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Indications, complications, and mortality rate following craniotomy or craniectomy in dogs and cats: 165 cases (1995–2016)

Bridget A. Morton DVM, MS1, Laura E. Selmic BVetMed, MPH, DACVS-SA, DECVS2, Samantha Vitale DVM, MS, DACVIM1, Rebecca Packer MS, DVM, DACVIM3, Lawrence Santistevan DVM3, Beth Boudrieau DVM, DACVIM4, Whitney Hinson DVM4, Marc Kent DVM, DACVIM5, and Devon W. Hague DVM, DACVIM1
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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO
  • | 4 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
  • | 5 Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the most common indications for cranial surgery and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of complications and death in the perioperative period following cranial surgery.

ANIMALS

150 dogs and 15 cats.

PROCEDURES

For this multi-institutional retrospective case series, medical records of dogs and cats that underwent cranial surgery at any of the 4 participating institutions between 1995 and 2016 were reviewed. Variables were evaluated included species, sex, age, neurolocalization, history of preoperative seizures, surgical approach, histological results, perioperative complications, and outcome. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess for risk factors for complications.

RESULTS

The most common neurolocalization was the forebrain (110/165 [66.7%]), with 94 (57.0%) animals having had seizures preoperatively. The rostrotentorial (116/165 [70.3%]) and caudotentorial (32/165 [19.4%]) surgical approaches were most commonly reported. The most common indication was the treatment of meningioma (75/142 [52.8%]). Complications arose in 58 of the 165 (35.2%) cases within 24 hours and in 86 (52.1%) cases 1 to 10 days postoperatively. Perioperative complications included hypotension (38/165 [23.0%]) and anemia (27/165 [16.4%]). During the postoperative period, the most common complications were neurologic deficits, seizures, postoperative anemia, and aspiration pneumonia. The mortality rate with death or euthanasia perioperatively or ≤ 10 days postoperatively was 14.5% (24/165). Long-term complications occurred in 65 of the 165 (39.4%) animals, with seizures and neurologic deficits being the most common.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Cranial surgery was performed most commonly for the removal of neoplastic lesions in dogs and cats, and most complications were not life-threatening.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the most common indications for cranial surgery and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of complications and death in the perioperative period following cranial surgery.

ANIMALS

150 dogs and 15 cats.

PROCEDURES

For this multi-institutional retrospective case series, medical records of dogs and cats that underwent cranial surgery at any of the 4 participating institutions between 1995 and 2016 were reviewed. Variables were evaluated included species, sex, age, neurolocalization, history of preoperative seizures, surgical approach, histological results, perioperative complications, and outcome. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess for risk factors for complications.

RESULTS

The most common neurolocalization was the forebrain (110/165 [66.7%]), with 94 (57.0%) animals having had seizures preoperatively. The rostrotentorial (116/165 [70.3%]) and caudotentorial (32/165 [19.4%]) surgical approaches were most commonly reported. The most common indication was the treatment of meningioma (75/142 [52.8%]). Complications arose in 58 of the 165 (35.2%) cases within 24 hours and in 86 (52.1%) cases 1 to 10 days postoperatively. Perioperative complications included hypotension (38/165 [23.0%]) and anemia (27/165 [16.4%]). During the postoperative period, the most common complications were neurologic deficits, seizures, postoperative anemia, and aspiration pneumonia. The mortality rate with death or euthanasia perioperatively or ≤ 10 days postoperatively was 14.5% (24/165). Long-term complications occurred in 65 of the 165 (39.4%) animals, with seizures and neurologic deficits being the most common.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Cranial surgery was performed most commonly for the removal of neoplastic lesions in dogs and cats, and most complications were not life-threatening.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Selmic (selmic.1@osu.edu)