1)a 135.5 (± 2.8)b 133.3 (± 3.7)bc 130.9 (± 4.8)cd 130.2 (± 4.5)d
Glucose (mg/dL) 435.4 (± 29.0)a 421.0 (± 22.7)a 405.2 (± 30.0)b 403.4 (± 16.4)b 396.9 (± 22.1)b
Lactate (mmol/L) 1.17 (± 0.46)d 2.50 (± 0.63)c 3.26 (± 0.75)b 3.60 (± 0.78)ab 3.75 (± 0.86)a

Day 0 values for pH, sodium, glucose, and lactate are based on n = 5. Potassium has been excluded due to unreadable values that made averages inaccurate. Values not connected by the same letter are significantly different.

HgB = Hemoglobin. TP = Total protein.

The mean percent hemolysis was below the acceptable limit of 1% for the first 14 days (0.05 ± 0.08%, 0.37 ± 0.22%, and 0.54 ± 0.28% for days 0, 7, and 14, respectively). On day 21, 50% (5/10) of the samples were below 1% hemolysis. Only 20% (2/10) of the samples remained below 1% hemolysis by day 28 (Figure 1).

Figure 1
Figure 1

Graphic representation of percent hemolysis values for each blood bag (n = 10) at each time point they were measured (days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28). The acceptable limit of 1% is demarcated by the dotted line for visualization of when measurements exceeded this limit.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 262, 3; 10.2460/javma.23.08.0434

Biochemistry

Sodium concentration decreased significantly over the 28-day storage periods (142.2 ± 1.1 mmol/L, 135.5 ± 2.8 mmol/L, 133.3 ± 3.7 mmol/L, 130.9 ± 4.8 mmol/L, and 130.2 ± 4.5 mmol/L on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively; P < .0001). Glucose values remained elevated throughout the study period, though a significant decrease was noted from day 7 (421 ± 22.7 mg/dL) to day 14 (405.2 ± 30.03 mg/dL). Lactate gradually and significantly increased from day 0 to day 21 (1.172 ± 0.46 mmol/L, 2.5 ± 0.63 mmol/L, and 3.259 ± 0.75 mmol/L, respectively; P < .0001) but did not change significantly from day 21 to day 28 (3.60 ± 0.78 mmol/L and 3.75 ± 0.86 mmol/L). The pH steadily decreased throughout the 28 days, decreasing significantly from day 0 to day 7 (7.18 ± 0.01 to 7.11 ± 0.04) and from day 14 to day 21 (7.09 ± 0.02 to 7.06 ± 0.03).

The EPOC assay has an upper limit of detection for potassium of 12 mmol/L. Potassium exceeded the upper limit of quantification for the POC meter as early as day 14 in 40% (4/10) of samples analyzed. On days 21 and 28, 70% (7/10) of samples had potassium concentrations > 12 mmol/L.

Blood culture

Aerobic and anerobic bacterial culture results were negative for growth on all blood bags (10/10) at day 28 of the study.

Discussion

Results of the present study demonstrate that refrigerated caprine whole blood undergoes hematologic changes similar to those in other species stored in anticoagulant. Analytes deemed important for sustained viability of RBCs in stored blood products intended for transfusion include percent hemolysis and PCV. In veterinary medicine, the acceptable percent hemolysis threshold is extrapolated from human standards, where it must be below 1%.2,14 Based on findings of the current study, the average percent hemolysis of the 10 samples of stored whole blood remained below 1% through 21 days (Table 2). However, looking at samples individually, 50% (5/10) of the samples had a percent hemolysis > 1% at day 21. At day 28, only 20% (2/10) of the samples remained under 1% hemolysis.

In previous canine and equine studies, lactate levels increased markedly, reaching values near 20 mmol/L in stored whole blood2,8 during a 28-day study period. Our findings are similar to those found in stored ovine whole blood, in which lactate concentrations were 3 to 5 mmol/L after 35 days.8 None of these previous studies indicated that these findings rendered the blood unusable, though in vivo studies would be needed to confirm.

Blood pH initially dropped due to the acidity of the CPDA-1 bags; however, it did not drop below 7 in any of the samples, which is unexpected given previous reports from canine, equine, caprine, and ovine blood studies, which demonstrated a drop in pH below 7 by day 7 of storage.24,6,11 Given that the blood in the other studies was considered suitable for use at a lower pH, the blood from this study would have been appropriate for use in an in vivo study.

Potassium was above readable limits (> 12 mmol/L) on the equipment used; however, it is not unexpected that potassium would increase beyond the upper limit, since extracellular potassium concentrations increase rapidly as intracellular potassium is released from RBCs, both from hemolysis and an increased MCV.1518 Additionally, glucose values remained persistently elevated in the samples across all time points evaluated. This is also an expected finding due to its inclusion in the collection bags as a source of cell nutrition and should not be a cause for concern. Significant decreases of glucose would suggest cellular usage or possible bacterial contamination and overgrowth and should be monitored and evaluated prior to utilization.

PCV averages remained appropriate for blood transfusion, and there was no statistically significant change from day 0 to day 28; however, there were a few samples (4/10) that had PCV drop below 20%. With the normal range for caprine PCV being 22% to 38%,19 this blood would be considered slightly anemic and would therefore be less suitable for a whole blood transfusion. Although there are no established rejection criteria for acceptable PCV of transfused blood, below 22% to 23%, a larger volume of blood is needed to raise a recipient’s PCV adequately.20 In this study, values that did drop below 20% increased again in following weeks and, when the drop occurred, varied from days 7 to 14 to 21. Even if other hematologic values remained at appropriate levels for transfusion, having a PCV of 15% to 18% could render the blood insufficient for transfusion. If whole blood were to be stored, it would probably be best to have multiple bags on hand to compensate for potential instances like this. These decreases could also be explained as artifactual, due to improper mixing on the day, although mixing protocol was performed by the same person in the same manner each week to help ensure consistency. It could also be variability with time, which PCV can exhibit. Overall there was no statistically significant difference in PCV from day 0 to day 28, so any variation would need to be assessed by clinicians to determine whether the blood is a sufficient volume for the patient.

The refrigerator was on average 2.8 °C, or 37 °F. The accepted range of temperature for blood storage is 2 to 6 °C and is the range for which all aforementioned studies regarding blood storage have aimed.24,6,11 A recent study21 found that 2 °C rendered the blood less metabolically active with less acidosis and hemolysis compared to 4 and 6 °C, making lower temperatures in the 2 to 6 °C range more desirable for storage.

Weaknesses of this study included the small sample size and lack of a dedicated refrigerator for storage. The small sample size introduced the possibility of a type II error. Unlike a true blood banking setup, the refrigerator utilized was located in the main hospital and also used for vaccine storage and other veterinary medical products and could be opened several times a day. Additionally, on a single occasion the blood bags were moved around to accommodate new supplies. This may have contributed to additional hemolysis, as opposed to having a dedicated blood storage refrigerator. In addition, it was an auto-defrosting refrigerator, in which defrost cycles may have also contributed to increased hemolysis. Although this is a considerable confounding factor, the authors believe that this more closely mimics blood storage in clinical practice, where a separate refrigerator specifically for blood storage is likely not available. Another shortcoming was the missing day 0 EPOC data for 5 of the blood bags, which led to statistical analysis being performed with only half of the total samples when comparing data to the day 0 time point for biochemical values.

Overall, this study was successful in establishing baseline values to determine whether caprine blood could be stored for an extended period of time in CPDA-1. The overall trends in the data with biochemical and hematologic values are similar to those in other species, suggesting that caprine whole blood could be successfully stored for a period of time with CPDA-1. This study also evaluated common conditions of blood storage in a practical setting that could be applied in practice and demonstrated that hematological factors of RBC viability were not dramatically impacted by these conditions when compared to other studies with more controlled storage scenarios.

Based on biochemical and hematologic values, refrigerated caprine whole blood could be stored in CPDA-1 for 2 to 3 weeks for use. Since criteria for stored small ruminant blood have not been established, further study is needed to examine safety and efficacy of transfusions with stored whole blood. In vivo studies are needed to determine the potential for transfusion reactions and efficacy of transfusions utilizing stored whole blood.

Acknowledgments

None reported.

Disclosures

The authors have nothing to disclose. No AI-assisted technologies were used in the generation of this manuscript.

Funding

Funding was provided by the Louisiana State University VCS CORP Grant.

References

  • 1.

    Mudge MC, Macdonald MH, Owens SD, Tablin F. Comparison of 4 blood storage methods in a protocol for equine pre-operative autologous donation. Vet Surg. 2004;33(5):475-486. doi:10.1111/j.1532-950X.2004.04070.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Dorneles TEA, Costa Junior JD, Almeida RM, Teixeira Neto AR. Biochemical and hematologic changes in whole blood from Brazilian horses stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine pouches for up to 28 days. Vet Clin Pathol. 2021;50(2):221-226. doi:10.1111/vcp.12973

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Tavares MD, Barros IO, Sousa RS, et al. Hematological, biochemical, and blood gas alterations of goat whole blood stored in CPDA-1 and CPD/SAG-M plastic bags. Cienc Rural. 2019;49(10):e20190267. doi:10.1590/0103-8478cr20190267

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Sousa RS, Barrêto RA Jr, Sousa IK, et al. Evaluation of hematologic, blood gas, and select biochemical variables in ovine whole blood stored in CPDA-1 bags. Vet Clin Pathol. 2013;42(1):27-30. doi:10.1111/vcp.12014

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Aumann SM, Reems MM. The effect of position and frequency of mixing on canine packed red blood cell units during storage. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2022;32(2):181-188. doi:10.1111/vec.13164

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Bujok J, Wajman E, Trochanowska-Pauk N, Walski T. Evaluation of selected hematological, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in stored canine CPDA-1 whole blood. BMC Vet Res. 2022;18(1):255. doi:10.1186/s12917-022-03353-x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Ferreira RRF, Graça RMC, Cardoso IM, Gopegui RR, de Matos AJF. In vitro hemolysis of stored units of canine packed red blood cells. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2018;28(6):512-517. doi:10.1111/vec.12770

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Rodrigues RR, Kayano CY, Dos Santos VP, Moroz LR, Fantoni DT, Ambrósio AM. Evaluation of hematologic, biochemical, and blood gas variables in stored canine packed red blood cells, and the impact of storage time on blood recipients. Vet Clin Pathol. 2020;49(2):198-206. doi:10.1111/vcp.12865

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Wardrop KJ, Tucker RL, Mugnai K. Evaluation of canine red blood cells stored in a saline, adenine, and glucose solution for 35 days. J Vet Intern Med. 1997;11(1):5-8. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1676.1997.tb00065.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Yagi K, Holowaychuk MK. Manual of Veterinary Transfusion Medicine and Blood Banking. Wiley Blackwell; 2016. doi:10.1002/9781118933053

  • 11.

    Barros IO, Sousa RS, Tavares MD, et al. Assessment of donkey (Equus asinus africanus) whole blood stored in CPDA-1 and CPD/SAG-M blood bags. Biology (Basel). 2021;10(2):133. doi:10.3390/biology10020133

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    HemoCue® Plasma/Low Hb Operating Manual. HemoCue AB.

  • 13.

    Chevalier H, Posner LP, Ludders JW, French TW, Erb HN, Gleed RD. Accuracy and precision of a point-of-care hemoglobinometer for measuring hemoglobin concentration and estimating packed cell volume in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;223(1):78-83. doi:10.2460/javma.2003.223.78

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Hess JR. Red cell storage. J Proteomics. 2010;73(3):368-373. doi:10.1016/j.jprot.2009.11.005

  • 15.

    Blasi B, D’Alessandro A, Ramundo N, Zolla L. Red blood cell storage and cell morphology. Transfus Med. 2012;22(2):90-96. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3148.2012.01139.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Obrador R, Musulin S, Hansen B. Red blood cell storage lesion. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2015;25(2):187-199. doi:10.1111/vec.12252

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Kim-Shapiro DB, Lee J, Gladwin MT. Storage lesion: role of red blood cell breakdown. Transfusion. 2011;51(4):844-851. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03100.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Yoshida T, Prudent M, D’Alessandro A. Red blood cell storage lesion: causes and potential clinical consequences. Blood Transfus. 2019;17(1):27-52. doi:10.2450/2019.0217-18

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Fielder SE. Hematologic reference ranges - special subjects. Merck Veterinary Manual. Accessed October 12, 2022. https://www.merckvetmanual.com/special-subjects/reference-guides/hematologic-reference-ranges

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Balcomb C, Foster D. Update on the use of blood and blood products in ruminants. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2014;30(2):455-474, vii. doi:10.1016/j.cvfa.2014.04.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Blaine KP, Cortés-Puch I, Sun J, et al. Impact of different standard red blood cell storage temperatures on human and canine RBC hemolysis and chromium survival. Transfusion. 2019;59(1):347-358. doi:10.1111/trf.14997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Figure 1

    Graphic representation of percent hemolysis values for each blood bag (n = 10) at each time point they were measured (days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28). The acceptable limit of 1% is demarcated by the dotted line for visualization of when measurements exceeded this limit.

  • 1.

    Mudge MC, Macdonald MH, Owens SD, Tablin F. Comparison of 4 blood storage methods in a protocol for equine pre-operative autologous donation. Vet Surg. 2004;33(5):475-486. doi:10.1111/j.1532-950X.2004.04070.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Dorneles TEA, Costa Junior JD, Almeida RM, Teixeira Neto AR. Biochemical and hematologic changes in whole blood from Brazilian horses stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine pouches for up to 28 days. Vet Clin Pathol. 2021;50(2):221-226. doi:10.1111/vcp.12973

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Tavares MD, Barros IO, Sousa RS, et al. Hematological, biochemical, and blood gas alterations of goat whole blood stored in CPDA-1 and CPD/SAG-M plastic bags. Cienc Rural. 2019;49(10):e20190267. doi:10.1590/0103-8478cr20190267

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Sousa RS, Barrêto RA Jr, Sousa IK, et al. Evaluation of hematologic, blood gas, and select biochemical variables in ovine whole blood stored in CPDA-1 bags. Vet Clin Pathol. 2013;42(1):27-30. doi:10.1111/vcp.12014

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Aumann SM, Reems MM. The effect of position and frequency of mixing on canine packed red blood cell units during storage. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2022;32(2):181-188. doi:10.1111/vec.13164

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Bujok J, Wajman E, Trochanowska-Pauk N, Walski T. Evaluation of selected hematological, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in stored canine CPDA-1 whole blood. BMC Vet Res. 2022;18(1):255. doi:10.1186/s12917-022-03353-x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Ferreira RRF, Graça RMC, Cardoso IM, Gopegui RR, de Matos AJF. In vitro hemolysis of stored units of canine packed red blood cells. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2018;28(6):512-517. doi:10.1111/vec.12770

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Rodrigues RR, Kayano CY, Dos Santos VP, Moroz LR, Fantoni DT, Ambrósio AM. Evaluation of hematologic, biochemical, and blood gas variables in stored canine packed red blood cells, and the impact of storage time on blood recipients. Vet Clin Pathol. 2020;49(2):198-206. doi:10.1111/vcp.12865

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Wardrop KJ, Tucker RL, Mugnai K. Evaluation of canine red blood cells stored in a saline, adenine, and glucose solution for 35 days. J Vet Intern Med. 1997;11(1):5-8. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1676.1997.tb00065.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Yagi K, Holowaychuk MK. Manual of Veterinary Transfusion Medicine and Blood Banking. Wiley Blackwell; 2016. doi:10.1002/9781118933053

  • 11.

    Barros IO, Sousa RS, Tavares MD, et al. Assessment of donkey (Equus asinus africanus) whole blood stored in CPDA-1 and CPD/SAG-M blood bags. Biology (Basel). 2021;10(2):133. doi:10.3390/biology10020133

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    HemoCue® Plasma/Low Hb Operating Manual. HemoCue AB.

  • 13.

    Chevalier H, Posner LP, Ludders JW, French TW, Erb HN, Gleed RD. Accuracy and precision of a point-of-care hemoglobinometer for measuring hemoglobin concentration and estimating packed cell volume in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;223(1):78-83. doi:10.2460/javma.2003.223.78

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Hess JR. Red cell storage. J Proteomics. 2010;73(3):368-373. doi:10.1016/j.jprot.2009.11.005

  • 15.

    Blasi B, D’Alessandro A, Ramundo N, Zolla L. Red blood cell storage and cell morphology. Transfus Med. 2012;22(2):90-96. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3148.2012.01139.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Obrador R, Musulin S, Hansen B. Red blood cell storage lesion. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2015;25(2):187-199. doi:10.1111/vec.12252

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Kim-Shapiro DB, Lee J, Gladwin MT. Storage lesion: role of red blood cell breakdown. Transfusion. 2011;51(4):844-851. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03100.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Yoshida T, Prudent M, D’Alessandro A. Red blood cell storage lesion: causes and potential clinical consequences. Blood Transfus. 2019;17(1):27-52. doi:10.2450/2019.0217-18

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Fielder SE. Hematologic reference ranges - special subjects. Merck Veterinary Manual. Accessed October 12, 2022. https://www.merckvetmanual.com/special-subjects/reference-guides/hematologic-reference-ranges

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Balcomb C, Foster D. Update on the use of blood and blood products in ruminants. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2014;30(2):455-474, vii. doi:10.1016/j.cvfa.2014.04.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Blaine KP, Cortés-Puch I, Sun J, et al. Impact of different standard red blood cell storage temperatures on human and canine RBC hemolysis and chromium survival. Transfusion. 2019;59(1):347-358. doi:10.1111/trf.14997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement