Georgia professor to join National Academy of Inventors

This June, Dr. Naola Ferguson-Noel, a professor at the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, will be inducted as a fellow of the National Academy of Inventors, an organization comprising more than 4,000 members and 1,567 fellows, including 45 Nobel laureates.


Dr. Naola Ferguson-Noel

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 261, 2; 10.2460/javma.261.2.165

Becoming an NAI Fellow is the highest professional distinction awarded solely to academic inventors, and Dr. Ferguson-Noel is the only veterinarian to be inducted in the class of 2022.

Dr. Ferguson-Noel is a researcher at the Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center. Her research has made important contributions in the field of avian infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum, a disease that affects poultry worldwide.

She is the co-inventor of two patented Mycoplasma vaccine strains and has two in the patent process, along with an array of foreign patents. The technologies developed by Dr. Ferguson-Noel have had a global impact through license agreements with multiple animal health companies. These agreements led to a commercial poultry vaccine, MG Live, as well as two vaccine products in clinical development.

Dr. Ferguson-Noel is one of 169 scientists and researchers who will be inducted into the NAI during the organization’s annual conference June 27 in Washington, D.C.

AVMA offers resources for Pet Dental Health Month 2023

The AVMA has developed a variety of resources for National Pet Dental Health Month in February that also are available year-round to promote dental health in cats and dogs.

Resources for pet owners are at avma.org/petdental. The materials consist of an overview of pet dental health, including information about the use of anesthesia during veterinary dentistry, along with videos on periodontal disease and how to brush a pet’s teeth and a quiz on pet dental health.

A veterinary toolkit on pet dental health, available only to AVMA members, is at jav.ma/dentaltoolkit. The toolkit offers a flyer, handout, and brochure for clinics. Publicity and marketing resources are under the headings of stress-free ways to celebrate National Pet Dental Health Month as well as promotion and marketing ideas, publicity tools, and talking points for media interviews.

The veterinary toolkit also provides posts and images to share on social media.

FDA approves oral treatment for cats with diabetes

The Food and Drug Administration announced Dec. 8 that the agency has approved the first oral animal drug to improve glycemic control in otherwise healthy cats with diabetes mellitus not previously treated with insulin.

Bexacat is an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, the first SGLT2 inhibitor approved by the FDA for any nonhuman animal species. Bexagliflozin, the active ingredient in Bexacat, prevents a cat’s kidneys from reabsorbing glucose into the blood, causing excess glucose to be passed out in the urine and resulting in lowered blood glucose. Bexacat is given to cats orally once daily via a flavored tablet.

The drug sponsor is IncreVet Inc., and Elanco Animal Health Inc. licensed development and commercialization rights for bexagliflozin from BexCaFe, an affiliate of IncreVet.

An SGLT2 inhibitor is not insulin and is not for use in cats with diabetes mellitus that requires insulin treatment. The labeling for Bexacat includes a boxed warning regarding the need for appropriate patient selection and the potential for certain severe adverse reactions.

The data from two six-month field studies and an extended-use field study demonstrated that Bexacat was over 80% effective in improving glycemic control in cats with diabetes mellitus.

More than a pretty picture: Perspectives on veterinary illustration

Careers in veterinary illustration combine scientific knowledge and artistic skill

By Coco Lederhouse

Open any veterinary textbook, and you’re sure to find an anatomical drawing of a dog or a detailed illustration of a cell. It’s easy to take these as a given, but the skill and talent required to make those images is beyond valuable.

Accurately rendering the endocrine system of a ferret or the abdominal viscera of a turtle is no small feat. It requires an intimate knowledge of the anatomy of these species as well as an understanding of how to effectively communicate through art.

A medical illustrator is a professional artist with advanced education in both the life sciences and visual communication. Medical illustrators turn complex information into visual images, often in collaboration with scientists, physicians, and other experts.

The work of medical illustrators promotes education, scientific research, patient care, marketing, and more. Medical illustration is a small field with an estimated 2,000 trained professionals in the world.

Some specialize by subject matter, such as veterinary medicine. AVMA News spoke with four experts involved in this unique field.

Illustration as a teaching tool

Most medical illustrators have a master’s degree from an accredited program in medical illustration, according to the Association of Medical Illustrators. There are currently five programs in North America accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs that train medical illustrators—at Augusta University, Johns Hopkins University, Rochester Institute of Technology, the University of Illinois-Chicago, and the University of Toronto.

The University of Georgia is home to one of 14 undergraduate majors in scientific illustration recognized by the Association of Medical Illustrators. UGA also offers a postgraduate certificate in comparative medical illustration.

The program is led by Dr. James Moore, a veterinary surgeon who is also director of the Educational Resources Unit for the Department of Large Animal Medicine at UGA’s College of Veterinary Medicine. Dr. Moore’s students work with veterinary faculty members to gain experience in illustrating the anatomy and physiology of animals.


This series shows the steps taken to insert a Z-stitch over the site where a large bore cannula had been inserted into a dog’s vein as part of an intervention by a cardiologist. This approach is a more effective way to achieve hemostasis than applying manual compression. (Courtesy of Eli Ensor/University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 261, 2; 10.2460/javma.261.2.165

Dr. Moore was first introduced to medical illustration in 1981 when he came to the University of Georgia as a new faculty member. It was there that he met a trained medical illustrator. Dr. Moore was amazed by the images the artist could create.

“He had the scientific background, plus being an artist,” Dr. Moore said. “As soon as I asked if I could have some images made, there was no going back.”

Dr. Moore stressed the importance of making teaching interactive for students so they can envision turning concepts or surgical procedures into something more than words.

“When it comes time to explain something or think through a process, if you can’t picture it, you’re stuck,” Dr. Moore said. “You don’t know where the gaps in your knowledge are until you try to teach something.”

A different kind of veterinarian

Dr. Diogo Guerra, a veterinarian and a freelance veterinary medical illustrator, has always loved drawing and animals.

“I remember watching National Geographic documentaries on Saturday mornings, sitting on my parents’ big brown couch, and then spending the afternoons drawing some of the animal species I had just seen,” he said.

He did most of his veterinary studies at the University of Lisbon in Portugal before heading off to do research work for his master’s at the Institute of Parasitology at the University of Zurich in Switzerland.

Dr. Guerra decided to become a medical illustrator after realizing there was a lack of investment in visual science communication in veterinary sciences.

“I get asked all the time if I miss being a veterinarian, and I always answer that I still consider myself one—just a very different kind of vet,” he said. “I wouldn’t be able to do what I do today had I not studied veterinary medicine.”

His knowledge of reference textbooks, experience performing necropsies, and understanding of the scientific publication process make it much easier to navigate the world of veterinary illustration.

Developing the necessary skills

Dr. Lauren D. Sawchyn is another veterinarian turned medical illustrator. She is the owner and creative director of Sawchyn Medical Illustration. Most of her clients work in veterinary academia and research.

Dr. Sawchyn also works part time in clinical veterinary medicine, performing small animal relief work. She enjoys practicing preventive medicine and developing relationships with owners and pets.

She went to the University of Maine and majored in preveterinary science with minors in zoology and studio arts. During an undergraduate class on the history of medicine, she was fascinated by the illustrations of anatomy that her professor shared.

She decided to change the direction of her studies, attending the graduate program in medical illustration at the Medical College of Georgia, now part of Augusta University, before attending Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine.

“It was a rigorous program that taught me not just about illustration and science but also the business aspects of medical illustration,” Dr. Sawchyn said.

At the Medical College of Georgia, students of medical illustration attended classes with students of human medicine, performed cadaver dissections, and participated in and observed surgeries.

“For an artist, you need to work hard on your anatomy and your science training,” Dr. Sawchyn said. “It is not enough to be proficient in the latest software program because that will change.”

Never a dull moment

Deborah Haines is a certified medical illustrator and design specialist at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine.

Her medical illustrations have been published in numerous veterinary clinical journals, research journals, and textbooks. She uses 2D and 3D work as well as traditional media to translate veterinary information into educational tools.

“The more senses you bring to the table, the better people learn,” Haines said.

She also oversees veterinary students as they develop teaching exhibits with key faculty and staff members, fundraise, and educate the public about veterinary medicine during the annual Open House event.

Haines stressed that her job is not only about illustrating but also about teaching students. “My goal isn’t always to give them the answer; we want to think about the diagnostic process,” she said. “That means utilizing didactic illustrations, animations, and helping students understand key pieces of information.”

After Haines earned her bachelor’s in art from Goshen University, she went on to the Medical and Biological Illustration Program at the University of Michigan.

“I don’t think you can be a truly effective scientific and medical illustrator without knowledge, artistic technique, and artistry—constantly working to develop all three,” Haines said.

Haines has worked at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine for nearly 30 years.

She explained that there is never a dull moment at her job. She might be illustrating an abscess in a bovine hoof, developing 3D models to preplan a surgery, or helping create an effective poster session.

Challenges as an illustrator

One of Dr. Guerra’s main goals as a medical illustrator is to increase the quantity and quality of visual education materials for veterinarians.

“Ultimately, I’m not trying to create beautiful images per se but to design educational materials that work and effectively communicate information,” he said. “Communication is a fundamental part of every health care professional’s job, regardless of whether they work in research or at a veterinary hospital.”


This figure for a scientific publication shows the anatomical features and location of the appendix in healthy rabbits. (© Diogo Guerra)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 261, 2; 10.2460/javma.261.2.165

Similarly, Dr. Sawchyn explained there is a huge need for veterinary illustration, but there is a lack of awareness of the expertise available and lack of funding for illustration.

“I would love to see a future where every vet publication has high-quality images and every veterinary school and business … has a department of medical illustration and animation with certified illustrators, along with medical photographers, designers, and art directors,” Dr. Sawchyn said. “The value that these teams bring to those institutions is immeasurable.”

Another challenge in veterinary illustration is finding clients that understand the value of the work. Hours of research and effort go into each piece, not to mention illustrators’ training and overhead expenses.

“I am pleased that clients admire our work, but I was discouraged to find that many buyers of illustration shop for the lowest price and the quickest turnaround instead of the highest quality,” Dr. Sawchyn said.

Medical illustration is created and then licensed for a specific purpose, time frame, and use. However, the internet can mislead clients into thinking this content is usually available to use for free.

“Artists are frequently the victims of copyright infringement, their work changed and used without permission or compensation and signatures stripped from images,” Dr. Sawchyn said. “For many of us, our livelihood depends on our copyright.”

Collaboration is key

Veterinary illustration is valuable for client education, publications, teaching, presentations, and many other uses. Artists work collaboratively in all areas, whether illustrating textbooks for cell biology, making prosthetics, or directing art for pharmaceutical companies.

At the University of Tennessee, Haines praised the great faculty members she’s worked with who understand her skill set. She stressed that as a medical illustrator, collaboration is key.

This is true in Dr. Guerra’s freelance work as well. “I honestly feel my work is a true partnership with my clients,” Dr. Guerra said. “I collaborate with researchers and clinicians—from veterinary to human medicine, microbiology and pharmaceutical sciences.”

“All illustration clients have a story to tell and a problem to solve,” Dr. Sawchyn said. “Science is a language, and medical illustrators translate this language to broad audiences using a visual language.”

Careers in veterinary illustration

Some veterinary illustrators work in medical schools or veterinary schools. Others work for textbook publishers or make medical illustrations for legal cases. Freelance work is a popular choice for illustrators. According to the Association of Medical Illustrators, approximately one-third of medical illustrators are self-employed.

“What I feel is key for a successful career in medical art is to find a niche that you like, that needs illustrations, and where your background can be a competitive advantage,” Dr. Guerra said.

Dr. Sawchyn’s background included intensive training in animal anatomy and medicine in addition to the human anatomy training she had, and that background prepared her to work in the niche market of veterinary illustration.

“I understood my veterinarian clients, and I made great connections in the veterinary field,” Dr. Sawchyn said. “My medical illustration mentor and professor, Bill Andrews, always would say, ‘Plan the work, and work the plan.’ I think this goes for anything you do.”

Congress approves national One Health response plan, other veterinary priorities

Fiscal year 2023 budget provides funding for programs essential to the profession

By R. Scott Nolen

An AVMA-backed provision that Congress passed and was enacted into law on Dec. 29, 2022, requires the development of a national One Health Framework. The framework’s aim is to coordinate federal activities in combating zoonotic disease outbreaks and to advance public health preparedness.

The One Health language passed is taken from another bill, the Advancing Emergency Preparedness Through One Health Act (HR 2061/S 681), and directs the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to work with other relevant federal departments and agencies to develop a national One Health Framework to collaborate on preventing, detecting, controlling, and responding to zoonotic diseases.

“The One Health legislation passed by Congress will help strengthen the nation’s preparedness for diseases that can spread between animals and humans,” AVMA President Lori Teller said. “We have all witnessed the significant threat that zoonotic diseases pose to our society. With animals, humans, and the environment being more interconnected than ever, the AVMA applauds Congress for taking this crucial step forward in fully implementing a One Health Framework so we can better protect public health.”

One Health in action

The One Health concept is a recognition that human, animal, and environmental health do not exist independently of each other but rather are deeply connected. Each part of that triad is best understood with the whole in mind, which requires multidisciplinary collaboration.


New legislation requires a coordinated federal response to zoonotic diseases that also threaten public health.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 261, 2; 10.2460/javma.261.2.165

“Passage of this long-overdue One Health Framework provision by the Congress is heartening, and I am delighted,” said Dr. Bruce Kaplan, co-founder of the One Health Initiative. “However, my fervent hope is, as Winston Churchill said, ‘Now this is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.’”

Dr. Kaplan continued: “As my One Health Initiative team colleagues and I have said since the initiative’s founding, One Health implementation will help protect and/or save untold millions of lives in our generation and for those to come. This includes more significantly expeditious and efficacious worldwide advancements in global public health and clinical biomedical research for human, animal, and environmental well-being.”

Relevant federal agencies must submit a proposed framework to Congress within a year. The AVMA said it will work with lawmakers and federal agencies on the implementation of the legislation.

Fiscal Year 2023 appropriations

The AVMA was actively engaged with lawmakers and their staffs to ensure proper funding was provided for programs that are essential to veterinary medicine and animal health.

Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program: The VMLRP has received an increase of $500,000 in funding from the last fiscal year, for a total of $10 million. The program plays a role in closing workforce gaps in food animal medicine and veterinary public health by offering three years of repayment of educational loans in exchange for service in veterinarian shortage areas designated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Veterinary Services Grant Program: The program was allocated an additional $500,000 in funding for a total of $4 million. The VSGP is a federal program that provides Education, Extension, and Training grants to develop, implement, and sustain veterinary services and Rural Practice Enhancement grants to establish or expand veterinary practices in rural areas.

Food Animal Residue Avoidance Database Program: FARAD was allocated $2.5 million to protect the U.S. food supply against drug residues in animal-derived foods so that they are safe for human consumption.

USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service: The FSIS was allocated $2.8 million to address the consistently high numbers of vacancies for public health veterinarians at the agency.

USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service: The agency was allocated $1 million in additional funding for a total of $4 million to combat abuses associated with horse soring, the practice of inflicting pain to exaggerate the leg motion of gaited horses.

Retirement plans: The AVMA-supported Securing a Strong Retirement Act, also known as the Secure Act 2.0, was enacted in December 2022. The bipartisan bill is a sequel to legislation enacted in December 2019 that helped set the stage for the AVMA Trust to launch the AVMA Trust Retirement Plan for veterinary business owners, including self-employed veterinarians. The AVMA was heavily involved in the support for both of these bills in the last two Congresses.

The Secure Act 2.0 will make it easier for small businesses to band together and improve retirement offerings. Provisions include the following:

  • Allowing individuals to save for retirement longer by increasing the required minimum distribution age to 73 in 2023 and then to age 75 in 2033.

  • Increasing the yearly amount of allowed catch-up contributions by an index rather than a fixed dollar amount.

  • Increasing the limit on catch-up contributions for ages 62, 63, and 64.

  • Allowing employers to match a portion of employees’ student loan repayments and contribute that amount to their retirement plan even if the employees are not contributing themselves.

  • Expanding automatic enrollment in retirement plans.

AVMA COE recognizes the University of Nottingham

The University of Nottingham School of Veterinary Medicine and Science in Nottingham, England, was recently granted full accreditation status by the AVMA Council on Education.

Nottingham has been accredited by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons since 2011.

The COE made the accreditation decision during its Sept. 18-20 meeting at AVMA headquarters in Schaumburg, Illinois.

“I am delighted that the Council on Education have determined that our school meets the requirements for AVMA accreditation,” said Dr. Gary C.W. England, founding dean of the veterinary school and professor of comparative veterinary reproduction. “We started our program with the first intake of students in 2006, and it has always been our aim to reach this milestone of quality benchmarking.”

Accreditation by the AVMA Council on Education represents a high standard of achievement for veterinary education. Institutions that earn COE accreditation confirm a commitment to quality and continuous improvement through a rigorous and comprehensive peer review.

The new accreditation status means Nottingham graduates will now be able to sit for the North American Licensing Examination, which is required for licensure in the U.S. and Canada. Currently, the veterinary school does not have any U.S. students.

In 2019, Nottingham announced a plan to nearly double its intake of students in response to a veterinarian shortage in the United Kingdom.

The five-year program accepts 300 students a year—150 students start in April and 150 start in September. Tuition fees are 34,000 pounds—or about $42,000—a year. Students have exposure to hands-on animal experience and real clinical cases from the very beginning of the program.

The COE grants accreditation status to foreign veterinary colleges on the basis of compliance with 11 standards of accreditation. Nottingham is now the third veterinary school in England and 17th foreign veterinary school accredited by the COE.

Foreign colleges are required to undergo a preliminary or consultative site visit to determine their preparedness for a comprehensive site visit. They are required to correct all deficiencies identified by the site team before requesting a comprehensive site visit. That visit is the last step before the council makes an accreditation decision.

The University of Nottingham’s comprehensive site visit occurred on June 11-17. Those who graduate from Nottingham after June 17 are considered graduates of a COE-accredited veterinary college.

“We employ a fantastic cadre of inspiring educators, and it is thrilling for the whole team to have received this accreditation news,” Dr. England said.

Morris awards four grants for research on aging dogs

Morris Animal Foundation announced Nov. 21 that is has awarded its latest Mark L. Morris Jr. Investigator Award to four researchers. Each researcher’s project focuses on issues affecting the health and well-being of aging dogs.

The selection of four proposals is a departure from previous awards, which were given to a single individual. The Mark L. Morris Jr. Investigator Award is designed to support impactful companion animal research for which there is a pressing need, with the potential to make rapid, meaningful progress.

The four awardees are:

  • Dr. Freya Mowat, University of Wisconsin-Madison, who will study the effect of toxic heavy metal burden on cognition and sensory decline in older dogs.

  • Dr. Anne Avery, Colorado State University, who will study age-associated inflammation and links to disease in aging dogs.

  • Andrei Gudkov, PhD, Vaika Inc., who will study genetically programmed aging clocks and anti-aging strategies in retired sled dogs.

  • Dr. Natasha Olby, North Carolina State University, who will conduct a clinical trial to assess whether exercise can improve frailty and health span in elderly dogs.

Projects are slated to begin in 2023 and will take two to three years to complete.

First awarded in 2016, the Mark L. Morris Jr. Investigator Award was created to honor the legacy of Dr. Mark L. Morris Jr., son of Dr. Mark L. Morris Sr., the foundation’s founder. Dr. Mark L. Morris Jr. was known for his pioneering work in small and exotic animal nutrition and for his dedication to Morris Animal Foundation’s mission to advance animal health through science.

List of Black diplomates sparks discussion

Dr. Coretta Patterson took on a passion project to highlight and encourage diversity in veterinary specialty colleges

By Malinda Larkin

As diversity, equity, and inclusion continue to be a point of emphasis, a few veterinary specialty colleges have taken on the work in their own way.

One diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Dr. Coretta Patterson, group medical director for research development at BluePearl Specialty and Emergency Pet Hospital, had an idea to honor a colleague that turned into something bigger.

For Black History Month last year, Dr. Patterson wanted to recognize Dr. Erick Mears—a fellow Black diplomate in small animal internal medicine and a colleague at BluePearl—because she and he had shared mentors and similar career paths.

She reached out to the ACVIM to help determine when Dr. Mears earned board certification, which turned out to be in 1996, and also was curious how many other Black specialists have earned board certification from the ACVIM.

Historically, the ACVIM has not collected racial demographic information from its members, who currently number more than 3,000, so Dr. Patterson took it upon herself to compile a list of names of Black diplomates. She then passed the list on to Marian Tuin, ACVIM membership manager, to help confirm the names.

Without official records to work from, the effort has involved Dr. Patterson reaching out to colleagues, acquaintances, and former mentors. She also compiled the names of Black diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Dermatology and the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmology. Everyone on the list earned board certification, so a few honorary diplomates are not included.

Strength in numbers

Dr. Patterson found out from her research that the first Black veterinary specialist with the ACVIM was likely Dr. Edward Braye, who became a diplomate in large animal internal medicine in 1979. The next Black diplomate wasn’t until 1991: Dr. Jody Lulich, a diplomate in small animal internal medicine who is now a professor of internal medicine at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine.


Drs. Carla L. Gartrell, dean of Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine; Ruby Perry, dean of Tuskegee University College of Veterinary Medicine; and Coretta Patterson attend a meeting of the National Association for Black Veterinarians. Drs. Gartrell and Perry have been important mentors to Dr. Patterson during her career. (Courtesy of Dr. Coretta Patterson)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 261, 2; 10.2460/javma.261.2.165

“There’s a huge gap that unfortunately is lost,” Dr. Patterson said. “When you look at the list, all of us could fit on a Greyhound bus together.”

There are 22 AVMA-recognized veterinary specialty organizations comprising 47 distinct veterinary specialties. Overall, there are more than 14,500 active veterinarians who have been awarded diplomate status in one or more of these specialty organizations after completing rigorous postgraduate training, education, and examination requirements.

There are 58 Black diplomates on the list that Dr. Patterson has compiled. While not exhaustive, it is the most comprehensive detailing of Black diplomates out there.

“There’s this untapped resource we don’t work on,” Dr. Patterson said. “If we look at human health care and know that human health care suffers when there are not enough providers patient can relate to based on a cultural and social basis, that’s likely true in veterinary medicine, also.”

The number of veterinary students from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups is higher than ever before at 23.2%, according to the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges. But the pipeline to clinical postgraduate training programs hasn’t seen as much progress.

According to data from the American Association of Veterinary Clinicians, the Veterinary Internship and Residency Matching Program in 2022 had 2,094 applicants and 986 participating programs—603 internship programs and 383 residency programs—with an overall match rate of 54.2%. Black applicants only accounted for 2.9% of the total applicants, compared with 70.2% for white applicants. In 2021, Black applicants accounted for 2.5% of the total applicants.

Further, in 2022, only 18 Black applicants matched with internships out of 1,020 total applicants matched—or 1.8% of matches—and 11 matched with residencies out of 406 applicants matched—or 2.7% of matches.

Making changes to make progress

In mid-December, a group of veterinary specialists representing the AAVC put out a paper on the current state of diversity in postgraduate training programs and recommendations on best practices. Among the recommendations for intern and resident selection committees is to avoid selecting candidates on the basis of their seeming fit with the program but instead to use consistent criteria to assess each candidate.

“Using data gathered over time and in accordance with society’s ever-expanding awareness of best practices, the AAVC will continue to assess and revise the VIRMP application process with the goal of allowing each candidate to effectively highlight their strengths and goals,” the authors wrote.

A JAVMA article published in the August print edition outlined other ways to support diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging to strengthen the veterinary profession. These approaches include certificate and training programs such as the AVMA’s Brave Space Certificate Program and, more recently, the AVMA’s Journey for Teams, a multiyear educational initiative to help veterinary workplaces become more diverse, equitable, and inclusive.

Affinity groups with a focus on diversity, equity, and inclusion can help, too, said Dr. Dondrae Coble, a co-author of the August article and a Black diplomate of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. For example, the Dr. J.H. Bias Black Affinity Group at The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine is an all-inclusive affinity group formed to support Black students during their veterinary studies and to honor the legacy of Dr. James H. Bias, the first African American graduate of the college.

Dr. Coble said one of the group’s purposes is to help members visualize what successful careers in the profession look like by seeing and hearing from those who have gone before them. “Increasing the diversity of general practitioners and veterinary specialists will be instrumental,” said Dr. Coble, attending veterinarian and chief of the comparative medicine branch at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

Dr. Coble is the previous chair of the ACLAM Equity and Inclusion Task Force, formed in 2020. The task force was formed after the specialty college made a statement condemning racism and supporting inclusion. The task force has been charged with identifying the current state of diversity, equity, and inclusion within the specialty college. Members of the task force are collecting demographic data on ACLAM diplomates in collaboration with the ACLAM committee on workforce and demographics.

Moving forward

The AVMA is working to update and improve the Association’s ability to capture demographic data about its members, including race, ethnicity, gender, and employment information.

Meanwhile, Dr. Patterson plans to present the list of Black diplomates of the ACVIM, ACVD, and ACVO at the National Association of Black Veterinarians’ meeting this coming June. She said the American College of Veterinary Surgeons is working on its own list, spearheaded by Dr. Anita Stampley, the first Black boarded veterinary surgeon. The American College of Veterinary Pathology does not have a list, but Dr. Patterson said that college would have a good number of Black diplomates.

Dr. Patterson continues to add to her list when possible, reaching out to other specialty colleges for information. Colleagues also have reached out to her, including Dr. Aida Vientós-Plotts, a Puerto Rican veterinarian who is attempting to get information for Latino diplomates.

“It’s important from a historical perspective to honor the past and look where we’ve gone and how we can make veterinary medicine and veterinary specialties appealing,” Dr. Patterson said.

Board Chair Gill discusses AVMA priorities

Workforce issues, diversity, educational accreditation top Board agenda

Interview by R. Scott Nolen

Dr. Ronald Gill was elected chair of the AVMA Board of Directors this past July during AVMA Convention 2022 in Philadelphia. About halfway through his term, he spoke with AVMA News about the issues he expects the Board will continue to address in the coming months. The mixed animal practitioner from Illinois also talked about the Board’s relationship with the AVMA House of Delegates and need for participation by AVMA members in the AVMA Political Action Committee and the AVMA’s charitable arm, the American Veterinary Medical Foundation. The following responses have been lightly edited for length and clarity.

Q. What do you hope to accomplish as chair of the AVMA Board of Directors?

A. I expect great things from our Board, and further, I believe that we are the most diverse Board of Directors the AVMA has ever had. We are diverse not only in the type of practice experience, areas of interest, and life experience but also with respect to gender, race, and ethnicity. As a result, we are fortunate to have a wide spectrum of perspectives and frequent, thoughtful, and robust discussions on all the issues we address. In the end, the goal is always to come together in compromise to guide the AVMA and our profession in the right direction.

Q. What issues do you expect the Board will address in coming months?

A. I’m sure the Board will continue to discuss numerous topics of importance to the profession as well as new issues that may come to our attention through environmental scanning. Workforce challenges and possible solutions will continue to engage us, as well as implementation of our diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives. The AVMA’s support for accreditation of veterinary schools and development of standardization for veterinary technician degrees are also important to the profession and our members. We will continue to listen to the information presented to us, deliberate, and make decisions based on the intent to do what’s best for the profession and our members.


Dr. Ronald Gill

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 261, 2; 10.2460/javma.261.2.165

Q. Can you talk about the relationship between the House of Delegates and the Board and how they work together for AVMA members and the profession?

A. I believe there is an excellent relationship between the House and the Board, and it is our intent to see that it continues. The House Advisory Committee—through its leadership role in the House and liaison role with the Board—provides us with a direct link to the thoughts and ideas of House members. At least two members of the HAC are included at all Board meetings. During these meetings, the HAC members are free to join our debates, advise, and make suggestions, as are the Board members. My experience with the HAC, its chairs, and its members affirms their frequent, valuable contributions on many issues before the Board.

Q. What do you want AVMA members to know about the Board’s work on their behalf?

A. The Board is made up of 16 members–15 of them voting members—who are very hard-working individuals and all of whom hold the best interests of our 100,000-plus AVMA members and our profession first in making decisions. Some decisions are easy, while others are excruciatingly difficult, yet all are taken equally seriously. We have sometimes been criticized as too slow in making decisions to satisfy some of our members. To that criticism, I say that the Board will continue to gather information from the broadest cross section of colleagues and other stakeholders as necessary in order to come to as informed decisions as is possible. That takes time, and it’s important that when decisions are made, the results will be that they were made wisely and are worthy of our profession and the AVMA.

Q. Is there anything else you want to discuss?

A. I feel strongly about supporting our AVMA PAC and the American Veterinary Medical Foundation, and I am concerned over the small percentage of our members that do contribute financially to both of these vitally important areas of our profession. Also, I am extremely proud of the professionalism of the AVMA staff. This begins with our executive director, Dr. Janet Donlin (executive vice president and CEO), and continues with Drs. David Granstrom (assistant executive vice president), Gail Golab (associate executive vice president and chief veterinary officer), and Kent McClure (associate executive vice president and chief advocacy officer); the division directors; our Government Relations Division staff; our AVMF staff; Publications Division; Finance and Business Services; legal; and on and on. They all demonstrate a deep commitment to support the members, the House, the Board, as well as all our volunteers with their expertise, wisdom and passion. I am deeply thankful for their commitment.

FDA looking to revise how it evaluates antimicrobial animal drugs as sales, distribution remain down

On Dec. 16, the Food and Drug Administration issued a draft update to the guidance document “Evaluating the Safety of Antimicrobial New Animal Drugs with Regard to Their Microbiological Effects on Bacteria of Human Health Concern.”

Also known as guidance for industry #152, the document is a tool for assessing the risk of antimicrobial resistance in people, which could result from the use of medically important antimicrobial drugs in food-producing animals. The scope and purpose of updated GFI #152 remain the same as for the initial version of the guidance issued in 2003, but the new draft better aligns with current science and clinical practices in human medicine.

Updates to the guidance include revisions to the framework for risk assessment, updated ranking criteria for determining the degree of medical importance of antimicrobial drug classes, and a revised ranking of antimicrobial drug classes as critically important, highly important, or important based on the newly updated ranking criteria.

The FDA is accepting comments on the draft guidance for 90 days, or until March 20, at jav.ma/gfi152, and has published a Q&A on the topic, available at jav.ma/152qa.

The AVMA anticipates providing comments to the FDA and posting a follow-up communication for veterinary professionals after fully reviewing the draft update to the guidance.

Meanwhile, annual sales and distribution by volume of medically important antimicrobials for food-producing animals remain down since the substantial decrease in 2017, according to the latest data.

On Dec. 12, the FDA published the 2021 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals. The report covers both the antimicrobials that the FDA considers to be important in human medicine as well as those that the agency does not.


The estimated volume of domestic sales and distribution of medically important antimicrobial drugs for use in chickens decreased by 69% between 2016 and 2021.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 261, 2; 10.2460/javma.261.2.165

The FDA aims to slow the development of antimicrobial resistance. In 2017, the agency worked with drug companies to voluntarily transition medically important antimicrobial drugs for use in the feed or water of food animals from being available over the counter to requiring veterinary oversight and to remove approvals for production uses, such as growth promotion.

The new report indicates that the volume of domestic sales and distribution, by weight, of medically important antimicrobial drugs approved for use in food-producing animals decreased by less than 1% between 2020 and 2021. Compared with 2015, the peak year for sales and distribution, sales and distribution in 2021 were down 38%.

FDA to resume enforcement of all federal VCPR requirements for veterinary telemedicine

On Dec. 21, the Food and Drug Administration announced its withdrawal of Guidance for Industry #269, “Enforcement Policy Regarding Federal VCPR Requirements to Facilitate Veterinary Telemedicine During the COVID-19 Outbreak.”

The effective date of the decision is Feb. 21, which means that the FDA will again hold veterinarians to the federal requirements for the veterinarian-client-patient relationship beginning on that date. As stated by the FDA, the federal VCPR definition “requires animal examination and/or medically appropriate and timely visits to the premises where the animal(s) are kept” and “cannot be met solely through telemedicine.”

GFI 269 was issued in March 2020 during the early days of the pandemic, when human illness and efforts to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 created challenges for in-person examinations of veterinary patients and the conduct of premise visits. To help address these challenges and support the use of telemedicine to deliver patient care, GFI #269 indicated that the FDA would temporarily not enforce federal requirements for an in-person animal examination or premise visit to establish a VCPR for activities covered by the federal VCPR definition, including extralabel drug use and issuing veterinary feed directives.

Now, nearly three years later, the FDA says the conditions that created the need for the enforcement policy have evolved such that the policy is no longer needed. That means, as of Feb. 21, veterinarians will need to meet all the requirements of the federally defined VCPR, including an in-person examination or premise visit, to establish the relationship prior to engaging in covered activities. A VCPR that meets the federal definition cannot be established through telemedicine. Once established, the VCPR may be maintained via telemedicine between medically appropriate examinations and premise visits.


American Animal Hospital Association

The American Animal Hospital Association held its annual Connexity meeting from Sept. 14-17 in Nashville, Tennessee. The new AAHA officials are Dr. Margot K. Vahrenwald, Denver, president; Dr. Mark Thompson, Eden, Wisconsin, president-elect; Dr. Scott Driever, Sugar Land, Texas, vice president; Dr. Dermot Jevens, Greenville, South Carolina, secretary-treasurer; Dr. Adam Hechko, North Royalton, Ohio, immediate past president; Garth Jordan, Lakewood, Colorado, chief executive officer; and directors—practice manager Cheryl Smith, Galway, New York, and Dr. Lynn Happel, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Kentucky VMA

The Kentucky VMA held its annual meeting from Sept. 23-25 in Florence. The new KVMA officials are Drs. Brigette Dean-Hines, Simpsonville, president; Ben Redmon, Bowling Green, president-elect; Wade King, Frankfort, vice president; Lauren Mirus, Morehead, secretary-treasurer; Jason Rodgers, Paducah, immediate past president; and AVMA delegate and alternate delegate—Drs. Frank Vice, Flemingsburg, and Debra Shoulders, Bowling Green.

Visit avma.org/news/community to read the full reports, including awards.

In Memory: AVMA mourns death of Montana delegate Rex Anderson

By R. Scott Nolen


Dr. Rex R. Anderson

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 261, 2; 10.2460/javma.261.2.165

Dr. Rex R. Anderson, a guiding presence in the AVMA House of Delegates for nearly two decades, died Dec. 14 at the age of 65. He was the owner and operator of a mixed animal practice in Montana.

“There is a gaping hole in my heart,” said AVMA President Lori Teller, who served with Dr. Anderson in the HOD. “I’ve lost a friend, and AVMA has lost a champion.”

Dr. José Arce, AVMA immediate past president, said he was devastated to hear about the death of Dr. Anderson.

“He was a true friend and a passionate leader of our profession,” Dr. Arce said of Dr. Anderson. “My heart is torn right now, and I will miss him dearly. Rex was one of my AVMA brothers.”

Born in Glenview, Illinois, on Sept. 14, 1957, Dr. Anderson moved to Montana two days after his 18th birthday. After graduating from Montana State University with a degree in plant and soil science, he enrolled at Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, graduating in 1985. That same year, Dr. Anderson purchased a mixed animal practice in Absarokee, Montana.

Dr. Anderson was elected as Montana’s alternate delegate to the AVMA HOD in 2004 and was soon elevated to delegate. He remained in that position until 2018, when he again became Montana’s alternate delegate. In August 2021, Dr. Anderson was elected to a yearlong term as chair of the House Advisory Committee, making him an invited participant at meetings of the AVMA Board of Directors.

Dr. Anderson was known for his humility, honesty, and passion for organized veterinary medicine. He was quoted in the winter 2022 edition of the Montana VMA newsletter as saying, “I really don’t want to emphasize anything about myself, mostly I want to encourage participation.”

Asked what guidance he would offer young veterinarians regarding involvement in the AVMA and Montana VMA, Dr. Anderson responded: “Our profession would be a mess without the unified voice we gain through organized veterinary medicine. Taking ownership in your profession’s future is reasonable, important and rewarding. Most of all it’s necessary.”

Dr. Janet Donlin, AVMA CEO, called Dr. Anderson a very good friend to many and respected widely throughout the veterinary community.

“Whenever we gathered, whether at meetings or informally, he always offered a gentle smile, a warm hug, and words that were truly welcoming to all. He was an incredibly positive person, and one of his frequent rallying cries was, ‘Let’s move the positive energy forward.’ All who knew him respected him for his open-mindedness and his abundant love for life.”

Dr. Stuart E. Brown, American Association of Equine Practitioners delegate, called Dr. Anderson an incredible veterinary leader, mentor, and friend and an even better person. Dr. Brown recalled a robust and engaging discussion that Dr. Anderson led during an HOD reference committee meeting this past July that left an impression on Dr. Brown.

“I am glad I had the chance to tell him how much that occasion inspired me, and I hope that I can use that example to help others in a similar fashion in tribute to him,” Dr. Brown said.

Dr. Anderson enjoyed baking bread, listening to the blues, vintage motorcycles, bicycling, music, horseback riding, aviation, barbecuing, golf, and kayaking. In his spare time, he sold and serviced gas stoves and fireplaces.

“When looking at a challenge in an open-minded way, Rex would consider all presented possibilities and views,” former AVMA President Douglas Kratt recalled. “We would spend long hours talking about student debt, mental health, and workforce shortages; how to make good coffee; the proper way to grill; and fixing airplanes, among many other varied other things.”

Dr. Kratt added: “I will miss his smile, his welcoming demeanor, and the laughter he brought with him. I was better for knowing him, and thankfully AVMA made that happen.”

He is survived by a sister. Memorials may be made to the Rex Anderson Memorial Fund at any First Interstate Bank.

Raymond E. Applegate

Dr. Applegate (Ohio State ’64), 84, Mansfield, Ohio, died Oct. 14, 2022. His military service spanned more than 30 years, and he attained the rank of colonel. He co-established a practice in Mansfield; founded a mixed animal practice in Lexington, Ohio; and went on to practice primarily small animal medicine in Mansfield. His wife, Virginia; two sons; two grandchildren; and a brother survive him. Memorials may be made to The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine Class of 1964 Scholarship Fund, The Ohio State University Foundation, University Square North, 14 E. 15th Ave., Columbus, OH 43201, go.osu.edu/1964scholarship, or the Tunnel to Towers Foundation, 2361 Hylan Blvd., Staten Island, NY 10306, t2t.org.

James R. Collins

Dr. Collins (Texas A&M ’56), 89, Crossville, Tennessee, died June 18, 2022. He served as a federal meat inspector in Fort Worth, Texas. He subsequently established a practice in Houston, where he worked until retirement. He was also an on-call veterinarian for the Houston Zoo. He served on the Texas A&M University School of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences’ Development Council and initiated an endowed scholarship program at the veterinary school. He is survived by a daughter and a sister. Memorials may be made to West Houston Bible Church, 1500 W. Sam Houston Parkway N., Suite 104, Houston, TX 77043.

Eli C. Dodson

Dr. Dodson (Texas A&M ’03), 45, Stephenville, Texas, died Oct. 11, 2022. Following graduation, he joined North Bryan Veterinary Clinic in Bryan, Texas, owning the practice from 2006-16. Dr. Dodson subsequently worked three years in the Bryan, College Station, and Hempstead areas of Texas. In 2019, he began practicing mixed animal medicine at Ark Veterinary Clinic in Stephenville. Dr. Dodson’s wife, Cyndy; two daughters and a son; a grandchild; his parents; and a sister survive him.

Mark L. Engelbreth

Dr. Engelbreth (Minnesota ’69), 78, Appleton, Wisconsin, died June 21, 2022. He owned Appanasha Pet Clinic in Menasha, Wisconsin, where he practiced for 40 years until retirement. Dr. Engelbreth’s wife, Barbara; four children; and 11 grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to the Boys’ and Girls’ Brigade, an organization dedicated to developing the positive potential of youth, and sent to 109 W. Columbian Ave., Neenah, WI 54956.

Gordon R. Esbeck

Dr. Esbeck (Iowa State ’53), 93, Tipton, Iowa, died July 15, 2022. Following graduation, he served as a first lieutenant in the Army during the Korean War. Dr. Esbeck subsequently worked in Gilman, Iowa. He later served as a partner in a mixed animal practice in Tipton. He was a past president of the Eastern Iowa Veterinary Association. He served as mayor of Tipton, was a member of the Tipton School Board, and served on the board of directors of the Iowa Valley Habitat for Humanity. He is survived by his wife, Janice; two sons; eight grandchildren; and six great-grandchildren.

H. Rodney Ferguson

Dr. Ferguson (Ohio State ’67), 78, Rittman, Ohio, died Sept. 20, 2022. A diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons, he taught at Colorado State University and Kansas State University. He co-founded Akron Veterinary Referral and Emergency Center in Akron, Ohio, and owned Chippewa Valley Angus Farms. He is survived by his wife, Laurie; two sons and a daughter; eight grandchildren; and three sisters and a brother. Memorials may be made to the American College of Veterinary Surgeons, 19785 Crystal Rock Drive, Suite 305, Germantown, MD 20874, or Youth Scholarship Fund, Ohio Angus Association, c/o Dan Wells, 12620 Westfall Road, Frankfort, OH 45628.

Roger W. Finkenbine

Dr. Finkenbine (Ohio State ’74), 75, Tucson, Arizona, died Sept. 20, 2022. Following graduation and until 2003, he owned Feline Ltd. Cat Clinic in Tucson. Dr. Finkenbine later worked at what is now known as ABC Animal Clinic in Tucson, where he provided vaccination services for more than 12 years. He is survived by his wife, Sharon, and two sisters and a brother. Memorials toward the memorial garden at Mount Zion Lutheran Church may be sent to 4520 W. Ajo Way, Tucson, AZ 85746.

Thomas D. Kuhn

Dr. Kuhn (Purdue ’66), 80, Shelbyville, Indiana, died Sept. 30, 2022. Following graduation, he began his career in Waldron, Indiana. In 1972, Dr. Kuhn established a mixed animal practice in Shelbyville. Beginning in 1984, he focused on bovine embryo transfers and in vitro fertilization. Dr. Kuhn was a member of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners and an honorary member of the Indiana Holstein Association. His wife, Marcia; three children; five grandchildren; and a sister survive him. Memorials may be made to the Shelby County Cancer Association, P.O. Box 844, Shelbyville, IN 46176.

John T. LaCroix

Dr. LaCroix (Texas A&M ’58), 88, Biloxi, Mississippi, died Oct. 5, 2022. He owned Big Ridge Veterinary Hospital in Ocean Springs, Mississippi, for 20 years. Earlier, he served in the Air Force for two decades. He was stationed in Ethiopia, in England, and at Keesler Air Force Base in Biloxi. He attained the rank of major. He was a diplomate of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. He is survived by his wife, Ester; two sons and two daughters; and five grandchildren. Memorials may be made to the St. Vincent de Paul Society, 10446 Lemoyne Blvd., D’Iberville, MS 39540.

Glen F. Lehr

Dr. Lehr (Illinois ’63), 87, Harvard, Illinois, died Aug. 1, 2022. A large animal veterinarian, he owned a practice in Harvard. Dr. Lehr was an Army veteran of the Korean War. His wife, Virgie; a son and a daughter; four grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren survive him.

William H. Maher

Dr. Maher (Iowa State ’62), 86, Brooklyn Park, Minnesota, died Sept. 21, 2022. He co-owned Brooklyn Park Pet Hospital and owned Camden Pet Hospital in Minneapolis. Dr. Maher traveled on several missionary trips to Cuba and was awarded an honorary veterinary degree from Cuba. A veteran of the Army, he was a member of the American Legion. He is survived by his wife, Jacquelyn; two daughters and three sons; two grandchildren; and two sisters. Memorials may be made to Second Harvest Heartland, a hunger relief agency, and sent to 7101 Winnetka Ave. N., Brooklyn Park, MN 55428.

Jack A. Meister

Dr. Meister (Michigan State ’57), 91, Hampton, Connecticut, died Nov. 2, 2022. He was the Connecticut state veterinarian and an epidemiologist prior to retirement in 1997. Following graduation, Dr. Meister owned a practice in Meriden, Connecticut, before moving in 1971 to Hampton, where he established another clinic. In 1987, he sold the practice and served as the veterinarian for the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race in Alaska. Dr. Meister subsequently worked as a livestock superintendent at the University of Connecticut before serving as state veterinarian. His wife, Dawn; two sons; four grandchildren; and five great-grandchildren survive him.

Michael E. Metroka

Dr. Metroka (Ohio State ’85), 63, Sandusky, Ohio, died Oct. 20, 2022. He owned Metroka Animal Hospital in Sandusky for more than 35 years. Dr. Metroka also served as vice president of the board of trustees for the Humane Society of Erie County. His wife, Ying Wang; two daughters and a son; and four grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to the Humane Society of Erie County, 1911 Superior St., Sandusky, OH 44870.

Ram C. Purohit

Dr. Purohit, 83, Auburn, Alabama, died June 5, 2022. A 1962 graduate of Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences in India, he was a professor in the Department of Clinical Sciences at Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine, where he taught large animal clinical medicine and conducted research. He was a diplomate of the American College of Theriogenology. His wife, Cynthia; a daughter and two sons; seven grandchildren; three great-grandchildren; and two sisters survive him. Memorials may be made to the Alabama VMA, P.O. Box 803, Fayetteville, TN 37334, or Community Foundation of East Alabama, P.O. Box 165, Opelika, AL 36803.

Robert D. Simmons

Dr. Simmons (Louisiana State ’77), 70, Simpsonville, South Carolina, died Sept. 5, 2022. He spent most of his career in industrial veterinary medicine at what was known as Beecham Pharmaceuticals and at what is now known as Merck, retiring from the latter as vice president of global pharmaceutical development. He established a research fund and a professorship at Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine. The veterinary school honored him with a Distinguished Alumnus Award. His wife, Julia; two sons; five grandchildren; and a sister survive him. Memorials may be made to St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 501 St. Jude Place, Memphis, TN 38105.

John W. Whiteley

Dr. Whiteley (Colorado State ’57), 94, Salt Lake City, died June 3, 2022. He was the founder of Alta Veterinary Hospital in Sandy, Utah, where he practiced until retirement in 2008. During his career, Dr. Whiteley also provided veterinary services to the Salt Lake County K-9 unit and assisted with wildlife rehabilitation. Prior to establishing his practice, he was Utah state veterinarian. Dr. Whiteley served in the Marines during the Korean War. He is survived by six children, 17 grandchildren, and 38 great-grandchildren.

Kenneth T. Wright

Dr. Wright (Illinois ’62), 83, Blandinsville, Illinois, died Sept. 29, 2022. He became a partner at a practice in Blandinsville, focusing on food animal medicine. In 1972, he took over the practice, newly named the Blandinsville Veterinary Clinic. In later years, he co-owned swine units. He served on the board of directors of the American Association of Swine Veterinarians. In 1991, he was the inaugural recipient of the AASV Meritorious Service Award. He is survived by his wife, Betty. Memorials may be made to the Blandinsville United Methodist Church, 220 W. Adams St., Blandinsville, IL 61420.

  • Dr. Naola Ferguson-Noel

  • This series shows the steps taken to insert a Z-stitch over the site where a large bore cannula had been inserted into a dog’s vein as part of an intervention by a cardiologist. This approach is a more effective way to achieve hemostasis than applying manual compression. (Courtesy of Eli Ensor/University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine)

  • This figure for a scientific publication shows the anatomical features and location of the appendix in healthy rabbits. (© Diogo Guerra)

  • New legislation requires a coordinated federal response to zoonotic diseases that also threaten public health.

  • Drs. Carla L. Gartrell, dean of Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine; Ruby Perry, dean of Tuskegee University College of Veterinary Medicine; and Coretta Patterson attend a meeting of the National Association for Black Veterinarians. Drs. Gartrell and Perry have been important mentors to Dr. Patterson during her career. (Courtesy of Dr. Coretta Patterson)

  • Dr. Ronald Gill

  • The estimated volume of domestic sales and distribution of medically important antimicrobial drugs for use in chickens decreased by 69% between 2016 and 2021.

  • Dr. Rex R. Anderson