No third-party funding or support was received in connection with this study or the writing or publication of the manuscript. The authors declare that there were no conflicts of interest.
Coefficient of variation
Quality control material
Total allowable analytic error
Total observed analytic error
- 1. ↑
Cook JR, Hooijberg EH, Freeman KP. Quality Management for In-Clinic Laboratories: the total quality management system and quality plan. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;258:55–61.
- 2. ↑
Hooijberg EH, Freeman KP, Cook JR. Quality Management for In-Clinic Laboratories: facilities, instrumentation, health and safety, training, and improvement opportunities. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;258:273–278.
- 3. ↑
Freeman KP, Cook JR, Hooijberg EH. Quality Management for In-Clinic Laboratories: standard operating procedures. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;258:477–481.
- 4. ↑
Hooijberg EH, Freeman KP, Cook JR. Quality Management for In-Clinic Laboratories: equipment maintenance and instrument performance. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;258:725–731.
- 6. ↑
Flatland B, Freeman KF. Repeat patient testing shows promise as a quality control method for veterinary hematology testing. Vet Clin Pathol 2018;47:252–266.
- 9. ↑
Westgard JO. What's the idea behind statistical quality control? In: Westgard JO, ed. Basic QC practices. 3rd ed. Madison, Wis: Westgard QC Inc, 2010;15–26.
- 10. ↑
Flatland B, Freeman KP, Vap M, et al. ASVCP guidelines: quality assurance for point-of-care testing in veterinary medicine. Vet Clin Pathol 2013;42:405–423.
- 12. ↑
Lester S, Harr KE, Rishniw M, et al. Current quality assurance concepts and considerations for quality control of in-clinic biochemistry testing. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;242:182–192.
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Rishniw M, Pion PD, Maher T. The quality of veterinary in-clinic and reference laboratory biochemical testing. Vet Clin Pathol 2012;41:92–109.
- 14. ↑
Manzocchi S, Furman E, Freeman K. Comparison of 3 options for choosing control limits in biochemistry testing. Vet Clin Pathol 2017;46:120–125.
- 16. ↑
Harr KE, Flatland B, Nabity M, et al. ASVCP guidelines: allowable total error guidelines for biochemistry. Vet Clin Pathol 2013;42:424–436.
- 17. ↑
Westgard JO, Schilling P. Westgard QC online QC calculator. Available at: tools.westgard.com/qccalculator.html. Accessed Aug 25, 2020.
Checklist for statistical QC for in-clinic laboratories.
|Recommendation||Compliant?||Additional comments by auditor|
|QCMs obtained for all automated instruments.||□ Yes □ No|
|Lot numbers and expiration dates of QCMs recorded.||□ Yes □ No|
|QCMs stored in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and are not used past their expiration date.||□ Yes □ No|
|QCMs run through the largest panel that the instrument offers.||□ Yes □ No|
|At least 2 levels of QCM (1 representing healthy and at least 1 other representing abnormal) used for initial in-clinic instrument evaluation. This evaluation is repeated annually or more frequently if software updates occur. (These measurements help determine the correct control range [bound by control limits] that will produce a high probability of error detection and a low probability of false rejection for patient sample measurements.)||□ Yes □ No|
|Control limits for measurands chosen on the basis of bias, CV, and TEa. The 1–3s rule (control range bound by 3 SDs of the mean) is used if feasible (as described in the main text).||□ Yes □ No|
|After control limits established, at least 1 level of QCM used for routine statistical QC monitoring on each day a given test is performed.||□ Yes □ No|
|Statistical QC measurements serially recorded in a spreadsheet or on a Levey-Jennings chart that shows the mean and calculated control limits (number of allowable SDs from the mean).||□ Yes □ No|
|QC measurements falling outside of chosen control limits addressed by troubleshooting before any patient samples are run.||□ Yes □ No|
|If QC measurements continue to fall outside control limits, if TEobs > TEa, and if these trends persist after assistance from the manufacturer, purchase of a new instrument considered or nonstatistical QC added to test evaluation.||□ Yes □ No|
|Control means, SDs, TEobs, and control limits reevaluated with changes in QCM lot numbers or software updates.||□ Yes □ No|