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Federal drug officials want help determining which drugs should be legally available for non–food-producing animals with few approved treatment options.

The Food and Drug Administration maintains an index of unapproved but legally marketed animal drugs intended for use in what the agency considers minor species, or nonhuman animals outside the seven major species: cats, cattle, chickens, dogs, horses, pigs, and turkeys. Under the current policy, the index applies only to drugs intended for species that never produce food for human consumption. Rabbits, for example, can be raised as pets or for food, so the index excludes applications for drugs used in rabbits.

On June 23, FDA officials announced they were seeking comments on whether the agency should expand eligibility to animals that never enter the food supply even though their species are considered food producing. Agency officials also want to know what information should be evaluated in determining eligibility of those species subsets and which animals in particular should be eligible for such drug approvals.

FDA officials are accepting comments through Sept. 22 at regulations.gov under docket number FDA-2017-D-2462.


The Wild Animal Health Fund has awarded 14 grants for research on zoo animals and wildlife for the 2021-22 fiscal year totaling $158,000. The fund, which continues to grow and expand its portfolio in its 10th year, is a program of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

The new studies are as follows:

  • “Establishing stress levels and helminthes burdens of African elephants in Murchison Falls National Park Uganda.”

  • “Anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in owls and diurnal raptors from New Mexico.”

  • “Non-tuberculous mycobacteria in African wildlife and their environment as potential confounders to diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.”

  • “Epidemiology, early diagnosis, control and prevention of anthrax in Grevy's zebra in Kenya.”

  • “Sub-lethal effects of plastic ingestion in albatrosses and petrels: The southern giant petrel as a case study.”

  • “Investigating the comparative susceptibility of wildlife to SARSCoV-2 through in situ mapping of the host cell receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).”

  • “Analgesic effects and pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus).”

  • “Improving the reproductive success in the black-footed ferret using new minimally invasive assisted reproductive techniques.”

  • “Machine learning–based assessment of elephant joint health and mobility.”

  • “Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure in wild passerines: Investigating links in an avian population crisis.”

  • “Evaluation of serum and liver copper concentrations and association with dietary factors in captive Baird's tapirs (Tapirus bairdii).”

  • “Evaluation of mesenchymal stem cell therapy in loggerhead and green sea turtles with naturally occurring multidrug resistant bacterial infections.”

  • “Low dose opioid—high dose alpha-2 agonist combinations in African wildlife and novel tools to mitigate adverse effects.”

  • “Closing the gap on African elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV).”

More information about the Wild Animal Health Fund and the grants is available at WildAnimalHealthFund.org.

AVMA President Arce pledges to tackle profession's economic challenges

Increasing access to veterinary profession a priority for new president

By R. Scott Nolen

Incoming AVMA president Dr. José Arce will spend the coming year focused on removing financial barriers for those who want to join the veterinary profession and promoting the well-being of veterinary students and the entire veterinary team.


Dr. José Arce

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 259, 5; 10.2460/javma.259.5.441

Speaking during the regular annual session of the AVMA House of Delegates on July 30 in Chicago, Dr. Arce linked high educational debt and other “formidable” economic challenges to the profession's wellness issues. He said: “As president, I will strive to improve the educational debt-to-income disparities that exist in our profession by advocating in Congress on legislation to make possible low-interest or interest-free student loans and to make veterinary medical education more accessible.

“I will foster an environment that promotes the mental health, emotional well-being, and personal happiness of veterinarians, veterinary staff, and students both at work and at home.”

Dr. Arce was elected to the AVMA Board of Directors in 2014. The HOD last year elected Dr. Arce as the 2020-21 AVMA president-elect and successor to the current AVMA president, Dr. Douglas Kratt. Dr. Arce is the first Puerto Rican president of the AVMA.

A 1997 graduate of the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Arce is president and co-owner of Miramar Animal Hospital in San Juan, Puerto Rico. His wife, Dr. Anik Puig, is also a veterinarian.

One of the lessons of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is that veterinary medicine is essential to protecting public health, Dr. Arce said. “It is of utmost importance that we continue to promote one health, recognizing that the interconnections between people, animals, and their shared environment have become more significant and impactful than ever,” he said.

“We must remain focused on pursuing and strengthening relationships with other global veterinary associations and intergovernmental institutions to support public health, animal health, and welfare around the world.”

Dr. Arce is proud of his Puerto Rican and Spanish roots and said they have shaped his perspective on life. He feels a personal and professional responsibility to lead by example, sending a clear message of inclusiveness that will hopefully inspire other minorities to become involved in organized veterinary medicine.

Additionally, as the AVMA Board's liaison to the Commission for a Diverse, Equitable, and Inclusive Veterinary Profession, Dr. Arce pledged to continue working with AVMA partners to achieve greater diversity, equity, and inclusion in the veterinary profession.

“I see the role of the (AVMA) president as an ambassador of our profession and a strong advocate of the AVMA family,” Dr. Arce said. “Whether it is the AVMA, AVMF (American Veterinary Medical Foundation), AVMA trusts, AVMA PAC (Political Action Committee), or the Student AVMA, I am committed to help ensure all parts of the AVMA family work together to serve the needs of our members more effectively.

“In the year ahead, I will do my best to be a strong leader who represents all our members, advocates for our profession, and inspires others to do the same. Together, we will work toward an AVMA that better meets the needs of society while protecting, promoting, and advancing a unified veterinary profession.”


Story and photo by R. Scott Nolen


Dr. Lori Teller, chair of the AVMA Board of Directors, won the race for 2021-22 AVMA president-elect on July 30 during a vote by the AVMA House of Delegates.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 259, 5; 10.2460/javma.259.5.441

Dr. Lori Teller, chair of the AVMA Board of Directors, won the race for 2021-22 AVMA president-elect on July 30 after a vote by the AVMA House of Delegates. She defeated former AVMA Vice President Dr. Grace Bransford in the first women-only race for president-elect in the Association's 158-year history.

Later, during the candidates' introductory portion of the HOD's regular annual session, Dr. Bransford announced she is running for 2022-23 AVMA president-elect. She will challenge former AVMA Board Chair Dr. Rena Carlson.

Three women have previously ascended to the office of AVMA president, starting with Dr. Mary Beth Leininger in 1996. Dr. Bonnie Beaver was next in 2004, followed by Dr. René Carlson in 2011. Since then, two women have run unsuccessfully for the AVMA presidency: Drs. Jan Strother in 2015 and Angela Demaree in 2017.

In her acceptance speech to the HOD, Dr. Teller stood with husband and high school sweetheart Craig Teller, MD, a dermatologist. “A giant shout-out to all of you for electing me as your next AVMA president-elect,” Dr. Teller said. “I cannot tell you how humbled and thrilled I am to serve you in this role.

“There are many issues that our profession is grappling with. I stand ready to work with you, the Board, and staff to address these issues.”

Dr. Teller is a clinical associate professor of telehealth at Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, from which she graduated in 1990.

A diplomate of the American Board of Veterinary Practitioners in canine and feline practice, Dr. Teller practiced for several years at Meyerland Animal Clinic in Houston until joining the faculty at TAMU in 2018. She was a founding board member of the Women's Veterinary Leadership Development Initiative.

For several years, Dr. Teller has been involved in organized veterinary medicine at the local, state, and national levels. She has served in the AVMA House of Delegates and on several AVMA committees and task forces, including the Animal Welfare Committee and as chair of the State Advocacy Committee. On the AVMA Board of Directors, Dr. Teller is the outgoing chair and District VIII representative.

She will spend the coming year as AVMA president-elect and, next summer, will succeed Dr. José Arce as AVMA president.


Story and photos by R. Scott Nolen

Three candidates spoke during the regular annual session of the AVMA House of Delegates on July 30—one for a second time.

Dr. Rena Carlson, former chair of the AVMA Board of Directors, announced she is running for 2022-23 AVMA president-elect. Dr. Grace Bransford, former AVMA vice president, will also be running for the same position during this next election cycle.

Dr. Jennifer Quammen, co-founder of a veterinary coaching business, is the only candidate for 2022-24 AVMA vice president so far. The AVMA Board recently revamped the office of vice president to build stronger ties with veterinary college deans and faculty as well as veterinary student leadership.


Dr. Jennifer Quammen

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 259, 5; 10.2460/javma.259.5.441

Dr. Carlson is a 1989 veterinary graduate of Washington State University. In 1993, she became co-owner of Alpine Animal Hospital in Pocatello, Idaho, which has grown into a mixed animal practice employing six doctors. Although her primary focus is companion animals, she continues to have an agricultural perspective. A former member of the AVMA HOD and several AVMA councils and committees, Dr. Carlson served on the AVMA Board from 2014-20, spending her final year on the Board as chair.


Dr. Rena Carlson

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 259, 5; 10.2460/javma.259.5.441

Speaking to AVMA delegates, Dr. Carlson said her goal as AVMA president would be “to build and strengthen our connections and focus on unity and understanding, which is critical to meet the challenges ahead.” She also hopes to build a more inclusive culture with the veterinary profession while also helping veterinary professionals achieve financial success and practice ownership, if they so chose.

Dr. Bransford is a 1998 graduate of the University of California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine and a small animal practitioner in Marin County, California. From 2018-20, Dr. Bransford was AVMA vice president. She has been involved in AVMA volunteer leadership for many years, serving on numerous councils and committees.


Dr. Grace Bransford

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 259, 5; 10.2460/javma.259.5.441

She declared her candidacy shortly after losing to Dr. Lori Teller in the race for 2021-22 AVMA president-elect. In her brief address to the HOD, Dr. Bransford said it is her dream to serve as AVMA president.

“Leading this organization, being a figurehead, being a lead communicator has been my dream,” she said. “This is my profession, my passion. It's your profession and your passion. And I promise I will give you every bit of service to all of you in this role.”

Dr. Quammen is a 2011 veterinary graduate of The Ohio State University and an alumna of the AVMA Future Leaders Program. She has served on a number of AVMA entities, including the Council on Veterinary Service, the Practice Advisory Panel, and the Veterinary Economics Strategy Committee.

“Well-being and wellness are terms that define me,” Dr. Quammen told the HOD.

“Helping people within our profession understand that failure isn't failure—failure is simply feedback—that is something we really have to learn in this profession,” as it will go a long way toward promoting personal well-being, she said.


The AVMA Board of Directors elected Dr. Karen Bradley, District I director, as 2021-22 chair while meeting in Chicago on July 31. The board also elected Dr. Ronald Gill, District VI director, as vice chair for the coming year.

Dr. Bradley has represented AVMA members living in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont since 2016, when she was elected as the Board's District I director. Last year, she served as vice chair of the AVMA Board.


Dr. Karen Bradley

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 259, 5; 10.2460/javma.259.5.441

A 1996 graduate of the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Bradley co-owns Onion River Animal Hospital in Barre, Vermont. She chaired the AVMA Governance Engagement Team from 2013-2014 and co-founded the Women's Veterinary Leadership Development Initiative, serving as president from 2013-15.

As AVMA Board vice chair, Dr. Gill will substitute for Dr. Bradley in her absence and perform other duties as prescribed by the Board or the chair.

Dr. Gill is a 1975 graduate of the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine and owner of Gill Veterinary Clinic in West Salem, Illinois. In 2017, he was elected to represent AVMA members living in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin on the AVMA Board.


Dr. Ronald Gill

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 259, 5; 10.2460/javma.259.5.441

Dr. Gill has served on multiple entities within the AVMA, including as vice chair of the Council on Education.

Veterinary first responder certification moves apace

Competencies identified, some training courses will start this fall

By R. Scott Nolen

The AVMA has identified nearly three dozen competencies necessary for certification in what would be the nation's first standardized training program for veterinary disaster and emergency planning and response.

The 35 competencies address a broad range of logistical and health issues that a certified veterinary first responder must be ready to address during a disaster or animal health emergency, from resource procurement to recognizing the circumstances when mass animal depopulation is the humane solution.

The AVMA Committee on Disaster and Emergency Issues finalized the list of competencies this summer. The CDEI is now in the process of accepting submissions from organizations to have their training courses approved as teaching these competencies, according to Dr. Warren Hess, an assistant director in the AVMA Division of Animal and Public Health who is overseeing the Association's certification program.

Last November, the American Veterinary Medical Foundation board of directors voted to provide $80,000 for the AVMA to develop a certificate program for veterinary first responders. As the CDEI explained in its funding request, the program is needed as no standardized program for training veterinarians in disaster and emergency planning and response currently exists.

Dr. Hess said news that the AVMA is developing a certification program for veterinary first responders was welcomed by national and regional organizations, such as the National Alliance of State Animal and Agricultural Emergency Programs and the Southern Agriculture and Animal Disaster Response Alliance, and even in Great Britain and Australia.

Some training courses will air this fall on AVMA Axon—the Association's continuing education platform—but most courses, at least initially, will be provided directly by veterinary colleges or other organizations whose training content is approved by the CDEI, Dr. Hess explained.

The 35 competencies for a veterinary first responder fall within the following categories:

  • Demonstrates skills needed for personal and family preparedness for disasters and animal health emergencies.

  • Demonstrates knowledge of one's expected role(s) in organizational and community response plans activated during a disaster or animal health emergency.

  • Demonstrates situational awareness of and solutions to actual or potential health concerns that may be encountered before, during, and after a disaster or animal health emergency.

  • Demonstrates knowledge of potential impacts of various types of disasters and animal health emergencies on resources and how they impact animals along with potential solutions/workarounds to those impacts.

  • Demonstrates knowledge of biosecurity and animal welfare principles that may be required in dealing with animals in disasters or animal health emergencies.

  • Demonstrates knowledge of reporting and responding to zoonotic, transboundary, and foreign animal diseases and how to mitigate potential impacts on human and environmental health.

  • Demonstrates knowledge of humane euthanasia and depopulation techniques for various animal species and appropriate disposal options for animal carcasses (both small and large numbers) that may be required for animals in disasters or animal health emergencies.

  • Has completed three specified Federal Emergency Management Agency online courses.

Dr. Hess said it will be a state-by-state determination on whether agencies add this certification as a requirement or recommendation for authorized veterinary first responders.


The application period is now open for two American Veterinary Medical Foundation programs, one for veterinary students and one for veterinary researchers.

The first is the Foundation's Auxiliary to the AVMA Legacy Endowed Scholarship Program, which was created in recognition of the AVMF's long-standing relationship with the AVMA Auxiliary.

The Auxiliary is a nonprofit organization of family and friends of veterinarians whose purpose is to promote the science and art of veterinary medicine through communications, education, and support of those associated with the veterinary profession. The Auxiliary created its student loan fund in 1917 to help veterinary students with the cost of their education by providing low-interest loans. In 2013, the Auxiliary transferred $2 million to the AVMF to establish the scholarship program.

Scholarships are awarded annually to students at each of the AVMA-accredited veterinary colleges in the United States and veterinary colleges at the following foreign universities: University of Prince Edward Island in Canada; St. George's University and Ross University in the Caribbean; and the University of Edinburgh, the University of London, and the University of Glasgow in the United Kingdom. Applicants must be citizens of the United States. The application period is open from Sept. 1-Oct. 15. More information is available at avmf.org/auxiliary-scholarship-info.

The second AVMF program is a grant opportunity for veterinary clinicians and scientists with an interest in veterinary pharmacology.

The AVMF and the Veterinary Pharmacology Research Foundation have partnered to fund research grants with a focus on veterinary pharmacology. This funding supports research projects designed to improve prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals. Two types of grants will be awarded if there is adequate quality of submissions—veterinary pharmacology proposals for up to $30,000 and veterinary pharmacokinetic proposals for up to $15,000.

The application deadline is Sept. 15, and recipients will be notified on Jan. 15, 2022. More information is available at avmf.org/programs/research-support.


By Kaitlyn Mattson

The American Animal Hospital Association released new guidelines on nutrition and weight management that discuss a systematic approach to nutritional management in dogs and cats.

The 2021 AAHA Nutrition and Weight Management Guidelines, which were prepared by a task force of experts, include information on body condition score, muscle condition score, and communicating nutritional recommendations to clients.

“Nutritional management is a central component of a complete health care plan for canine and feline patients and is integral to a pet's longevity and quality of life,” according to the guidelines. “The positive impact of proper nutrition on health and morbidities such as chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, and osteoarthritis is well accepted. Thus, a nutritional assessment of canine and feline patients should be performed on a regular basis throughout all pet life stages, ideally at each examination visit.”

The guidelines are not a standard of care but offer evidence-based recommendations.

The following are some of the topics discussed:

  • How to perform an individualized, breed-specific, and complete nutritional assessment.

  • Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of underweight or overweight pets.

  • A comprehensive list of nutrients of concern for specific health conditions.

  • Suggestions on how to communicate and educate owners about nutritional recommendations.

  • Strategies to increase adherence to nutritional recommendations.

  • Current information related to raw and home-prepared diets and breed-specific diets.

“Practitioners have minimal or no control over certain aspects of pet health such as the patient's genetics and home environment,” the guidelines state. “Nutrition, on the other hand, can be substantially influenced by the veterinarian's medical expertise and recommendations. Achieving this positive effect requires a partnership between the veterinarian, the practice team, and the pet-owner client. More so than many other pet healthcare topics, discussing nutrition with clients can include sensitive topics such as obesity, pet food choice, feeding habits, and food rewards. For that reason, these guidelines include a detailed discussion on communicating dietary recommendations to clients in a trust-based, non-defensive manner.”

The authors of the guidelines are Dr. Martha G. Cline, licensed veterinary technician Kara M. Burns, Dr. Jason B. Coe, Dr. Robin Downing, Dr. Tiffany Durzi, Dr. Maryanne Murphy, and Dr. Valerie Parker.

The 2021 guidelines build on the guidelines previously released by AAHA in 2010 and 2014. The 2021 guidelines can be found at jav.ma/AAHAnutrition.


Three new members joined the AVMA Council on Education this summer. The AVMA Council on Education Selection Committee appointed Dr. Roxann Motroni of Upper Marlboro, Maryland, to represent non–private practice, non–academic veterinary medicine. The American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges' Council on Education Selection Committee appointed Dr. Linda S. Mansfield of East Lansing, Michigan, to represent basic science. And the Council on Education appointed Victoria Stratman of Altadena, California, to represent the public.


By Kaitlyn Mattson

The American Association of Veterinary State Boards launched Veterinary Care Elite earlier this year. The program stores all qualifications and accomplishments for veterinary technicians with easy accessibility.

The Veterinary Care Elite program also acts as a concierge service for licensure and includes regulation maps and information related to requirements in other jurisdictions in case an enrollee wants to become licensed in other areas. The AAVSB collects, verifies, and stores participants' qualifications.

“Veterinary Care Elite validates and recognizes the regulated veterinary technicians who have met the profession's highest standards as set by the AAVSB's Member Boards,” said Dr. Roger Redman, AAVSB president, in a press release. “The AAVSB will do that by verifying their education, regulation credentials, and professional conduct, affirming its belief that a robust and efficient regulatory process will support and advance the veterinary profession.”

The collected information is housed in the Veterinary Information Verifying Agency, a database of licensing information established by the AAVSB member boards.

Jim Penrod, the executive director of AAVSB, said the program will hopefully solve some mobility problems and will allow other AAVSB member boards to expedite reviews of licensing applications.

“We think it solves one of the problems we've seen with veterinary technicians,” Penrod said. He added that this is a simple way for veterinary technicians to stand out in a veterinary hospital as it demonstrates a gold standard to employers.

Veterinary technicians, depending on the state, can hold the titles of registered veterinary technician, licensed veterinary technician, certified veterinary technician, or licensed veterinary medical technician. This usually means a veterinary technician has graduated from an AVMA Committee on Veterinary Technician Education and Activities–accredited program and passed an examination such as the Veterinary Technician National Exam, among other things. There can also be other ways of obtaining licensure, such as documented hours of experience.

Most states regulate the credentialing of veterinary technicians, but several do not, consisting of Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wyoming, according to the National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America. These states recognize private certifications from veterinary medical or technician associations that individuals may pursue.

NAVTA leaders have been working to standardize veterinary technician credentials. In particular, license portability has been a concern they've tried to address.

Additional benefits of the Veterinary Care Elite program include a complete professional profile, an account to easily search and track continuing education, and access to information for licensure and regulation questions.

The program initially opened in the U.S. as a pilot in April to VTNE applicants who were graduating from an accredited program, but will open to all credentialed veterinary technicians in all AAVSB member board jurisdictions this fall.

The AAVSB also plans to provide a similar program to veterinarians in the future, which will likely be released next year.

More information about the program for veterinary technicians is available at jav.ma/VetCareElite.


The article “Campus tours” in the Aug. 15, 2021, issue of JAVMA News, page 342, gave the wrong year for a veterinary student at the University of Arizona in a photo caption. Arianna Adams is a second-year student.

USDA expanding efforts to protect farmed aquatic animals

National aquaculture plan will harmonize regulations, reporting, testing

By Greg Cima

A plan published this summer would consolidate authority over aquaculture under the U.S. Department of Agriculture and expand measures to find and control disease outbreaks.

The changes would create national guidance on aquaculture-related disease reporting, disease surveillance, outbreak response, biosecurity, employee training, diagnostic laboratory standards, pathogen testing, and certifications that aquatic animals are healthy and safe, according to information from the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. All of those are elements of a robust aquatic animal health system, the plan document states.

“The integrity of this system is the platform for safeguarding the health of all aquatic animals, farm-raised and wild, as well as supporting health certification of U.S. aquaculture-produced aquatic animals.”

APHIS officials outline the changes through the National Aquaculture Health Plan and Standards, 2021-2023, and the document notes that an executive order from President Biden mandates that the plan be updated every two years by the USDA and its partners. The 2021-23 document is available in PDF format at jav.ma/NAHPS.

Dr. Stephen Reichley, president of the World Aquatic Veterinary Medical Association, said implementing these science-based policies could help efforts to protect aquatic animal health, minimize disease, and facilitate trade.

“If the plan is successfully implemented and adopted by all stakeholders, then it could help support the aquaculture industry and provide the necessary infrastructure for advancement of animal health and sustainable growth of U.S. aquaculture,” Dr. Reichley said.

Since a previous version of the aquaculture plan was published in 2008, representatives from APHIS, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have shared leadership of a federal task force on protecting aquaculture animal health and aiding animal shipping and trade.

Accomplishments include coordinating export certification services, developing animal health modules for the National Veterinary Accreditation Program, and incorporating aquatic animal pathogens into the National Animal Health Reporting System and National Animal Health Laboratory Network, APHIS information states. The group also led surveillance projects for diseases including infectious salmon anemia and viral hemorrhagic septicemia.

But the new plan notes that lack of resources hampered the group's progress, especially in light of the diversity of species, production methods, and uses for the aquatic animals affected by the plan, according to a summary in the new plan. Stakeholders also disagreed on acceptable amounts of disease risk and how much needed mitigation through measures such as testing and biosecurity.

The document further states that oversight of animal health had been vague or dispersed among federal agencies and state-level departments, creating confusing and redundant regulations on aquatic animal health. Millions of healthy aquatic animals had been needlessly destroyed because of these conflicts, the document states.

In 2018, for example, Cooke Aquaculture Pacific had to destroy about 800,000 Atlantic salmon following molecular detection of piscine orthoreovirus. But detecting genetic material of a pathogen in an otherwise healthy population doesn't necessarily indicate a population is infected or able to spread the disease, an APHIS spokesman said.

In 2020, President Joe Biden signed an executive order authorizing the creation of a new aquaculture plan—with the USDA leading its implementation.

APHIS spokesperson Joelle R. Hayden provided a statement that the USDA is the primary federal entity overseeing livestock and other agricultural commodities, so it's fitting that the department would lead federal efforts on aquaculture and aquatic animal health. USDA officials will continue collaborating with officials from NOAA and USFWS.

Dr. Reichley said that continued collaboration with federal, state, and tribal entities is key to making the plan work. But he expressed disappointment that a technical working group described in the plan doesn't include dedicated seats for the WAVMA or the American Association of Fish Veterinarians, which he said could be excellent resources for those federal and local agencies.

Dr. Reichley also said he commends USDA officials for recognizing that veterinarians must lead disease investigations, treatments, reporting, and other responses under the Comprehensive Aquaculture Health Program Standards, which is a livestock health inspection program outlined in the document. But he and other WAVMA leaders would like to see that leadership role applied to veterinarians more broadly in the planning document.

“I think veterinarians are well positioned and qualified to ensure the health and welfare of aquatic animals,” Dr. Reichley said. “We would like to see that role of veterinarians be applied to the plan in its entirety.”


U.S. Department of Agriculture officials plan to require that certain animal research facilities, dealers, exhibitors, handlers, and carriers have plans on how to care for their animals during emergencies.

A proposed rule, published June 24 by the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, would mandate that facilities regulated under the Animal Welfare Act create and maintain contingency plans on how to handle animals during disasters or other emergencies, as well as train employees on how to implement those plans.

APHIS officials said in the announcement that emergency plans could help not only save the lives of animals but also protect human health from the hazards associated with animal carcasses, improve business continuity, and reassure the public that facilities are protecting animals.

Agency officials had proposed a previous version of the rule in December 2012, but, in July 2013, they stayed implementation pending further review of the rule's potential impact on small entities. But APHIS officials believe those concerns have been alleviated by a 2018 rule that ended AWA licensing requirements for hundreds of dealers with small numbers of breeding animals and exhibitors with low overall animal populations.


By Greg Cima

A candidate vaccine currently in development could help protect cattle against a widespread pathogen that causes wasting disease.

The cattle that receive the experimental vaccine against paratuberculosis can still become infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis but to a lesser degree. The results of two trials by U.S. Department of Agriculture scientists indicate those cattle have less intestinal colonization by MAP and shed fewer of the bacteria in their feces, reducing the risk that herd mates will become infected and develop the often-fatal wasting disease also known as Johne's Disease, according to an article published this May in the journal Vaccine, available at jav.ma/paratuberculosis.

The vaccine contains four recombinant MAP proteins, the article states. Higher doses seemed to provide greater protection.

The U.S. currently has no vaccines marketed for paratuberculosis.

A pair of research microbiologists with the USDA Agricultural Research Service co-authored the article in Vaccine: Judy R. Stabel, PhD, and John Bannantine, PhD. Dr. Stabel, who is the lead scientist on the ARS Johne's Disease Research Project, said a field trial is needed, and the researchers are considering an extensive yearslong field study that would require an industry partner.

Cattle with paratuberculosis typically remain asymptomatic at least two years before developing clinical signs, according to the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Clinical signs include weight loss and diarrhea, and, once the loss of protein from the disease causes soft swelling under the jaw, death usually follows within a few weeks.

Sheep and goats can also become infected. They, too, can lose weight and waste away, and a minority of sheep also develop diarrhea, APHIS information states. Those signs tend to occur before one year of age.

Dr. Stabel said the vaccine trials so far involved experimental infections lasting 12 months, after which the researchers evaluated the effects of the vaccine on infection in dairy calves, including whether it reduced infection in intestinal tissue in comparison with controls. Clinical signs of paratuberculosis typically emerge in cattle following stressful events, such as calving, heavy lactation, or exposure to other pathogens, none of which were present in the biosafety level–2 laboratory where the studies occurred.

Dr. Stabel said the researchers also hope to partner with a commercial company that could further develop the vaccine production process and use that ability for further tests on larger numbers of animals and herds. While the two studies have produced promising results, she said a commercial partner would be needed for the extensive field work to validate the vaccine's efficacy and gain licenses to sell it in the U.S. and other countries.

The article in Vaccine also notes that killed or live attenuated paratuberculosis vaccines have been shown to interfere with diagnostics of other mycobacterial species, especially Mycobacterium avium and bovine tuberculosis. But calves administered the recombinant candidate paratuberculosis vaccine showed negligible cross-reactivity with antigens for each of those bacteria, suggesting testing could differentiate between animals administered this vaccine and animals with other mycobacterial infections.


As pet health insurance becomes more prevalent in veterinary medicine, more data have become available on how having pet health insurance impacts client behavior.

For example, pet owners who purchase pet health insurance are more likely to bring their pets in to their veterinarian and to approve surgical procedures, according to a study by Nationwide released earlier this year.

More recently, a study by Zoetis aimed to evaluate the impact of the company's Pumpkin Pet Insurance and optional Preventive Essentials package on the number of hospital visits per year per pet, pet owners' spending per year per pet, service and product purchases, and veterinary teams' perceptions of acceptance of care and hospital visit experience. The study is available at pumpkin.vet/value.

The study results were based on 396 transaction records for 71 dogs and four cats at three veterinary practices from 2019-20. The 75 pets were observed as two separate groups—28 pets insured with Pumpkin (26 dogs and two cats) and 47 never-insured pets (45 dogs and two cats).

According to Zoetis, Pumpkin insurance had the following impacts:

  • Pets had more examination fees, ear cleanings and cytology, surgeries, sedations, and in-hospital pharmacy transactions, compared with before these pets got Pumpkin. They also had more radiographs, blood panels, heartworm tests, and parasite control.

  • Pets visited their veterinarians 2.8 times per year, compared with 2.3 times per year prior to these pets getting Pumpkin and 1.7 times for never-insured pets in this dataset.

  • Calculated annual spending was $559 per pet with Pumpkin insurance, compared with $392 prior to these pets getting Pumpkin insurance and $326 for never-insured pets.

  • Among surveyed veterinary team members, 82% thought pet owners were more accepting of care recommendations when they had Pumpkin, and 64% said pet owners had a better hospital experience, while 90% said uninsured pet owners were anxious about the cost of care.


By Malinda Larkin


On behalf of the AVMA, Drs. Janet Donlin, AVMA CEO, and Douglas Kratt, outgoing AVMA president, accept the World Veterinary Day Award, which the AVMA received July 29 during AVMA Virtual Convention 2021 for its response to the COVID-19 pandemic. (Photo by R. Scott Nolen)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 259, 5; 10.2460/javma.259.5.441

The AVMA has won this year's World Veterinary Day Award for its immediate response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Association developed an online COVID-19 resource center that was first made available to veterinarians around the world in February 2020— three weeks before the World Health Organization's global pandemic declaration.

The WVA created World Veterinary Day in 2000 as an annual celebration of the veterinary profession, taking place on the last Saturday of April. The World Veterinary Day Award, given by the WVA and Health for Animals, the global animal medicines association, honors one WVA member's activities related to the theme. This year's focus was the veterinarian response to the COVID-19 crisis.

Drs. Patricia Turner, WVA president, and Carel du Marchie Sarvaas, executive director for Health for Animals, virtually presented the award and $3,500 to Dr. Douglas Kratt, AVMA president, on July 29 in Chicago during AVMA Virtual Convention 2021.

“Throughout the SARS-CoV-2 global crisis and continuing to the present, the AVMA has demonstrated stellar national and international leadership by supporting veterinary professionals around the world with critical information and resources intended to ensure practice sustainability and continuity as well as protecting safety and public health,” Dr. Turner said.

Dr. Kratt thanked the groups for the award and said he was in awe of the work done by the AVMA's 97,000 members around the country and by the AVMA staff during a crisis of historic proportions.

“We partnered with international colleagues to share information, new knowledge, and best practices in responding to the pandemic,” Dr. Kratt said. “And the AVMA team worked tirelessly to support our members and help educate the public about the evolving disease and its impact on animal and human welfare.”

The AVMA's COVID-19 webpage continues to provide information for practitioners and their clients as well as accounts of how veterinarians around the U.S. provided patient services, protected the food supply, and responded to COVID-19 with a one-health mindset.

The AVMA also received the 2014 World Veterinary Day Award for developing an online hub about animal welfare.

The AVMA's COVID-19 resources are available at avma.org/coronavirus.

Helping diabetic pets live happily ever after

Veterinarians have more options than ever for monitoring and treating diabetic cats and dogs

By Katie Burns

Pancake, a male Siamese cat, had unregulated diabetes six months after first being diagnosed with the disease—by his owner, a physician.

The obese cat had been on various insulins and dosing schemes. His owner measured his blood glucose two to four times daily and gave him an insulin dose on the basis of the measurements, similar to what she might have recommended for her human patients. He had persistently high blood glucose in the face of a rising insulin dose.

Dr. Jessica Pritchard, a clinical assistant professor of small animal internal medicine at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, described Pancake's case while presenting the session “Updated Strategies for Monitoring Diabetes and Troubleshooting Your Difficult Diabetics” at AVMA Virtual Convention 2021 in July.

Dr. Pritchard picked one dose of insulin for Pancake and did a blood glucose curve using a flash continuous glucose monitor. The cat turned out to be not insulin resistant but overdosed. A follow-up curve found the insulin duration was too long, so Dr. Pritchard switched to an insulin with a shorter duration. She also added a weight-loss plan.

Pancake's case illustrates a few of the intricacies of managing diabetes mellitus in pets. Diagnosing the disease in cats and dogs is pretty straightforward, but treatment and monitoring can be complex—especially with more options available than ever, including flash continuous glucose monitors, subject of another session at AVMA Virtual Convention 2021.

Banfield Pet Hospital's State of Pet Health 2016 Report found that diabetes mellitus in dogs increased by 79.7% between 2006 and 2015, to 23.6 cases per 10,000 dogs. Prevalence in cats increased by 18.1% over the same time frame, to 67.6 cases per 10,000 cats. Obesity is one risk factor for diabetes, and more than half of cats and dogs in the United States are overweight, according to the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention.


Among recent resources to help veterinarians treat diabetic pets are the 2018 AAHA Diabetes Management Guidelines for Dogs and Cats from the American Animal Hospital Association and the Diabetes Educational Toolkit for managing cats released in 2019 by the American Association of Feline Practitioners.

“Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a treatable condition that requires a committed effort by veterinarian and client,” according to the AAHA guidelines. “Due to many factors that affect the diabetic state, a pet's changing condition, and variable response to therapy, management of DM is often complicated. Success requires understanding of current scientific evidence and sound clinical judgment. Each patient requires an individualized treatment plan, frequent reassessment, and modification of that plan based on the patient's response.”


Pancake the cat with a flash continuous glucose monitor (Photo by Dr. Jessica Pritchard)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 259, 5; 10.2460/javma.259.5.441

According to the guidelines, diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is based on persistent glucosuria and hyperglycemia and the presence of characteristic clinical signs such as polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and weight loss.

Insulin and dietary modifications are the mainstays of treatment for diabetes mellitus in cats and dogs. Remission is possible in cats.

According to the AAFP's Diabetes Educational Toolkit: “Effective treatment is based on a combination of client goals, finances, implementation of the treatment plan, and the patient's response. It is very important to establish goals with the owner at the initiation of treatment and to maintain a frequent, open dialogue.”

For cats, the toolkit recommends a low-carbohydrate diet along with maintaining weight if the cat has a good body condition score or managing obesity. The toolkit lists lente, glargine, protamine zinc insulin, and detemir as insulin options for cats.

According to the AAHA guidelines, treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs always requires insulin. The guidelines list lente, glargine, protamine zinc insulin, and neutral protamine hagedorn as insulin options for dogs.

Higher-fiber diets are recommended for diabetic dogs, either diets designed for weight maintenance in dogs that are not obese or diets designed for weight loss in obese dogs.

“Monitoring diabetic pets can be challenging,” according to the AAHA guidelines. Among various monitoring methods, a blood glucose curve is the only way to know how to appropriately change an insulin dose.

The traditional approach to getting a glucose curve involves hospitalizing the patient to have measurements taken. Recently, veterinarians have started to use flash continuous glucose monitors for at-home glucose curves.


Dr. Lawren Durocher-Babek, a specialist in small animal internal medicine at 9 Lives Hong Kong, presented “Rational Use of Flash Continuous Glucose Monitors in Small Animal Medicine” in July at AVMA Virtual Convention 2021.

FCGMs consist of a sensor that attaches to an animal for up to two weeks along with a reader or smartphone to collect data. Dr. Durocher-Babek explained that FCGMs are continuous glucose monitors that check glucose one moment at a time.


Gigantor, the maybe-still-diabetic cat, sits in a cat carrier. After an insulin overdose by a pet sitter, Dr. Jessica Pritchard placed a flash continuous glucose monitor on the cat. Data from the monitor led to the decision to discontinue insulin, and Gigantor turned out to be in remission for a while. (Photo by Dr. Pritchard)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 259, 5; 10.2460/javma.259.5.441

The sensor has a filament that samples interstitial fluid once a minute to measure glucose. The data points are merged every 15 minutes and held in the sensor for up to eight hours. A reader or smartphone is used to scan the sensor, and then data are transferred to the web, where they are analyzed and stored.

Problems with FCGMs include that they are inaccurate at very low ranges of glucose, dehydration can cause issues, they don't always last two weeks, pets can have skin reactions, and owners can be overly anxious.

Why should veterinarians consider using flash continuous glucose monitors? FCGMs are able to catch rebound hyperglycemia after an insulin dose that is too high, which can lead to better regulation. There is a decreased stress response in pets, in comparison with blood draws and usually a hospital stay. The system is possibly cheaper in the long run. And FCGMs allow pet owners to be more involved.

The FreeStyle Libre is the type of FCGM that is most commonly used in veterinary practice. Among the ideal patients for FCGMs are the newly diagnosed, difficult-to-control diabetics, pets with diabetic ketoacidosis, cats going into remission, and surgical patients. The ideal clients are those who are not too anxious, will listen to instructions, and want to be involved.

In her practice, Dr. Durocher-Babek usually places the FCGM while the patient is in the hospital. She replaces the sensor every two weeks until the patient is regulated. Then she places a sensor every three to six months. When the sensor is in place, owners email her weekly with updates, and then she looks at the data.

Dr. Durocher-Babek's take-home points were to still evaluate clinical signs, give clear instructions to owners, and know that FCGMs are not perfect but still good for trends.

She said, “This is a good tool but does not take the place of a good veterinarian.”


Dr. Pritchard, Pancake's veterinarian, said her goals for diabetes management in dogs and cats are to control clinical signs and have an absence of hypoglycemia. She said difficult-to-control diabetics are pets with recurrent hypoglycemia or pets with persistent hyperglycemia and clinical signs.


Two dogs with flash continuous glucose monitors (Courtesy of Dr. Lawren Durocher-Babek)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 259, 5; 10.2460/javma.259.5.441

Dr. Pritchard started her talk at AVMA Virtual Convention 2021 by covering basic monitoring and glucose curves before delving into investigation of the uncontrolled diabetic.

For the initial investigation, Dr. Pritchard said, start by ensuring proper insulin handling. Watch the owner give the insulin. Questions to ask: Is the insulin shaken or rolled? Where is it stored? Who gives the insulin usually? Are there changes in color, consistency, or clarity?

Next, check mealtime habits. Is the owner feeding meals or free-feeding? Is the owner giving snacks between meals? Have there been diet changes recently? If the pet won't eat its diet, try changing the diet to something the pet will eat reliably. Other options might be an appetite stimulant or feeding tube. If another pet is eating the food, try a feeder with radio-frequency identification.

Finally, take a thorough drug history. Among the things that are likely to cause insulin resistance are steroids and cyclosporine, plus hormones in intact animals. Don't forget alternative routes of exposure such as owners' hormone creams or pets' eye drops, topical sprays, or ear drops. If the pets' medications are the problem, ensure the drugs are necessary, evaluate alternative administration routes, evaluate alternative drugs, or increase the insulin dose.

For further investigation of the uncontrolled diabetic pet, Dr. Pritchard said, there is no substitute for a good history and physical examination. Has the owner noticed anything new at home? Have there been changes in the hair coat or dental changes? Has a goiter developed? Has the pet gained weight to the point of obesity?

Dr. Pritchard recommended that baseline diagnostics should consist of weight, the physical examination, a complete blood count, chemistry with triglycerides, urinalysis, urine culture, and a thyroid panel.

Run additional diagnostics on the basis of suspected concurrent conditions. These could include hypothyroidism, urinary tract infection, renal disease, hypertriglyceridemia, feline hypersomatotropism, canine hyperadrenocorticism, and pancreatitis.

Dr. Pritchard concluded her talk by covering additional monitoring strategies, including at-home urine tests.

“Don't underestimate what your clients can and will do,” she said.



The American College of Veterinary Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation welcomed 20 new diplomates following the board certification examination it held virtually March 3-5. The new diplomates are as follows:


  • Alice Baker-Meuten, Fort Collins, Colorado

  • Nicole Chun, Annapolis Junction, Maryland

  • James Guthrie, Surrey, England

  • Amber Ihrke, Homer Glen, Illinois

  • Jennifer Repac, Gainesville, Florida

  • Gabriella Varcoe, Oceanside, California


  • Brian Beasley, Watkinsville, Georgia

  • Francesca Beccati, Perugia, Italy

  • Kara Brown, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania

  • Katherine Ellis, Colbert, Georgia

  • Kelly Guinta, Earlysville, Virginia

  • Bri Henderson, Grand Valley, Ontario

  • Susan Jones, Melbourne, Australia

  • Korin Potenza, Bonsall, California

  • Rachel Read, Calgary, Alberta

  • Nicolle Symonds, Dromana, Australia

  • Wade Tenney, North Grafton, Massachusetts

  • Lauren Trager-Burns, Christiansburg, Virginia

  • Lea Ann Walker, Litchfield Park, Arizona

  • Gustavo Zanotto, Bryan, Texas




Dr. Daniels (California-Davis '63), 83, Point Reyes Station, California, died May 24, 2021. Following graduation, he served as a partner in a mixed animal practice in Point Reyes Station. Dr. Daniels subsequently established a large animal mobile practice based out of his ranch in Nicasio, California, focusing on bovine and equine medicine. He also raised beef and Texas Longhorn cattle. Dr. Daniels was a member of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners and American Association of Equine Practitioners. He is survived by four daughters. Memorials may be made to the Marin Agricultural Land Trust, 145 A St., Point Reyes Station, CA 94956.


Dr. Ewing (Ohio State '60), 85, Delaware, Ohio, died Feb. 16, 2021. He practiced in Ohio for more than 30 years. Dr. Ewing's son, two daughters, six grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren survive him.


Dr. Fairbairn (Kansas State '53), 91, Garden City, Kansas, died April 9, 2021. Following graduation, he established a mixed animal practice in Kinsley, Kansas. Dr. Fairbairn subsequently served two years as a base veterinarian in the Air Force. He then moved to Garden City, where he practiced for more than 30 years.

Dr. Fairbairn was a past president of the Kansas VMA and a past chair of the Kansas Veterinary Technician Association, a member of the Kansas Livestock Association for more than 50 years, and a member of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners. In 1986, he was named KVMA Veterinarian of the Year.

Active in his community, Dr. Fairbairn served on the board of directors of Garden City's Unified School District 457. He was a member of Rotary International and the Rotary Foundation and was a Paul Harris Fellow. Dr. Fairbairn was also a member of the American Legion.

His wife, Marilyn; three sons and a daughter; nine grandchildren; and 13 great-grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to the Friends of Lee Richardson Zoo, 312 E. Finnup Drive, Garden City, KS 67846.


Dr. Guilloud (Texas A&M '65), 79, Houston, died March 19, 2021. He was a partner at Briargrove Animal Clinic in Houston for four decades. Dr. Guilloud served as a captain in the Air Force. He was a charter member of the Houston Westchase Rotary Club. Dr. Guilloud's wife, Nancy; three children; and two grandchildren survive him.


Dr. Knott (Iowa State '00), 44, Carlsbad, California, died Feb. 13, 2021. During her career, she practiced small animal medicine in Arizona and California. An accomplished triathlete, Dr. Knott competed in more than 20 Ironman races. She is survived by her parents and two sisters. Memorials may be made to the Midlands Humane Society, 1020 Railroad Ave., Suite A, Council Bluffs, IA 51503, or Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, 1800 Christensen Drive, Ames, IA 50011.


Dr. Lerner (Ross '12), 43, Raymond, New Hampshire, died April 8, 2021. Following graduation, she worked at Andover Animal Hospital in Andover, Massachusetts, and Banfield Pet Hospital in Danvers, Massachusetts. Dr. Lerner subsequently moved to New Hampshire and joined Hampstead Animal Hospital in Hampstead. She was also a dog trainer. Dr. Lerner is survived by her husband, Jeremy; two daughters; her parents; and her stepfather. Memorials may be made to the Dr. Joanna Lerner Memorial Fund, c/o Salem Co-operative Bank, 3 South Broadway, P.O. Box 67, Salem, NH 03079.


Dr. Maves (Illinois '68), 78, Sarasota, Florida, died May 11, 2021. He owned Southland Veterinary Clinic in Freeport, Illinois, for 20 years. Dr. Maves also practiced part time in Rockford, Illinois, and Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. During his time in Freeport, he served on the board of directors of the local Salvation Army and the Family YMCA of Northwest Illinois. Dr. Maves is survived by his wife, Sandra; two daughters; and three grandchildren. Memorials may be made to the Salvation Army, 106 W. Exchange St., Freeport, IL 61032, or Family YMCA of Northwest Illinois, 2998 W. Pearl City Road, Freeport, IL 61032.


Dr. Miesse (Kansas State '43), 99, Collierville, Tennessee, died April 6, 2021. Following graduation, he joined the Army Veterinary Corps, during World War II. Dr. Miesse subsequently settled in Memphis, Tennessee, where he practiced at Foote Animal Hospital. In 1964, he established Miesse Animal Hospital in Germantown, Tennessee, practicing there until retirement in 2003.

Dr. Miesse was a member of the Tennessee and Memphis/Shelby County VMAs. He is survived by his wife, Mary; three sons, two daughters, and two stepsons; 11 grandchildren; six great-grandchildren; and a brother. Memorials may be made to Cordova Presbyterian Church, 1071 N. Sanga Road, Cordova, TN 38018.


Dr. Monson (Minnesota '69), 81, Plum City, Wisconsin, died April 9, 2021. Following graduation, he moved to Plum City, where he practiced large animal medicine until retirement in 2010. A veteran of the Army, Dr. Monson was a member of the American Legion. His son, daughter, five grandchildren, a great-grandchild, and a sister and a brother survive him. Dr. Monson's niece, Dr. Nikki Crandall-Seibert (Wisconsin '95), is a veterinarian in the Delavan-Darien area of Wisconsin. Memorials may be made to Immanuel Lutheran Church, 420 1st St., Plum City, WI 54761.


Dr. Parker (Purdue '64), 84, Clayton, Indiana, died April 15, 2021. Following graduation, he established a mixed animal practice in Coatesville, Indiana. Dr. Parker subsequently worked 26 years as staff veterinarian at American Breeders Service, a bovine breeding service in DeForest, Wisconsin, retiring in 1991. During his career, he represented ABS during a trade mission to Lithuania, traveled as a consultant and educator to Baltic countries and Ethiopia, and worked several weeks in the United Kingdom with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's animal disease eradication program.

Dr. Parker was a diplomate and a past president of the American College of Theriogenologists. He was a member of the Society for Theriogenology, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, and Indiana and Wisconsin VMAs. In 1991, Dr. Parker was named Wisconsin VMA Veterinarian of the Year. He received the Indiana VMA Veterinarian of the Year Award in 2000. That same year, Dr. Parker was also the recipient of Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine's Distinguished Alumnus Award.

Active in his community, he served several years on the Poynette Public Schools' Board of Education in Poynette, Wisconsin, and helped establish and served as president of the Hendricks County Community Foundation in Avon, Indiana. Dr. Parker was a veteran of the Army. He is survived by his wife, Linda; a daughter; two grandchildren; and a sister.

Memorials may be made to Project Mercy, a nonprofit organization that provides community development and famine relief in Ethiopia, and sent to 7011 Ardmore Ave., Fort Wayne, IN 46809, projectmercy.org (designate food security); Purdue Musical Organizations, Ralph & Bettye Bailey Hall, 359 Northwestern Ave., West Lafayette, IN 47906, purdue.edu/pmo (designate Varsity Glee Club); Hendricks County Community Foundation, 6319 East U.S. Highway 36, Suite 211, Avon, IN 46123, hendrickscountycf.org (designate Doris K. Parker Music Fund); or Wisconsin Regional Training Partnership—Building Industry Group and Skilled Trades Employment Program, 3841 W. Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53208, wrtp.org (designate Eric Parker Memorial Fund).


Dr. Turner (Auburn '48), 93, Valdosta, Georgia, died April 16, 2021. He began his career serving as a captain in the Army Veterinary Corps. Dr. Turner subsequently established a mixed animal practice in Valdosta. From 1975-98, he was a member of the Georgia State Senate. During that time, Dr. Turner served a stint as senate majority whip, was chair of the Banking and Financial Institutions Committee, and was a member of the Appropriation Committee and Higher Education Committee. Following his service in the Senate, he was appointed to the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, serving as chair of the board in 2005.

Active in his community, Dr. Turner was a past chair of the Valdosta-Lowndes County Chamber of Commerce and was a member of the Rotary Club and Georgia Farm Bureau. He established the Annette Howell Turner Center for the Arts in downtown Valdosta. In 2015, Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine honored Dr. Turner with the Wilford S. Bailey Distinguished Alumni Award. His wife, Ingrid; two daughters, a son, and a stepdaughter; five grandchildren and two stepgrandchildren; and a sister survive him. Memorials may be made to the Annette Howell Turner Center for the Arts, 527 N. Patterson St., Valdosta, GA 31601, turnercenter.org, or Regency SouthernCare Hospice, Kindred at Home–Hospice Division, 655 Brawley School Road, Suite 200, Mooresville, NC 28117, regencysoutherncarehospice.com.


Dr. Voss (Oklahoma State '64), 81, Carrier, Oklahoma, died June 3, 2021. He practiced mixed animal medicine in Goltry, Oklahoma, for 56 years. Dr. Voss is survived by his wife, Jann; two sons; three grandchildren; and a great-grandchild. Memorials, toward the Class of 1964 at Oklahoma State University College of Veterinary Medicine, may be made c/o Lanman Funeral Home Inc., 309 E. 4th St., Helena, OK 73741.


Dr. Williams (Georgia '63), 86, Ellijay, Georgia, died May 25, 2021. He practiced at Old Mill Farm, a Thoroughbred farm in Cartersville, Georgia, for several years. Dr. Williams is survived by his wife, Sandra; two daughters and two sons; six grandchildren; and a great-grandchild.

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