Starting this January, residents of Denver can legally own pit bull–type dogs.

Voters passed Ballot Measure 2J by a 66% margin during the Nov. 3, 2020, election, repealing the 30-year-old ban against keeping pit bull–type dogs as pets within Denver city limits.

The new legislation institutes a permit system for pit bull–type dogs, which must be registered with Denver Animal Protection, microchipped, neutered or spayed, and vaccinated, among other things. Only two dogs with permits are allowed per home.

Owners must notify animal control if their dog escapes or bites anyone. If no violations for a dog with a permit are recorded for three consecutive years, the owner is allowed to register the dog like any other dog in Denver.

Last year, Denver Mayor Michael Hancock vetoed a similar bill that would have repealed the 1989 ordinance, the first veto in his three-term tenure.

Although numerous veterinary and animal protection organizations, including the AVMA, oppose breed-specific legislation as discriminatory against responsible owners and their dogs, the American Kennel Club estimates that more than 700 U.S. jurisdictions have enacted such bans.


The AVMA Council on Education has scheduled site visits to 13 schools and colleges of veterinary medicine for 2021.

Comprehensive site visits are planned for North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Feb. 21-25; the University of Glasgow School of Veterinary Medicine, March 7-12; Oregon State University Carlson College of Veterinary Medicine, April 4-8; the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, April 25-29; the University of Melbourne, Melbourne Veterinary School, May 9-14; Massey University School of Veterinary Science, May 23-28; the University of Arizona College of Veterinary Medicine, July 18-22; Tuskegee University College of Veterinary Medicine, Aug. 29-Sept. 2; Utrecht University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sept. 26-30; Long Island University College of Veterinary Medicine, Oct. 10-14; Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Oct. 24-28; Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Nov. 7-11; and The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Nov. 14-18.

The council welcomes written comments on these plans or the programs to be evaluated. Comments should be addressed to Dr. Karen Martens Brandt, Director, Education and Research Division, AVMA, 1931 N. Meacham Road, Suite 100, Schaumburg, IL 60173. Comments must be signed by the person submitting them to be considered.


With COVID-19 infections around the world increasing, the AVMA is reminding pet owners to have a plan in place for their pets in case they contract the virus.

Dr. Douglas Kratt, president of the AVMA, recommends that if pet owners become infected, they should identify someone within their household to take care of their pets, or the pet owner should wear a cloth face covering while caring for the animals and should not share food with, kiss, or hug pets.

“While this is primarily a human disease, we have seen a small number of cases in pets,” Dr. Kratt said in a statement. “These cases in pets appear to be uncommon, and are mostly mild or asymptomatic, but they can still happen. To be safe, and until we know more about the virus, the AVMA recommends those ill with COVID-19 restrict contact with their pets, just as they would restrict contact with other people.”

Dr. Kratt stressed that pet owners shouldn't panic or consider abandoning their pets, but he hopes pet owners plan for emergencies and consider taking steps to protect themselves and their pets.

More information related to veterinary medicine and COVID-19 is at AVMA.org/Coronavirus.

Please send comments and story ideas to JAVMANews@avma.org.

Denmark culling minks in attempt to eliminate SARS-CoV-2 variant

Spike protein mutation could affect antibody response

By Greg Cima

Government authorities and mink breeders in Denmark have depopulated millions of minks partly in an attempt to contain a SARS-CoV-2 variant seen as a danger to humans.

That variant contains mutations that Danish officials said could make it less susceptible to antibodies against other SARS-CoV-2 strains. The country had already depopulated minks on hundreds of farms with SARS-CoV-2 infections before discovery of the variant.

All SARS-CoV-2–infected minks and minks in risk zones have been depopulated, according to a Nov. 27, 2020, press release from the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. The mink population previously totaled an estimated 15 million.

The administration, national police, Danish Emergency Management Agency, and armed forces worked with mink breeders to depopulate and dispose of approximately 11 million minks on 288 properties with infected minks and 446 properties in the risk zones. In addition, most mink breeders outside the risk zones stated they have depopulated their minks.

“However, the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration does not expect all mink to be killed before the new law banning the keeping of mink enters into force,” stated the release, as translated from Danish. Therefore, new infected herds may continue to be detected through ongoing surveillance.

A working paper from the Danish government indicates the SARS-CoV-2 variant of most concern has changes to its spike surface glycoprotein that could make it less recognizable to antibodies created in response to infection with or vaccination against another SARS-CoV-2 strain. A Cornell University researcher with expertise on coronaviruses said the effect appears to be modest, and the variant is worth attention but not panic.

A Nov. 12, 2020, rapid risk assessment by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control stated that, of the mink-related variants analyzed, only one raised specific concern because of its effect on antigenicity. Further investigations were needed to assess whether the variant would have any impact on risk of reinfection in humans, reduce vaccine efficacy, or reduce the benefit of treatment with plasma from convalescent patients or monoclonal antibodies.

“It should be noted that continued transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in mink farms may eventually give rise to other variants of concern,” according to the assessment.


According to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as of Nov. 30, 2020, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and, in the U.S., Michigan, Oregon, Utah, and Wisconsin had reported SARS-CoV-2 infections in farmed minks.

A Nov. 6, 2020, World Health Organization report states that, since June, 214 people in Denmark had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 variants associated with farmed minks, and 12 of them were infected with a unique variant with previously unseen mutations. Initial observations suggested similarities to other SARS-CoV-2 infections in terms of clinical presentation, disease severity, and virus transmission.

“Preliminary findings indicate that this particular mink-associated variant identified in both minks and the 12 human cases has moderately decreased sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies,” the announcement states. “Further scientific and laboratory-based studies are required to verify preliminary findings reported and to understand any potential implications of this finding in terms of diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines in development.

“In the meantime, actions are being taken by Danish authorities to limit the further spread of this variant of the virus among mink and human populations.”

The 12 people infected with the variant were ages 7-79 years, and eight had links to the mink farming industry. Four were from a local community near a farm.

All of those infections occurred in the North Jutland region, where national authorities increased restrictions on gatherings, limited visits from people who are not permanent residents in Denmark, and encouraged all citizens to get tested for SARS-CoV-2. That included encouragement for people to get tested every three or four days if they have connections to mink farming.


Gary R. Whittaker, PhD, who is a professor of virology at the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, studies the structures and genetic functions of coronaviruses. He is helping lead a group of laboratories studying SARS-CoV-2. He also co-authored a scientific article on coronavirus susceptibility and transmission among minks and other mustelids; that article was pending publication in mBio at press time.


According to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as of Nov. 30, 2020, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and, in the U.S., Michigan, Oregon, Utah, and Wisconsin had reported SARS-CoV-2 in farmed minks.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 258, 1; 10.2460/javma.258.1.7

He said coronaviruses mutate often, especially in the spike protein they use to bind with a host cell's receptors. Those mutations should be taken seriously and studied, but he expressed skepticism that the variant that inspired the cull order in Denmark could evade immune responses well enough to scuttle vaccination plans.

“It's not impossible, but there's not really very good evidence,” he said.

The variant targeted by Danish authorities seemed to have a mutation with modest effects on one component of the immune response, Dr. Whittaker said. But any vaccines that gain approval probably will induce an immune response with broad enough effects to protect people.

He noted that the changes so far appear to be results of conventional variations, rather than recombination with other coronaviruses circulating in animals. Such variations are possible as the virus spreads and evolves, and mink farms may accelerate that change, Dr. Whittaker said.

“The virus is going to be sampling different genetic space and just figuring out what's best for the virus, in a way,” he said. “I think the concentration of animals, it just allows that selection to be fast forwarded.”

Managing the risk from such variants is a complex problem that may have no simple answers, Dr. Whittaker said, although he called the decision to euthanize all of Denmark's minks a draconian response that raises concerns about the welfare of the animals and safety of people conducting the depopulation. But he noted that the world continues struggling, in general, in responding to COVID-19.

The WHO report notes that advanced laboratory studies are needed to show the impact of specific mutations.

The findings of the Danish public health authority, Statens Serum Institut, need verification, according to the WHO. Further studies could give information on the mutations and their effects on transmission, clinical presentation, diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. WHO officials plan to work with Danish officials on those studies and analyses.

FDA urges collaboration as dilated cardiomyopathy afflicts more dogs

Meeting materials describe DCM as scientific puzzle, with potential associations to certain diets

By Greg Cima

Food and Drug Administration officials have received 1,100 adverse event reports of dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs since January 2014.

Dr. Steven M. Solomon, director of the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine, told attendees of a scientific forum in September 2020 that the disease accounts for more than half of the adverse event reports related to cardiac conditions, according to a written version of his opening remarks. The disease, which has emerged in animals often without known genetic predisposition, has presented a “scientifically complex, multifaceted issue,” but he noted that data from those cases have shown associations between the disease and grain-free foods, particularly those high in peas, lentils, or both.

“A pattern emerged,” he said. “Dogs in cases submitted to FDA were reported to have consumed diets containing high proportions of pulse ingredients, which are dried legume seeds, including peas, chickpeas, and lentils.”

The meeting in September was a forum on DCM, hosted by Kansas State University, and included presentations by pet food company representatives, university-based researchers, and FDA CVM officials who provided an update on data collected by the agency from January 2014 through July 2020. During that time, reports of 1,100 dogs and 20 cats with DCM were shared with the FDA, and the FDA Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network analyzed records from 161 dogs.

Of 121 dogs with DCM reports sent to the FDA between January 2018 and April 2019, 23 had full recoveries and 84 had partial recoveries.

“All dogs that fully recovered received a diet change,” the presentation states. “Nearly all dogs were also treated with taurine and pimobendan. Over half of the dogs also received an ACE inhibitor, whereas additional treatments and supplements varied.”


FDA officials issued an alert in July 2018 that they had been receiving reports of DCM in dogs of breeds not typically thought to be prone to the disease, which historically affected mostly large-breed dogs and Cocker Spaniels. In the disease, chambers of the heart dilate, they pump blood less effectively, and dogs develop lethargy, weakness, coughing, rapid breathing, and congestive heart failure.

In at least one presentation in 2019, an FDA representative said 93% of dogs identified in DCM reports had eaten diets high in peas, lentils, or both, and 91% ate grain-free diets.

In the September 2020 meeting, the Vet-LIRN presentation indicated that the network continues to see high proportions of affected dogs eating grain-free diets high in pulses, as well as dogs that recover normal heart size and function after diet changes and treatment.

FDA officials said in a follow-up announcement in November 2020 that the agency continued plans to collaborate with researchers outside the agency on studies of nonhereditary DCM and stated that it was a complex medical condition that may be affected by factors such as genetics, underlying medical conditions, and diet. They also noted that some of September's presentation materials were available to the public. The materials can be found at jav.ma/kstatedcm.

In one of those presentations, for example, representatives from Hill's Pet Nutrition said the company was working with pet genetics testing company Embark Veterinary to study 1,000 dogs in which DCM had been diagnosed and was evaluating potential links between the disease and various genetic markers, foods, medications, and historical factors, including spay or neuter status, according to an abstract.

In other presentations, pet food industry representatives claimed the FDA's data are insufficient to link DCM with certain types of diets or ingredients.

A representative for Champion Petfoods, for example, said the FDA's data were insufficient to show certain diets cause DCM, and examinations of those links should consider specific nutrients rather than broader diet characteristics, according to written comments.

Dr. George Collings, president of Missouri-based Nutrition Solutions, said in another presentation legumes and grain-free diets are diverse and subjected to diverse conditions in food production. In his written comments, he suggested increased reports of DCM may be related to other factors, such as overfeeding in dogs or recent genetic mutations that could affect dogs’ ability to metabolize glucose.


Dr. Teresa DeFrancesco, a professor of cardiology and critical care at the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, described in September's meeting a retrospective study that compared disease severity and outcomes for patients with DCM and congestive heart failure at the university hospital, grouped by whether they were on grain-free or conventional diets. In an interview with JAVMA News, she said the group on grain-free diets was younger overall, and it included more dogs from breeds without any known genetic predisposition for DCM.

She said a pair of unrelated Miniature Schnauzers that were on the same lentil-based diet developed DCM within four months of each other in 2017, and they became the hospital's index cases for potential diet-based DCM. The first died despite intensive treatment, but the second became ill as the veterinary community became aware of the potential for diet-related DCM. It survived with treatment and diet change, Dr. DeFrancesco said.

Because the first Schnauzer died before July 2017, it was excluded from the retrospective study, she said.

The data also indicate dogs tended to have worse clinical signs the longer they were on grain-free diets, she said. And, among the grain-free diet group, younger patients had worse clinical disease.

The NC State study examined medical records for 67 dogs that survived more than one week following the initial diagnosis of congestive heart failure, Dr. DeFrancesco said. Twenty-four had been eating traditional diets, and 43 ate grain-free diets at home but switched diets following the diagnosis.

Dogs in both groups received standard treatments, with dogs that had been on grain-free diets receiving diet changes and supplemental taurine. The groups had similar rates of arrhythmia, she said.

Dr. DeFrancesco noted that the data collected in the study don't prove any connections between diet and heart failure. It's difficult to say what would have happened to the dogs if they had stayed on the same diets but otherwise received the same treatments, she said.

“It's flawed data; it's retrospective,” she said. “And all it can do is, really, raise an eyebrow. And, fortunately, there are other investigators who are working on this in a prospective manner.”

Dr. DeFrancesco noted that she could provide only limited data at press time, as the study was under peer review pending publication. But, she said, the dogs that had been on grain-free diets then switched to a traditional diet and put on a treatment plan tended to have better recovery and longer survival times—if they survived beyond the one to two weeks after diagnosis.

She also wants to tell other veterinarians that nutrition-related cardiomyopathy can be difficult to detect.

“When you get a 4-year-old pit bull that comes to you for coughing, with no murmur, you may not think of heart disease,” she said.

Dr. DeFrancesco said it's important for veterinarians to ask about diet when a patient develops clinical signs that might be heart related. She also encourages monitoring the heart function of any animal on a grain-free diet, as identifying disease early could help prevent irreversible damage.

In his written remarks, Dr. Solomon said the Center for Veterinary Medicine sees the rise in DCM cases as a scientific puzzle rather than a regulatory issue. He also said he has no reason to believe pulse ingredients are inherently dangerous, but grain-free foods tend to contain them in higher proportions. CVM officials have asked pet food makers to share information on how they formulate those diets.

He also expressed hope scientific exchanges would expand, collaboration would continue, and any misinformation could be corrected.

“Pet owners and the animals they care deeply about are depending on all of us,” he said.


By R. Scott Nolen

How might the global economy look in a post-pandemic world?

Macroeconomist and New York Times bestselling author Dambisa Moyo, PhD, offered her thoughts on the topic during her keynote address at the annual AVMA Economic Summit, held virtually Oct. 26-28, 2020. Dr. Moyo holds advanced degrees from Oxford and Harvard universities. Recognized as a leading thinker in macroeconomics, geopolitics, and technology, she is a highly sought-after adviser for governments and multinational companies.

Dr. Moyo told summit attendees she's spent the last several months considering what follows a long period of economic growth “punctured” in a little more than a decade by two global crises: the Great Recession of 2007-09 and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

“Even before the the pandemic hit in earnest in March of 2020, the global economy was already in a pretty precarious place,” she said. Annual economic growth for developed and developing countries was below the 3% necessary to double per capita incomes in a generation. Most telling was that Germany experienced zero economic growth during the final quarter of 2019.

Contributing factors to this economic malaise include automation and robotics that replace human labor and income inequality. Dr. Moyo cited an Oxfam statistic that the world's eight wealthiest people—all men—possess more wealth than the bottom 3.5 billion people combined. Ever-increasing populations are placing higher and higher demands on water, arable land, and other limited natural resources already threatened by climate change, she added.


Dambisa Moyo, PhD

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 258, 1; 10.2460/javma.258.1.7

“To make matters worse, public policy has become quite impotent,” Dr. Moyo said, explaining that every government was already grappling with massive debt. “We were living in a world which is really la-la land in terms of economics—a world of negative interest rates where we were not seeing much of an ability (by governments) to address these fundamental structural issues I outlined.”

As if things weren't bad enough, then the COVID-19 virus struck.

Economic institutions, including the World Economic Forum and International Monetary Fund, have since forecast a continued downward trend for global growth for the foreseeable future. “We should very much think of the COVID pandemic as catalytic to that negative growth theme we were already experiencing,” Dr. Moyo explained.

In the coming days, Dr. Moyo said to expect governments to grow the size and power of their efforts to control their flagging economies, taking an outsized role as arbiters of capital and labor. “I think we can expect to see government not just big in terms of (managing) debts and deficits and sheer size, but also play a big role in how the economy continues to operate,” she said.

She also predicts the private sector to diminish as governments become larger and corporations capture even more market share. “We have now seen large corporations in virtually every sector—banking, airlines, energy, pharmaceutical, and technology—organically become much more monopolistic or even oligopolistic in their respective sectors,” Dr. Moyo said. “I really believe that is not going to hold,” she added. “I think governments are going to become much more aggressive in their dealings with these companies.”

Dr. Moyo expects to see a deglobalization in the world order as the nation-state eclipses multicultural partnerships coordinated through institutions such as the World Health Organization and International Monetary Fund. Bilateral and regional trade agreements already are on the rise as are national efforts to reduce the flow of capital to other countries.

“So the truth is, it's not a great picture,” Dr. Moyo said, “but the world is not ending. Fortunes are going to be made, businesses will survive.

“It's really about being at the tip of the spear as we think about how to survive and risk-mitigate in a world that has become extremely complicated and extremely challenged as it has been before, but as I said, I'm pretty optimistic that we will survive this one.”


By R. Scott Nolen

Visits per patient in a year correlates more strongly with practice revenue than the more commonly used metric of average client transaction, according to new research presented at the annual AVMA Economic Summit, held virtually Oct. 26-28, 2020.

The study by VetSuccess, a data and analytics company, underscores the importance of identifying the best metrics to achieve a specific outcome, explained presenter Sheri Gilmartin, a certified veterinary technician and vice president of sales and marketing for Vet Success and co-presenter with Esther Fraser, data analyst for VetSuccess.

“There's a lot of data available in veterinary practice management software and certainly a lot of metrics that you can pull together,” Gilmartin said. “But which metrics should you look at? Which will allow you to take action, and which will have the greatest impact on business?

The study compared the number of visits per patient over a 12-month period with the average client transaction at 1,894 mostly general practice, companion animal hospitals in 47 states in 2019.

What the study found was practices that have lower costs at each visit tend to have more visits. When combined with the finding that high visit numbers correlate more strongly with high yearly revenue than the average client transaction, it suggests that having patients visit more often more than makes up for any small decrease in revenue from each visit.

The study doesn't account for pricing, specifically. Rather, it looked at the amount of money a client spent in one visit. The data show that, as the amount a client spends on each visit increases, the number of visits decreases.

As Fraser explained in a follow-up interview: “The study sample shows that there is a clear decline in visits per year when ACT hits roughly $300. We can't say anything about how sensitive to price a customer might be for any given service, but it does seem that customers are more attuned to the amount they are asked to spend in a single visit than the amount they spend across an entire year.”


Research shows a decline in visits per year when the average client transaction reaches approximately $300, suggesting clients are more sensitive to the cost of a single visit than the amount spent over a year.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 258, 1; 10.2460/javma.258.1.7

Gilmartin said during the presentation: “We know that a higher number of visits correlates more strongly with higher revenue per patient than a higher ACT. We also know that as ACT increases, visits decrease.”

She suggested practices consider implementing creative approaches with clients, such as loyalty programs, wellness plans, home delivery to segment medication purchases, and splitting up services throughout the year.

“Think about that 7-year-old Golden Retriever and all the care we want that Golden Retriever to receive in a year, then collaborate with the pet owner on a plan or a schedule that makes sense to ensure that pet gets all of that care,” Gilmartin explained.

“Work with the owner, really plan with them. ‘OK, you can't do all of this care at once, that's fine. Let's look at breaking this up over the spring and fall,'” she said.


By Malinda Larkin

To make effective pricing decisions, the process you use is critical. Utpal Dholakia, PhD, chair of marketing at Rice University in Houston, urges using a consistent process to make pricing decisions for your practice.

In his talk “Why Understanding Customer Value Is Important for Pricing Strategically” during the annual AVMA Economic Summit, held virtually Oct. 26-28, 2020, Dr. Dholakia said previous research he conducted for the Veterinary Hospital Managers Association showed that many practice managers do one or more of the following:

  • Don't pay sufficient attention to pricing issues.

  • Tend to use standard, one-size-fits-all pricing strategies.

  • Give deeper discounts than their clients need or ask for.

  • Quote prices without a clear purpose or objective.

  • Prefer simple methods such as cost-plus pricing or pricing just below a competitor.

  • Ignore customer value, resulting in ineffective pricing decisions for their practice.

Dr. Dholakia explained the twofold importance of pricing decisions. First, prices drive the veterinary practice's revenues and profits, making it sustainable over the longer term, which eventually contributes to the well-being of staff members, clients, and pets.

Second, prices convey information about the quality of services and products. They help build a strong brand and create differentiation in clients’ minds.


The Value Pricing Framework

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 258, 1; 10.2460/javma.258.1.7

Source: Utpal Dholakia, PhD

“Every pricing strategy must include a careful consideration of customer value,” he said, but he emphasized that this often is the most neglected part of pricing decisions.

Customer value establishes the ceiling on prices and provides the greatest opportunity for matching prices to customer perceptions and knowledge. However, customer value is more than just customers’ willingness to pay, although that is part of it, Dr. Dholakia said.

“Customer value is often an unstable quantity that can be influenced by the manager,” he said, whether through marketing, communication, or managing customer experiences.

So, it follows that understanding how and why customer value changes and the triggers for those changes are important considerations in pricing decisions. It's just as important to understand how to influence perceptions of customer value to price effectively.

Dr. Dholakia gave the example of how to make $55 for a physical examination of a first-time patient an attractive price for the client.

“Just providing a price is not enough,” he said. Context is needed for the customer to interpret the price.

A staff member could say: “The wellness examination involves a comprehensive physical examination. We examine 16 different aspects of pet behavior including diet, exercise, thirst, and breathing. An expert veterinary doctor will conduct it. We'll provide recommendations across 10 different areas for optimal treatments to maintain good long-term health.”

In addition, the client could be told that physical examinations of this quality cost $50-$100. Or that for today only, the cost is $55 instead of $79.

He cited Hans Rosling's book “Factfulness: Ten Reasons We're Wrong About the World—and Why Things Are Better Than You Think”: “The most important thing you can do to avoid misjudging something's importance is to avoid lonely numbers. Never, ever leave a number all by itself. Never believe that one number on its own can be meaningful. If you are offered one number, always ask for at least one more. Something to compare it with.”


Supporting financially struggling clients and treating neglected pets just got easier.

Starting in 2021, the American Veterinary Medical Foundation's Veterinary Care Charitable Fund will expand, reimbursing any practicing AVMA member providing low- or no-cost veterinary services for in-need clients and pets.

More than 1,400 practices have enrolled in the VCCF since the program debuted in 2015.

In 2020 through October, the AVMF program awarded 694 grants totaling $237,090 to provide veterinary care for 724 animals. Grant awards have ranged from $100 to more than $2,500, depending on the medical treatment provided, with an average grant of $325 per animal.

The AVMF found that, of the VCCF grants requested and received since March 2020, on average, 25% or more had to do with financial hardship related to COVID-19.

To provide funding broadly across the profession beyond the practice enrollment model, the AVMF is adding an open, national model for awarding reimbursement to any practicing AVMA member.

“Expanding the program by adding an open, national fundraising model will allow the AVMF to provide support for charitable care to any AVMA member across the U.S., dramatically expanding program scope and increasing access to veterinary charitable care for many more pets,” said Dr. John Howe, AVMF board chair.

Among those who have been served through the VCCF are military veterans; seniors living on a fixed income; low-income earners or those experiencing financial hardship, including pet owners affected financially by the COVID-19 pandemic; and victims of domestic violence.

“We anticipate that opening the VCCF to all AVMA members will dramatically increase participation,” Dr. Howe said. “The number of practices utilizing the VCCF program has the potential to grow from the 1,400 currently enrolled into several thousands.”


Federal prosecutors accuse a California-based company of making animal drugs in unsafe conditions and failing to investigate adverse events.

In a complaint filed Oct. 27, 2020, Department of Justice attorneys sought a shutdown of drug manufacturing, distribution, and related activities by Med-Pharmex Inc. and company officers Gerald P. Macedo and Vinay M. Rangnekar.

A complaint filed in the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California contains accusations that the company's leaders failed to investigate causes for the death of one horse that received Med-Pharmex–manufactured ivermectin paste and illnesses of 30 pigs that had been administered Med-Pharmex–manufactured iron dextran, as well as failed to investigate a complaint that the company sold ivermectin paste without dosage markings on the syringe. Citing findings from multiple Food and Drug Administration inspections, prosecutors also accused the company of failing to clean and disinfect drug production sites and equipment, including a nozzle used to fill drug vials, as well as numerous failures to maintain sterility, check the quality of products, investigate unexplained particulates in products, and maintain production records.


“Having AVMA leadership directly interact with members is very important,” said Dr. Douglas Kratt, AVMA president, during a virtual meeting with members on Oct. 28, 2020.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 258, 1; 10.2460/javma.258.1.7

AVMA president wants to hear from you

Dr. Douglas Kratt takes questions during interactive chat with members

By Malinda Larkin

Typically, the AVMA president can be found throughout the year at meetings of state VMAs or other AVMA-allied organizations; at meetings at the AVMA headquarters in Schaumburg, Illinois; or abroad at international veterinary conferences. A pandemic, however, has those plans on hold. Still wanting to speak directly with AVMA members, 2020-21 AVMA President Dr. Douglas Kratt came up with a solution: A first-ever virtual chat.

He hosted the event on the last day of the annual AVMA Economic Summit, held virtually Oct. 26-28, 2020, fielding questions from participants as well as Matthew J. Salois, PhD, AVMA chief economist, about everything from how he's keeping productive at his practice to how the AVMA is addressing educational debt to diversity, equity, and inclusion in the profession.

“Having AVMA leadership directly interact with members is very important. I am very blessed to be part of this team and have the support that I have,” Dr. Kratt said. “We want to hear from you. That's what this is about.”


Dr. Kratt and his wife, Dr. Kimberly Kratt, own Central Animal Hospital in Onalaska, Wisconsin. Dr. Salois asked how they've been able to make practice management easier or more efficient in the time of COVID-19. Dr. Kratt said they've started leaning on one of his veterinary technicians to take on more practice management duties. They've also become more efficient by using AVMA Direct Connect to automate some of the ordering for the clinic. Not to mention, they've embraced e-commerce to better serve clients.

One participant asked how much of a transformation the practice has seen since COVID-19 hit.

Dr. Kratt said he had gone to sessions on telehealth at AVMA conventions before the pandemic, but he didn't formally implement telehealth at his clinic until March 2020, with the help of colleagues to guide him on what platform to use, how to integrate telehealth into management records, and how to collect payment. The AVMA also offers telehealth resources at avma.org/telehealth.

Telemedicine was always coming, Dr. Kratt said, “but it got moved into hyper gear.” With the new normal, he asked, how do veterinarians make sure to meet regulatory requirements and the needs of patients while avoiding liability?

As a next step, his clinic is looking at contactless payment and training the veterinary technicians in telehealth triaging.

Looking to the future, he says the mental health transition in the eventual post-COVID-19 world will be important, not just in his clinic, but for all.

He mentioned the AVMA's Workplace Wellbeing Certificate Program as an important resource and, in particular, its module on QPR—which stands for question, persuade, and refer, the three steps anyone can learn to help save a life from suicide. The certificate program can be found at axon.avma.org, and the AVMA offers other well-being resources at avma.org/wellbeing.

Dr. Kratt added that Jen Brandt, PhD, AVMA director of well-being and diversity, is continuing to develop programs in this area. Plus, the AVMA is looking to expand its cyberbullying hotline, which allows members to consult with crisis management experts at Bernstein Crisis Management for free.


Another participant in the chat asked about the progress being made by the AVMA and other veterinary organizations on educational loan debt.

There is not going to be a single answer to the problem, Dr. Kratt said. Collectively, it will require various approaches.

First, he said, states need to provide more funding for their higher education systems and, specifically, veterinary colleges. He'd also like to see more work on minimizing the amount of time it takes to get through the undergraduate years so veterinarians can get in the workforce quicker.

“In Washington, D.C., we're doing a lot with the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program and Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program—and also making sure higher education is a priority,” Dr. Kratt said. More information is available at jav.ma/debtadvocacy on these efforts. Dr. Kratt also noted the importance of institutions creating more scholarship opportunities for students.

Dr. Kratt addressed efforts in making the profession more diverse, inclusive, and equitable after a participant asked what the AVMA was doing in this area. He said that while it's not just a veterinary problem, veterinary medicine is one of the least diverse professions in terms of race and ethnicity.

“We have done things in the past that haven't worked as well,” he said, but the AVMA has hired an outside specialist to evaluate the Association's programs to see exactly what has worked well and what hasn't. That includes not only training the staff on DEI but also training volunteers across the AVMA. More information is available at avma.org/diversity.

The AVMA plans to announce a commission, too, alongside the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges and other organizations, to address DEI at a professionwide level. Dr. Kratt said the commission will aim to develop best practices in how to become more diverse, including addressing the pipeline of veterinary students, but that's not all.

“We talk about getting people into veterinary school and making workplaces more diverse, which is one thing. Having people at the table—a diverse group of people, making people welcome and feel like they're part of the team and belong at the table—is a whole other aspect. We have to make people feel included. That may be some of the biggest things the commission comes out with,” Dr. Kratt said.

He said he and his counterpart at the AAVMC, Dr. Mark Markel, are the kind of people who want to see action taken sooner than later.

“It's not my way of the world to waste people's time,” Dr. Kratt said.

He looks forward to hosting more virtual chats in the future and said, in the meantime, he could be reached at presidentchat@avma.org if AVMA members had more questions.

“All of your delegates, alternate delegates, Board members … we're here to serve you,” he said. “Please reach out to us.”

Q&A: Pawsibilities aims to bring diversity to mentorship

By Kaitlyn Mattson

Pawsibilities Vet Med, a nonprofit platform dedicated to recruitment and retention of diverse students in veterinary medicine, is working to connect people from underrepresented backgrounds interested in the veterinary profession to opportunities and potential mentors and advisers within the field.

Dr. Valerie Marcano and Seth Andrews, PhD, are the married couple behind the company. Dr. Marcano is a poultry technical consultant at Elanco Animal Health and chairs the Diversity and Inclusion Committee of the American Association of Avian Pathologists. Dr. Andrews is a process engineer with Precision BioSciences.

The two met at Cornell University during undergrad, and later, the two attended the University of Georgia, where Dr. Marcano went to the College of Veterinary Medicine while Dr. Andrews studied biological engineering.

The idea for Pawsibilities first came about at UGA during an Animal Health Hackathon, an event focused on innovation in animal health. It developed further at Georgia's National Science Foundation Innovation Corps program, which seeks to develop discoveries into technologies.

JAVMA News spoke with Drs. Marcano and Andrews about their goals and how the Pawsibilities platform works. Their answers have been lightly edited for brevity and clarity. More information about Pawsibilities Vet Med is at pawsibilitiesvetmed.com.


Dr. Marcano: I grew up in the Dominican Republic, and my mom is a veterinarian there. So there were people who looked like me being veterinarians. I was around it. But when I moved to the U.S. and realized I also wanted to go into veterinary medicine, it was surprising to me that people didn't look like me. I knew that not everyone would, but the lack of diversity was obvious, and it was shocking.


Dr. Valerie Marcano and Seth Andrews, PhD, are the founders of Pawsibilities Vet Med, a nonprofit platform dedicated to recruitment and retention of diverse students in veterinary medicine. (Courtesy of Drs. Marcano and Andrews)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 258, 1; 10.2460/javma.258.1.7

Dr. Andrews: I have been veterinary adjacent for a while because I was married to Valerie as she went through veterinary school, and I have done several research collaborations. During grad school, I realized how important mentorship is. I have had several mentors and mentees, and I have seen mentoring relationships play out around me. Regardless of whether they were good or bad, they had a huge impact on the mentee.


Dr. Andrews: Our schooling got in the way for a year or two while I finished my PhD and Valerie finished veterinary school. But this past spring, especially the events of this summer including the murder of George Floyd, lit a fire under us to continue with this project again.

Dr. Marcano: With COVID, we got more time at home, and with all the events of this past spring and summer around systemic racism, it gave us the motivation we needed. We started asking: How can we contribute? What can we be doing?

Dr. Andrews: Pawsibilities has a few main pillars. It is a social network where you can connect with other people who are underrepresented in veterinary medicine. Our main focus is on mentoring. We have it set up so you can connect with individuals who are like you in veterinary medicine. There is an automated matching feature or a shopping interface that uses what you want in a mentor to search. For example, if you are a person with a disability and you are interested in learning about how other people with disabilities make it work in veterinary medicine, you can find that.

The other pillar is professional development, not only in veterinary medicine but also in diversity, equity, and inclusion and other professional skills that are broadly applicable.


Dr. Marcano: Everyone is required to complete training on diversity, inclusion, and mentoring. It outlines what is expected of a mentor and a mentee and how to navigate that. The training is about an hour and a half, which is keeping people from joining, but we see it as this: If you are willing to mentor, you need to have the training. We want to provide good mentorship.

We have 80 people now, and 20 are completing the training. One or two people try to join every day.

We would like to see a more extensive list of mentors and mentees. We want to have full-time employees to monitor the platform and do outreach, but we both have full-time jobs, and because we want to provide this free of charge to overcome some socioeconomic barriers, we are actively searching for partnerships or funding so we can do that.


The AVMA House of Delegates will deliberate on rewritten Rules for AVMA Officer Election Campaigns as well as a proposal to expand the reduction in AVMA member dues for recent graduates.

Delegates will consider the resolutions during their regular winter session, which will be held virtually Jan. 8-9 in conjunction with the AVMA Veterinary Leadership Conference.

In summer 2019, the HOD approved a resolution requesting that the House Advisory Comittee appoint a working group to review the election process for AVMA president-elect and vice president, both elected by the HOD. The HAC appointed a working group, which rewrote the Rules for AVMA Officer Election Campaigns.

The current version of the rules for officer candidates covers eligibility to run, the campaign schedule, travel expenses, and violations of the rules. The proposed version of the rules covers eligibility; campaign; expenses, funding, and reimbursement; influence and endorsements; and violations. The new version also would add guidelines on the use of social media.

Among the proposed rules under influence and endorsements are the following:

  • Influence and endorsements from anyone other than AVMA members in good standing should be declined and reported to the AVMA Office of the Executive Vice President.

  • It is prohibited for current AVMA officers to promote or endorse a candidate or to lobby or campaign on behalf of a candidate to HOD members.

  • Campaigning on behalf of candidates is limited to members of the HOD.

Ten state VMAs originally submitted a resolution regarding an expansion of reduced dues for consideration during the 2020 HOD regular annual session this past summer. The sponsors later elected to withdraw the resolution in light of the need to hold the HOD meeting virtually for the first time because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The sponsors submitted a similar resolution for the winter session.


The sponsors submitted a similar resolution for the winter session.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 258, 1; 10.2460/javma.258.1.7

Currently, new veterinarians receive free AVMA membership for the balance of the year that they graduate and a 50% reduction in dues for the next two consecutive renewal periods. Under the proposal, new veterinarians would still receive free membership in their graduating year. The proposal would then reduce dues to 25% of regular dues for the first full year of membership, maintain dues at 50% for the second full year, and reduce dues to 75% for the third full year.

The House Advisory Committee and the AVMA Board of Directors, the latter of which manages the finances of the Association, recommended that the HOD refer the resolution to the Board for consideration by the Strategy Management Committee and the Budget and Financial Review Committee.

Getting ahead of osteoarthritis in pets

Veterinarians discuss how to diagnose and treat the disease in dogs and cats

By Katie Burns

In dogs, unlike humans, osteoarthritis actually tends to start at a young age. In cats, osteoarthritis is exceedingly common. Yet, the disease often goes undiagnosed and untreated in pets.

A diagnosis of osteoarthritis in a pet can be unwelcome to the veterinarian as well as the pet owner because the disease is painful and progressive, but experts say earlier diagnosis and treatment are pivotal to managing both the pain and the progression of the disease.

At the AVMA Virtual Convention 2020 in August, professors from two veterinary colleges gave talks about treating canine osteoarthritis effectively—including by using a new staging tool—and integrating new types of treatments for pets with osteoarthritis. At the American Association of Feline Practitioners’ virtual conference in October 2020, the owner of a feline-only practice discussed how to manage feline osteoarthritis cases.


Dr. B. Duncan X. Lascelles, professor of surgery and pain management at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, spoke at the AVMA Virtual Convention 2020 on “When and How, Treating Canine OA Effectively.”

In humans, Dr. Lascelles said, osteoarthritis is an older person's disease. People erroneously superimpose that fact on dogs, but osteoarthritis in dogs mostly results from developmental problems. He said, “Osteoarthritis is a young dog's disease.”

Then, when does osteoarthritis pain actually start in dogs? Dr. Lascelles said pain starts in younger dogs, but they adapt their posture to continue daily living activities. The pain has deleterious effects such as musculoskeletal deterioration, central sensitization, and cognitive and affective decline. All of these result in increased resistance to treatment.

“We don't want to make a diagnosis of OA in young dogs. We see OA as an incurable lifelong disease, and we don't want to have what we think is a depressing conversation about this with owners of younger dogs,” Dr. Lascelles said. “Actually, I think that we should have that conversation with owners but turn it around and make it more optimistic. ‘I'm glad we made this diagnosis because now we have the opportunity to improve your dog's future.'”

Dr. Lascelles was part of the group that developed the new Canine OsteoArthritis Staging Tool. COAST is available from Elanco at jav.ma/coast, although the site was being migrated to a new system at press time, or by calling 888-545-5973.

The first step of COAST is to grade the dog through owner assessments, via a clinical metrology instrument and owner observation of the dog's discomfort, and through a veterinarian's evaluation of the dog's static posture and motion. The second step of COAST is for the veterinarian to grade the problematic joint on the basis of severity of signs of pain during manipulation, passive range of movement, and radiographic appearance.

The last step of COAST is to assign a numerical stage ranging from 0-4. Stage 0 is clinically normal with no risk factors for osteoarthritis, stage 1 is clinically normal with risk factors for osteoarthritis, stage 2 is mild osteoarthritis, stage 3 is moderate osteoarthritis, and stage 4 is severe osteoarthritis.

Dr. Lascelles said the four pillars of treatment for osteoarthritis in dogs are an effective analgesic such as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, weight optimization, diet optimization, and exercise. The treatments are interdependent. An effective analgesic decreases pain, which allows for an increase in exercise. Exercise contributes to weight management, and exercise and weight management together decrease pain. Finally, a decrease in pain allows for a decrease in the analgesic requirement.


Dr. Elizabeth Colleran, owner of a feline-only practice, said cats without osteoarthritis will not hesitate to leap off a counter. Cats with osteoarthritis might slide partway down the counter to reduce the distance to the ground, hesitate before jumping, or look for an interim level to travel the distance in steps. (Photo by Samet Kaplan)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 258, 1; 10.2460/javma.258.1.7

Dr. Lascelles shared his basic six-month approach to all patients with osteoarthritis pain. For three months, he prescribes an analgesic, a gradual increase in exercise, omega-3 fatty acids in a supplement or special diet, and reduction of food by a third with the addition of green beans, broccoli, or carrots. For the next three months, he reduces the dose or frequency of the analgesic, maintains exercise and diet, and further optimizes or maintains weight.


Dr. Bryan T. Torres, an assistant professor of small animal orthopedic surgery at the University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine, spoke at the AVMA Virtual Convention 2020 on “Osteoarthritis Management: Integrating New & Emerging Therapies Into Your Current Treatment Plans,” during the New Therapeutic Approaches to Chronic Care Symposium.

Dr. Torres considers the fundamentals of osteoarthritis management to be weight management, exercise modification, dietary management, drugs, and surgery. He said surgical options are always available but should be most strongly considered when medical management alone has reached its limits.

One of the emerging areas of osteoarthritis management is monoclonal antibody–based agents that are being developed—but that are not yet commercially available—to target cellular components that affect osteoarthritis pain and inflammation, such as cytokines, chemokines, and neurotrophins. Studies have found that monoclonal antibodies targeting nerve growth factor, a neurotrophic factor, reduce pain in humans, dogs, and cats with osteoarthritis.

Intra-articular treatments historically have included corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid, but other intra-articular treatments currently available include platelet-rich plasma and stem cells. There is some evidence that the latter two can be effective in animals with osteoarthritis, but most studies are of small populations with variability in treatments, joints affected, and disease severity.

Another currently available intra-articular treatment is radiosynovectomy, or the use of radioactive agents to reduce inflammation and chondromalacia in patients with osteoarthritis. Unfortunately, Dr. Torres said, there are no peer-reviewed studies available yet.

Cannabinoids also have potential for treating osteoarthritis in animals. Receptors for cannabinoids are present throughout joints, and the human literature has data supporting use of cannabinoids for pain. The evidence to support the efficacy of cannibidiol is currently limited but growing in veterinary medicine.

“Integrating new therapies can be challenging,” Dr. Torres said. “Just dealing with patients with this common condition can seem challenging. It can seem overwhelming because we have so many options out there, but that's good, as long as we have a grasp of what to do and how to do it.

“And I think the keys to remember are that in most cases, we're going to start with these foundational therapies, right? Weight management, exercise modification, dietary management, drug therapy, surgical therapy. These are going to work in most of the animals, and this is the way to start.”


Dr. Elizabeth Colleran, owner of Chico Hospital for Cats in Chico, California, spoke at the 2020 AAFP virtual conference about “Pouncing on Pain: Managing Feline Osteoarthritis Cases.”


The Canine OsteoArthritis Staging Tool allows veterinarians to assign a numerical stage of osteoarthritis in dogs ranging from 0-4. Stage 0 is clinically normal with no risk factors for osteoarthritis, while stage 4 is severe osteoarthritis. COAST is available from Elanco at jav.ma/coast, although the site was being migrated to a new system at press time, or by calling 888-545-5973.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 258, 1; 10.2460/javma.258.1.7


This dog is leaning forward in an abnormal stance typical of hip dysplasia or hip osteoarthritis pain, said Dr. B. Duncan X. Lascelles, professor of surgery and pain management at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine. (Photo by Dr. Lascelles)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 258, 1; 10.2460/javma.258.1.7

Source: Dr. Bryan T. Torres, “Osteoarthritis Management: Integrating New & Emerging Therapies Into Your Current Treatment Plans,” in Proceedings of the AVMA Virtual Convention 2020 (κ2019 Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA Inc., Duluth, GA. All rights reserved. US-PET-0486-2019)

Dr. Colleran described cats as solitary hunters that have limited social communication and are deliberately inscrutable. They manifest pain through reductions in play, grooming, socializing, and appetite and increases in hiding and sleeping. Dr. Colleran cited a study led by Dr. Lascelles that found 91% of cats between 6 months old and 20 years old have radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis in at least one joint.

To evaluate pain in cats with osteoarthritis, Dr. Colleran uses the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index out of North Carolina State University. She said the FMPI is an evaluation of common behaviors and activities that take place in the household and that don't really take place in the examination room. Cat owners also can use a smartphone to record cats at home in slow motion to allow a veterinarian to evaluate gait, play, and jumping.

When cat owners are resistant to the idea of osteoarthritis pain in their cat, Dr. Colleran often will put the cat on an anti-inflammatory medication such as robenacoxib or meloxicam or an analgesic such as buprenorphine and ask the owners to report back in a few days.

Recently, Dr. Colleran could tell that a cat had osteoarthritis just by touching his back, but she couldn't convince the owner. So she put the cat on robenacoxib for three days, and the owner called back to say he hadn't seen what was happening. She said, “He was so aghast at the fact that he had missed really significant osteoarthritis pain and was convinced not by my explanation in the exam room but by the experience he had of the change in behavior at home.”

Dr. Colleran said the components of a treatment plan for osteoarthritis in cats can include weight loss, pharmaceuticals, environmental enrichment or modification, and a special diet or omega-3 supplements.

“Usually, when we have some acute pain, we'll start with opioids, add in some NSAIDs, and then start thinking about ways in which we can change the experience that the cat is having and improve quality of life,” Dr. Colleran said. “But in all of these, you need to prioritize the ones that are working for this cat and this client at this time.”


The following 900 AVMA members have been granted honor roll status beginning in 2021. These individuals have maintained membership in the Association for a period of 40 years or more and have reached the age of 70, or they have reached the age of 72 and have maintained continuous membership since graduation. As honor roll members, they will continue to receive the full benefits and privileges of membership while being exempt from the payment of dues.


Walter R. Arnold, Abbeville

Wallace R. Belcher, Brent

Thomas E. Bostick, Headland

Thomas W. Creel, Sumiton

Faith B. Drumheller, Kinston

James G. Floyd Jr., Auburn

Louis N. Gotthelf, Montgomery

David M. Langford, Bessemer

Norman R. McClung, Grand Bay

Meredith E. Nichols, Fayette

Andrew H. Wagner, Lafayette


Anne M. Hurley, Anchorage


Jonathan P. Bettridge, Green Valley

John D. Gardetto, Tempe

Theresa M. Geldmeyer, Paulden

Edwin Kiesel, Tucson

Darrel R. Kramer, Casa Grande

Neil R. Levine, Scottsdale

Lawrence D. Shamis, Tucson

Randy W. Tedrow, Sun Lakes

James W. Tilley Jr., Prescott

David R. Trask, San Tan Valley

Wes E. Vogt, Wickenburg

Rick S. Wells, Tempe


James O. Britt, Little Rock

Jefferson H. Carraway, White Hall

Charles E. Jackson, El Dorado

Michael B. Lennon, Jacksonville

James R. Powell, Prescott

Jim Westbrook, Little Rock


Robert H. Arrick, San Francisco

Darcie D. Barnes, Solvang

Ronald T. Barns, Simi Valley

David S. Bogenrief, San Miguel

Sherry L. Brothers, San Bernardino

Tony Buffington, Woodland

Bruce D. Burch, Pearblossom

John C. Burkhartsmeyer, Santa Clarita

Bary R. Caranci, Redding

David C. Carroll, Napa

James W. Davis, Lemoore

Robert A. Dean, Santa Ynez

Elaine M. Dornton, Acampo

Allan C. Drusys, Yucaipa

Kenneth B. Evans, Fall River Mills

Jan J. Feingold, Oxnard

Barbara J. Fitzgerald, El Cerrito

Forrest G. Franklin, Sloughhouse

Jennifer L. Fujimoto, Escondido

Stephen J. Fynaardt, Torrance

Janice V. Garrett, Santa Barbara

John A. Giannone, Newport Coast

Beth M. Gordon, Ramona

Jack B. Griffiths, Orland

Richard M. Groff, Danville

Brian S. Grossman, Camarillo

Lee R. Harris, San Diego

Deborah P. Harrison, San Juan Bautista

Rodney K. Hatayama, Selma

Richard G. Heers, Tulare

Richard C. Heisey, Penn Valley

Peggy L. Herrera, San Pedro

David E. Hinebaugh, Mission Hills

Susan S. Hughes, Oakland

Tanveer Hussain, Glendale

Donald R. Krawiec, Carlsbad

Ronald M. Lenhert, Apple Valley

Robert L. Linville, Lafayette

Daryl R. Mabley, Laguna Beach

Craig R. Machado, Belmont

Linda C. Mackinnon, Oxnard

Kerry S. Mahoney, Encinitas

Nabih A. Mansour, Newhall

Richard K. Martin, Los Angeles

Wayne C. Merhoff, Red Bluff

Larry E. Miller, Napa

Margery Moore, Buena Park

Thomas R. Nickerson, Weaverville

Michael B. Norton, Walnut Creek

Michael E. O'Brien, Modesto

Steven M. Orme, Oceanside

Terry K. Paik, El Cajon

Alan E. Painter, Hollister

Christopher E. Pankau, Los Olivos

Bruce Passamani, Monterey

William E. Perry, Los Alamitos

Denise E. Porte, Arroyo Grande

Randall C. Presleigh, Millville

Jeffrey A. Reh, San Diego

Joel M. Reif, Santa Rosa

Gary L. Rose, San Diego

Randall P. Ruble, Clovis

Kenneth A. Schenck, Sacramento

Robert M. Sevier, Bonita

Frederick J. Shapiro, San Jose

Sonjia M. Shelly, Davis

Aaron L. Shoolman, Irvine

Robert I. Sikes, Arroyo Grande

Bruce S. Silverman, Sherman Oaks

Steven R. Sweetser, San Francisco

Thomas J. Talbot, Bishop

Joseph A. Thibedeau, Martinez

Nancy A. Walton, Tulare

Neal K. Weiner, Lewiston

Lloyd R. Wilson, San Mateo

Donald S. Wood, Ramona

Ronald J. Wright, Georgetown


Robert C. Barr, Pueblo

John A. Canning, Carbondale

Mark R. Fitch, Boulder

Todd B. Hammond, Wheat Ridge

Bettye L. Hooley, Montrose

Ernest Hunter, Durango

Virginia W. Koch, Loveland

Gerald Koppenhafer, Mancos

Frances P. Lazear, Cedaredge

Randa G. MacMillan, Littleton

Clark A. Nelson, Littleton

Dennis A. Nowicki, Durango

Donald B. Pfretzschner, Westminster

James A. Pickart, Fairplay

Mitchell E. Pudalov, Parker

David P. Sievers, Brighton

Clarence G. Sitzman, Fort Collins

Ladd N. Squires, Parker

John H. Sudduth, Colorado Springs

Janet D. Turner, Fort Collins

Paul J. Veralli, Boulder

Elayne Williams, Fort Collins

Terry L. Woltman, Bennett


Christopher M. Ficke, Chester

William A. Gay, Voluntown

Harlan C. Gustafson, New Hartford

David E. Haviar, Rocky Hill

Robert A. Nizlek, Riverside

Manmohan C. Sachdev, Windsor

Ned S. Schankman, Newtown


Marilyn J. Thompson, Ocean View

William C. Wade, Seaford


Gary L. Barsch, Tampa

Jan E. Bellows, Weston

Cosme J. Benitez, Hialeah

James M. Brechin, Destin

Wade R. Burrington, Ruskin

Thomas S. Butera, Palm Coast

Robert C. Buzzetti, Palm Beach Gardens

Randolph L. Caligiuri, La Crosse

George H. Carlton, Maitland

Marion S. Cornwell, Fort Myers

John E. Crews, Fort Meade

James L. Curl, Gainesville

Randolph W. Divine, Vero Beach

Steven R. Dunham Sr., Winter Haven

David W. Eich, Fort Lauderdale

Cheryl A. Ernest, Pensacola

Richard H. Estes, Ocala

JoAnn C. Eurell, Palm Coast

E.P. Gibbs, Gainesville

Mark C. Haines, Fernandina Beach

Robert E. Hess Jr., Winter Park

Philip C. Hightman, Jacksonville

Katherine G. Horky-Burns, Dunedin

Gary H. Johnson, Jacksonville

Robert L. Jones, Edgewater

Nancy E. Kicherer, Vero Beach

Rowland J. Kinkler, Tampa

David W. LaVigne, Dunedin

James D. Lutz, St. Petersburg

Olfat A. Mansour, Casselberry

David M. Marsoli, Fort Myers

Constance I. Mengering, Melbourne

Randall Mims, Okeechobee

Bruce G. Moore, Ocala

Michael P. Mordaunt, Miami

Jeffrey R. Noble, Naples

Kenneth E. Nusbaum, New Smyrna Beach

Linda S. O'Donnell-Rein, Green Cove Springs

Francis W. Ogden, Bonita Springs

Robert T. Pane, Miami

Joseph C. Parisi, Marco Island

Paul R. Plante, Miami Beach

Victor M. Povis, Clearwater

Robert Raymond, Miami

Alan H. Rebar, Raleigh

Cecil W. Rhoads, Estero

George Saperstein, Fort Myers

Steven N. Schwartz, Naples

Allen W. Singer, Ponte Vedra

James E. Steffes, New Port Richey

Bruce Tannenbaum, Palm Beach Gardens

Forrest I. Townsend, Fort Walton Beach

Emily A. Walton, Sun City Center

Lance Weidenbaum, Deerfield Beach

Gary A. Wilson, Lutz

John V. Yelvington Jr., Lake Placid


Martin R. Brady, Lilburn

James D. Brogdon, Peachtree City

Darrell H. Durham Sr., Lagrange

Cynthia J. Fordyce, Decatur

Spyros Geneos, Dacula

William G. Gholston, Dahlonega

L.C. Griffin, Bainbridge

Edward W. Gross Jr., Grovetown

Isaac J. Hayward, Conyers

Thomas G. Holmes V, Blackshear

Randal C. Layton, Athens

Steven M. Marlay, Savannah

William H. Mathis, Ringgold

Paul E. May, Vidalia

Jack L. Orkin, Grayson

Russel L. Penrod, Fayetteville

Judy E. Saik, Monroe

Eric S. Sjoberg, Ila

Nelwyn L. Stone, Woodstock

Carl E. Walton, Decatur

Noam D. Zelman, Marietta


Sharman R. Elison, Kaneohe

Roger M. Kondo, Honolulu

Ben F. Okimoto, Honolulu

George E. Pease, Hilo

Diane E. Shepherd, Kihei


Joseph V. Bollar, Soda Springs

Karsten A. Fostvedt, Ketchum

S.E. Krasa, Pocatello

George S. Martin, Bellevue

Robert J. Miller, Preston

Marilynn M. Moyle, Sandpoint

Mark C. Pritchard, Weiser


William L. Augustine, Malta

Anthony Brizgys, Chicago

Lyle C. Campbell, Aurora

Charles E. Carmichael, Woodstock

Lee M. Cera, Maywood

Joyce L. Eisold, Champaign

Gregory G. Ekdale, Bloomington

Jayanti V. Gundrania, Chicago Ridge

Roger J. Hitt, Joliet

Jeffrey L. House, Arlington Heights

Ludwick G. Janda, Berwyn

Myron W. Koch, Ursa

Dennis J. Macchia, Woodridge

Michael Mann, Grayslake

Sally A. Martin, Barrington

Robert J. Merkin, Downers Grove

Robert K. Miller, Barrington

Steven J. Rohrback, Wheaton

Allen J. Sprague, Centralia

Gregory C. Weech, Galesburg

Gary L. Whitebread, Mount Carroll

James F. Zachary, Urbana


James L. Becht, Sellersburg

Philip C. Borst, Indianapolis

Judith E. Brown, La Porte

John B. Chaille, Brazil

Sheila A. Dick, Fort Wayne

William A. Doig, St. Paul

William T. Ferner, West Lafayette

Michael D. Foster, Valparaiso

Gregg J. Gormley, Evansville

Paul J. Hart, Greenfield

Carl E. Hites, Monon

Gayland Jones, Terre Haute

Richard D. Katz, Crown Point

Martin C. Langhofer, South Bend

Gary W. Mellencamp, Seymour

Dale D. Quivey, Merrillville

Rose E. Raskin, West Lafayette

Jerry L. Sellon, Goshen

Nancy I. Shafer, Elkhart

James C. Shell, Logansport

Paul L. Shockley, Middletown

Larry W. Smith, La Porte

William W. Somerville, Hillsdale

Robert P. Stopczynski, Elkhart

Todd M. Wheeler, Indianapolis


Arthur G. Dunham, Hopkinton

Scott R. Faulkner, Ankeny

Philip V. Gustafson, Des Moines

Steven J. Hemmingstad, Sioux City

Michael R. Miller, Chariton

David J. Nyren, Iowa City

Susan E. O'Brien, Ames

Janet B. Payeur, Ames

Lawrence L. Poduska, Lisbon

William L. Pollak, Fairfield

David L. Striegel, Sac City

Rexanne M. Struve, Manning

Lawrence E. Victora, Atlantic

Gene B. Warren, Ames


William Bayouth, Lawrence

Curtis L. Bock, Kansas City

Barbara J. Carter, Hutchinson

M.M. Chengappa, Manhattan

Ray A. Christiansen, Ellsworth

Wendell L. Davis, Overland Park

B. Joe Dedrickson, Wamego

Charles E. Fox, Fredonia

Phillip G. Hoyt, Fulton

Thomas M. Jernigan, Council Grove

James L. Kontras, Shawnee

Kyle W. LaRosh, Lawrence

Ronnie G. Maifeld, St. Francis

Bruce W. Martin, Baldwin City

Gary R. Miller, Manhattan

Larry J. Nieman, Leawood

D.B. Peckham, Meriden

Stephen T. Peterson, Spring Hill

David K. Wallace, Minneapolis

Michael L. Whitehair, Abilene


Eugene W. Ceglinski, Paducah

Alan K. Gaines, Louisville

William D. Hemminger, La Grange

John D. Howard, Lexington

Barry L. Huesing, Erlanger

Charles L. Kidder, Lexington

Ronald E. Leick, Alexandria

Roger H. Murphy, Lexington

Jackie S. Phillips, Frankfort

Clare S. Seagren, Lexington

Jerry W. Smith, Bowling Green

Kirk A. Weber, Independence

Lawrence E. Wimpy, Versailles

Elizabeth A. Wood, Westport


Robert O. Allardyce, Many

Max J. Begue, New Orleans

Cecile D. Boesen, Covington

Michael H. Edwards, Slidell

Steven D. Everson, Shreveport

Ronald J. Giardina, New Orleans

Karan A. Gillane, Robert

Foster D. Lott, Minden

Patrick D. McKenna, Metairie

Don P. Meyer, Crowley

Thomas A. Vitrano, Destrehan

Philip Waguespack, Baton Rouge


George S. Bottomley, West Bath

David P. Bronder, Owls Head


Marilyn F. Balmer, Millersville

Christina Chambreau, Sparks

Judith A. Davis, Fulton

Nave Dhillon, Hyattsville

Clement A. Dussault, Glen Burnie

Ronald K. Fallon, Columbia

Richard H. Garcia, Boonsboro

Diana Haines, Taneytown

Gloria B. Kilby, Colora

Martin F. Kriete, Middletown

Thomas H. Lederman, Columbia

David H. Moore, Darlington

Joseph F. Mullen, Street

Alison Mullins, Point of Rocks

Danny T. Noble, Princess Anne

Edwin O. Nuzum, Bethesda

James Pelura III, Davidsonville

Mary M. Prowell, Mount Airy

Danny R. Ragland, Walkersville

Sailendra N. Roy, Silver Spring

David K. Saylor, Gaithersburg

Ruth M. Stokes, Boyds

Catherine L. Wilhelmsen, Middletown


Sandra L. Ayres, Sudbury

Robert E. Breen, East Freetown

Robert W. Carlson, Bedford

Donald R. Crouser, Wilbraham

Michael J. Frost, Westfield

Gary P. Goldberg, Shrewsbury

Ronald E. Hirschberg, Brockton

Christine L. Johnston, Bedford

Jonathan H. Leach, Mashpee

William G. Marcoux, Methuen

Clifford B. Morcom, Belchertown

Michael M. Pavletic, Hopkinton

Stephen R. Purdy, Belchertown

Barbara J. Reid, Gloucester

Elissabeth M. Roumanis, Carlisle

Roxanna M. Smolowitz, East Falmouth

Chris E. Walker, Bridgewater

Angeline Warner, North Grafton


Steven R. Bolin, Haslett

Harry M. Chaddock, Grand Ledge

Mary B. Collisi, Perry

Robert L. Davis, Hersey

Timothy F. Dobson, Salem

Richard M. Fulton, Lansing

John A. Geiger, Croswell

Barbara A. Gideon, Charlotte

Joseph G. Hauptman, Okemos

Lawrence K. Koehler, Petoskey

Michael V. Lampen, Jones

Katherine M. Lawrence, South Lyon

James F. Leonard, Blissfield

James R. Main, Mason

Glenn R. McClure, Livonia

Stephen S. Molle, Holly

Thomas J. Naples, Hemlock

Eugene Nemeth, Allen Park

Dennis A. Opperman, Portland

Tina Ruiz, Macomb

Don W. Ryker, Ortonville

William C. Sands, Three Rivers

Richard G. Scholfield, Grand Rapids

Ronald J. Schwab, Standish

David D. Seidl, Hastings

Ronald A. Studer, Novi

Wendell S. Weber, Big Rapids


Dennis D. Caywood, Roseville

Michael J. Cook, Princeton

Anna P. Davies, Burnsville

Daniel A. Feeney, Coon Rapids

Linda A. Heaton, Cambridge

Randall Herman, Plymouth

James R. Koewler, Clara City

Steven J. Kreuser, Jordan

Gary R. Lippo, Brainerd

Mary J. Olson, Mora

Robert G. Ovrebo, Arlington

Marc R. Raffe, St. Paul

Steven J. Ruotsinoja, Richfield

Gregg B. Sonstegard, Hoffman

Joyce E. Tesarek, Minneapolis

LaVonne J. Trombley, Brooklyn Park

Aleda M. Tysver, Chaska

David I. Weckwerth, Pelican Rapids

Beatrice H. Winkler, St. Cloud

Loren A. Yerks, North Branch


Robert D. Childers, Holly Springs

Robert C. Cooper, Starkville

Roy B. Cooper, Greenwood

Michael E. Ferriss, Clinton

Donald B. Jackson, Olive Branch

Earnest A. Johnson, Greenwood

Allen R. Roberts, Moss Point

Charles D. Selig, Gulfport


Richard H. Albrecht, St. Louis

Charles R. Barney, St. Charles

Thomas D. Blumhorst, Marshall

Danny W. Brown, Rolla

Kenny L. Brown, St. Charles

Donald D. Case, Lexington

Rodney K. Chapman, Versailles

Henry R. Ewert, Reeds Spring

Melvin H. Falk, Independence

Clark K. Fobian, Sedalia

Claude R. Hammons, Neosho

Daniel E. Hecker, Kansas City

John R. Kansteiner, Washington

Richard K. Kent, Green City

Lawrence J. Klenofsky, Chesterfield

Jackie S. Kleypas, Columbia

James H. Leazenby, Bethany

Isaac McKay III, Columbia

Wiley R. McVicker, Boonville

Mark S. Means, Warrensburg

Marcus L. Mueller, Sikeston

William R. Tappmeyer, Wright City

William B. Wright, Bellflower


Jean R. Allbright, Billings

Kenneth D. Brown, Billings

William S. Brown, Missoula

Lucy B. Dayton, Helena

Gene E. Greimann, Hardin

David R. Guhlke, Anaconda

Michael J. Haaland, Billings

Arthur W. Layton, Bozeman

Janice M. Mytton, Absarokee

Kenneth R. Podkonjak, Red Lodge

Minott E. Pruyn, Missoula

Barton L. Richards, Bozeman


Alan R. Doster, Lincoln

Francis J. Ekstein, Ulysses

Kenneth M. Holstein, Blair

Gaylen L. Huff, Friend

Susan J. Johnson, Omaha

Dennis K. Larsen, Kearney

Gary W. Leach, Ainsworth

Leon D. Leishman, Blair

Kenneth D. McGaughey, Broken Bow

Rodney J. Petrie, Thedford

Richard L. Porter, Ceresco

Michael K. Sharp, Pender

Allen R. Sippel, Sutton

Joe D. Strahm, Pender


Charles M. Andrus, Sparks

Douglas S. Bass, Gardnerville

Boyd Clement, Las Vegas

Mark A. Dolginoff, Henderson

John H. Margolin, Carson City

Gregg R. Meyer, Dayton

Linda Steelman, Las Vegas

Guy Tarvin, Incline Village

Roger D. Works, Carson City


Bradford A. Barnes, Hampstead

Nadine B. Hackman, Center Tuftonboro

Sarah J. Mason, Portsmouth

Michael K. Nazemetz, Rollinsford


Barry M. Adler, Woodbridge

Emery Castimore, Augusta

Larry R. Hirshenson, Boonton

Frank R. Kavanagh, Ramsey

James D. Kenney, Clarksburg

Brenda J. King, Montclair

William G. McAlonan, Bridgeton

Geraldine McCall-Kaufman, Bridgeton

Elmer J. Mirro, Sussex

James B. Mitchell, Jackson

Barry K. Orange, Clark

Scott E. Palmer, Millstone Township

Allen G. Rich, Holmdel

Edward J. Sheehan Jr., Camden

Earl B. Siddons, Middletown

Lee P. Spector, Woodbury Heights

Paul M. Tamas, East Brunswick

Cheryl L. Walton, Medford

Mark A. Wray, Sicklerville

Saul A. Zucker, Bedminster


Randall C. Burt, Santa Teresa

Elizabeth B. Carver, Mesquite

Carol L. Emerson, Edgewood

Jean L. Lauer, Santa Fe

John E. Meagher, Portales

M.S. Moreland, Farmington

Donald D. Newman, Hobbs

Jeff D. Nichol, Albuquerque

Bradley S. Root, Albuquerque

James Schumacher, Las Cruces

Annet Shefield, Albuquerque


Roy J. Appel, Brooklyn

Gerald J. Balonek, Rochester

Robert E. Barber, Brewster

Howard Camay, Holbrook

Ronald J. Chaikin, Brooklyn

Holly Cheever, Voorheesville

Robert B. Cohen, Staten Island

Marco A. Coronado, Cazenovia

Jack Covitz, Carmel

Steven T. Crew, Lagrangeville

Charles C. Demuth, Truxton

Douglas E. Evans, Georgetown

Paul D. Fish, Merrick

Stanley G. Fish, Merrick

Danny K. Gilchrist, Waterville

Iris L. Goldfarb, Auburn

Michael D. Keem, Elma

James W. Kernahan, Cuba

John C. Kittell, Valley Falls

Sandra D. Ley, Smithtown

Andrew Manesis, Bronx

Jonathan May, Greenvale

William P. McCord, Hopewell Junction

James D. Mort, Red Hook

Robert W. Perry, Northport

Marvin L. Raile, Phoenix

Bonnie L. Raphael, New York

Roger L. Saltman, Cazenovia

Joseph E. Savarese, Buffalo

Howard R. Schatz, Dix Hills

William D. Seader, Lawrence

R.M. Stack, Syracuse

Jeffrey Z. Stein, Brooklyn

Thoulton W. Surgeon, New Rochelle

Gerald R. Vukman, Oakfield

Kent D. Wallace, Groton

Roger I. Warren, Old Westbury

Steven R. Weinstein, Howard Beach


Doreen M. Acuff, West End

James L. Beckworth, Jefferson

Paul Bevilacqua, Clyde

Larry D. Cooper, Elizabeth City

Virginia M. Dodd, Charlotte

Richard E. Fish, Raleigh

Claudia J. Gardner, Mount Ulla

James F. Glassford, Burlington

Donald A. Hanna, Wilmington

Margaret S. Hermann, Winston Salem

Stuart S. Hicks, Rocky Mount

David W. Highsmith, Wilmington

Ralph W. Houser, Pittsboro

Joe N. Kornegay, Raleigh

John E. Lackey, Burlington

Ellen J. Magid, Holly Springs

Ben M. Mays, Asheville

James E. Meyer, Raleigh

Ronald C. Myres, West End

Gordon D. Rahmes, Greenville

Marc T. Schoenfield, Southern Pines

Jimmy A. Shaver, Kinston

Michael K. Stoskopf, Apex

Kenneth D. Tapley, Havelock

Christine A. Uhlinger, Apex

David J. Waldrep, Asheville

David A. Wilson, Denver

Larry A. Wohlford, Southern Pines


Albert L. Pinkerton, Minot

Charles E. Russell, Bismarck


Stephen J. Birchard, Sylvania

Kenneth L. Blanchard, Apple Creek

Michael G. Brown, Dayton

Judith H. Childers, Minerva

Joseph M. Cross, Parma Heights

Patrick J. Cryan, Westerville

Cathrine A. Darr, Coshocton

Stephen P. DiBartola, Columbus

Barry A. Diehl, Centerville

Thomas E. Ebenhack, Circleville

James E. Estep, Dublin

William R. Fenner, Columbus

Douglas L. Gibson, Huber Heights

Elizabeth P. Hicken, Avon Lake

Gary C. Klein, Brecksville

Gary C. Lantz, Gahanna

Roberto A. Legorreta, Fairfield

David W. Long, Eaton

G.T. Mann, Wadsworth

Sheila S. Mansfield, Ostrander

Gregory L. Matthews, Fremont

David W. Merry, Milford

William M. Miller, Kenton

Michael P. Myers, Perrysburg

Troy J. Parks, Hubbard

Rita E. Pencis, Chagrin Falls

Sheikh S. Rahman, North Royalton

Linda S. Randall, Homerville

Barry W. Reppart, Mount Vernon

Leo M. Schmall, Columbus

Alice B. Schottenstein, Chagrin Falls

James M. Seimer, Columbus

David A. Snavely, Avon

Gary L. Topp, Fredericksburg

Thomas J. Ulyshen, Camden

Michael A. VerHage, Columbus

John S. Walkenhorst, Lebanon

Howard J. Weir, Canfield

Rebecca A. Williams, Alliance


Alvin L. Baumwart, Arapaho

Beverly M. Bell, Tulsa

Mary H. Bowles, Stillwater

Gary K. Burns, Geary

Ewell L. Center, McAlester

Timothy C. Eaker, Ada

Jimmy D. Helms, Muskogee

Gary J. Kiehn, Lawton

John R. Marshall, Oklahoma City

Phillip R. McKinney, Sand Springs

Steven N. Quillin, Edmond


T.J. Achord, Hermiston

James B. Cutler, Lincoln City

Charles T. Estill, Corvallis

Kenneth A. Fletcher, Albany

Clifford T. Hill, Baker City

Susan A. MacCarthy, Salem

Mark L. McFarland, Madras

Susan D. Morgan, Portland

Richard A. Mosier, Coburg

David A. Onishi, Portland

Alan D. Ross, Roseburg

D.D. Sisson, Corvallis

Sandra K. Smalley, Eugene

Joseph H. Snyder, Portland

Devon D. Trottier, Veneta

Randall C. Umphlet, Hood River

Steve D. Vredenburg, Banks


Russell E. Angstadt, Lenhartsville

George N. Bates, Chambersburg

Colin C. Bullmore, Moscow

Francis R. Descant, Chalfont

James P. Doman, Lancaster

Thomas D. Englert, McKeesport

James F. Evans, McConnellsburg

Donna R. Franchetti, West Chester

Michael A. Friel, Dalton

Lewis T. Gemmill Jr., Lancaster

Lawrence J. Gerson, Pittsburgh

Carol A. Gray, Perkasie

Stephen Gross, Malvern

Lewis R. Hartman, Etters

Joseph F. Hauser, Dillsburg

Britan A. Kilbourne, Paradise

Edwin C. Klein, Murrysville

Thomas H. Knoebel, Williamsport

N.L. Kolos, Bellefonte

Paul D. Kutish, Wilkes Barre

Eleanor J. Latta, West Chester

Donna L. Lindner, Philadelphia

Nicholas G. Loutsion, Canonsburg

Patricia J. Mapps, Kennett Square

Edward J. Matuskowitz, Greensburg

Carl E. Mease, Oxford

Michael S. Miller, West Chester

Frank C. Moll, Orwigsburg

Susan E. Mosier, Zieglerville

Georgia A. Nakovich, Pittsburgh

James W. Nelson, Oil City

Paul H. Nicolaysen, Pittsburgh

Michael J. Popp, Lewisburg

William W. Powers, Wexford

Robert W. Reuther, Pittsburgh

Greg P. Sykes, West Grove

Sherry L. Talowsky, New Wilmington

Richard C. Trayes, Honesdale

Katharine G. Wilderoter, East Brady

Sharon K. Wirtz, McDonald


Norman I. Bazar, Providence

Patricia A. Burke, Providence


Lester M. Bell, Sumter

Lynn E. Christy, Bluffton

Carol L. Gillis, Aiken

John P. Gillis, Fort Mill

Clyde B. Hoskins, Elgin

Hilton J. Klein, Hilton Head Island

Dolores J. Kunze, Boiling Springs

Donald A. McLean Jr., Wagener

David M. Petrick, Hilton Head Island

Thomas F. Proctor, North Augusta

George W. Rauton, Johnston

James T. Robertson, Blackstock

Gary W. Rybka, Myrtle Beach

Susan B. Thompson, Mount Pleasant

Lindy K. Wang, Chester

Jeffrey N. Witwer, Camden


James L. Bain, Frederick

Margaret M. Behrens, Rapid City

Boyd O. Bien, Lake City

Thomas G. Stenberg, Volga

Dennis D. Sutton, Brookings

James L. Wasson, Armour


James L. Baum, Shelbyville

D.L. Brock, Chattanooga

Charles O. Conley, Hixson

Frank W. Fitzgerald, Lafayette

Rebecca E. Gompf, Knoxville

Wayne Ingmire, Spring Hill

David R. Johnson, Kingsport

Van A. Lambeth, Nashville

Louis J. Laratta, Nashville

William L. Moss, Delano

Harry B. Prince, Winchester

Elizabeth A. Shull, Knoxville

Anne W. Stanland, Nashville

Robert M. Thorpe, Greeneville

Gary A. Vroegindewey, Harrogate

Linda M. Young, McMinnville


Bob D. Ables, Paris

Michael T. Allen, Pearland

Nancy A. Bozeman, Fort Worth

J.R. Bridges III, Plano

Larry Culp, Amarillo

Jerry D. Early, Abilene

Ronnie F. Edwards, Waco

Alfred B. Ellis, San Antonio

Clifton K. Fischer, New Braunfels

David L. Fuston, Childress

Marilyn J. Gage, College Station

William W. Gibson, Prairie Lea

Sarah M. Gremmel, Beeville

Dicky D. Griffin, Canyon

Roy C. Gully, Arlington

William E. Guthrie Jr., De Soto

Lewis H. Hanks, Austin

Gary Harwell, Houston

Fred D. Holt, Toga

Louis D. Hopper, Willis

Kenneth B. Kimbrough, Longview

Sammy W. Knippa, Seguin

Roy R. Langerhans, Hudson Oaks

Frank J. Loudat, Houston

Sandra L. Lovering, College Station

Ronald W. Mangum, Nixon

Joanne L. Mansell, College Station

John R. Masters, Helotes

Dan E. McBride, Burnet

John D. Mehaffey, Burleson

Dawn M. Metzger, Montgomery

Royston W. Moore, Corpus Christi

Robert J. Munger, Dallas

Linda L. Noble, Houston

Albert M. Pagani, Austin

Kathryn A. Pearce, Santa Anna

Jimmy D. Platt, Robstown

Lawrence J. Posern, Austin

Steven W. Rapp, Boerne

Leonard P. Reitzammer, Spring

Jacquelyn J. Rich, Lott

Tillman A. Richey, Groves

Robert L. Rogers, Magnolia

Lawrence P. Ruhr, Lake Jackson

Patricia R. Ryan, Houston

Curtis Sanders, Austin

Douglas A. Sanford, Fairfield

Oliver J. Shaffer, Flower Mound

Roger Smith III, College Station

Kathy A. Spaulding, Iola

John Y. Tarlton, Georgetown

Gary W. Thayer, Decatur

Jonathan B. Turner, Plano

James E. Ward Jr., Centerville

Michael N. Williams, Tyler

Robert T. Winn, Big Sandy

Alice M. Wolf, Bryan

Darrell Yarbrough, Canyon


Etta M. Baker, Huntsville

James A. Eaton, Spanish Fork

Nancy C. Larsen, Salt Lake City

Joseph C. Liljenquist, Bountiful

Curtis J. Lupo, Park City

Jim H. Wilson, North Salt Lake


Betty Jo Black, Thetford Center

Kent E. Henderson, Georgia Center

Sandra L. Waugh, Windsor


Steven J. Cohen, Annandale

Stephen K. Curtis, Edinburg

Robert T. Dennis, Lawrenceville

Edda C. Eliasson, Amelia Court House

Craig D. Felton, McLean

Phyllis Giroux, Goldvein

Mark W. Honaker, Suffolk

William O. Iverson, Faber

Beecher B. Jessee III, Wytheville

Tari P. Kindred, Charlottesville

Gregory A. Piske, Newport News

Richard L. Price, Nellysford

Beverly J. Purswell, Blacksburg

Michael D. Rosen, Falls Church

John N. Sexton, McLean

S.S. Slabaugh, Fairfield

Susan J. Steinkamp, Warrenton

Terry L. Taylor, North Chesterfield

Lauriel E. Turner, Tappahannock


Phillip D. Beachy, Auburn

Michael H. Brown, Seattle

Linda L. Collier, Kennewick

Douglas G. Corey, Walla Walla

Michael L. Ericson, Carnation

Randall L. Felts, Des Moines

Alvin L. Forar, Arlington

Mark A. Freiberg, Lakewood

John M. Gay, Pullman

Gary Haigh, Shelton

Kathryn M. Haigh, Shelton

Randy G. Hein, Ferndale

Lindsay A. Hucke, Bellingham

Sanford D. Larson, Sumner

Paul L. Linvog, Snohomish

Jean L. Meyer, Ridgefield

Thomas F. Meyer, Vancouver

Mary H. Norton, Snoqualmie

Patrick P. O'Dea, Greenacres

Jen M. Ranta, Benton City

Robert K. Schneider, Selah

Robert M. Schooley, Goldendale

Lillian L. Sigle, Longview

Wayne E. Smothers, Arlington

Henry F. Snelgrove, Nordland

Kerry L. Taylor, Stanwood

Jeffrey S. Watkins, Spokane

Wendy K. Westrom, Duvall

Linda Lee H. Wood, Colbert


Maurice L. Currey, Scott Depot

Richard B. Mabie, Buffalo

William R. Moodispaw, Weston

Janet Olcott, Shepherdstown

Michael S. Spensley, Charles Town

Ronald M. Thompson, Mount Clare

David M. Williams, Bridgeport


Joel A. Barr, Shawano

Richard A. Barr, Maribel

Nancy E. Bauman, West Bend

Steven P. Benzon, Delavan

John C. Bergan, Portage

E.E. Bohl, New Richmond

James W. Boynar, Port Washington

Michael J. Bradford, Richland Center

David B. Brunson, Madison

Richard T. Karlburg, Madison

Michael A. Livesey, Middleton

Stephen P. Malin, Fond Du Lac

Robert Marold, Brookfield

Philip E. McCleary, Barron

James R. Metz, Beaver Dam

Thomas W. Myers, New Holstein

Michael I. Newell, Whitewater

Daniel L. Oberschlake, Kaukauna

James A. Palmer, De Pere

Michael C. Pritzl, Caledonia

Jerry A. Quilling, Kiel

Steven P. Raabe, North Prairie

David E. Reeson Jr., Blanchardville

Stephen P. Schmidt, Madison

Jeffrey J. Schuett, Pewaukee

Randolph J. Schuett, Pewaukee

Marvin E. Smith, Eau Claire

Jeffrey F. Stepanek, Eau Claire

Jeoffery J. Stevens, Clinton

Rodney V. Thieleke, Sheboygan

Andrew F. Turner, Chetek

James P. Work, Greenfield

Charlene L. Yaunke, Milwaukee


Ray A. Acker, Powell

Warren L. Crawford, Sundance

Merl F. Raisbeck, Laramie


Ng L. Tet, Kowloon, Hong Kong


Veterinarians and students in foreign countries can make use of the unused textbooks, journals, instruments, equipment, and other supplies cluttering many veterinary clinics in the United States.

The AVMA maintains a list of individuals and organizations that collect contributions for various countries. The list is available at jav.ma/donate-books. Potential donors should call or email contacts on the list directly.

Individuals or organizations that collect contributions may inquire about being added to the list or updating their listing by calling 800-248-2862, ext. 6754, or emailing asuresh@avma.org.



Virtual meeting, Aug. 19, 2020


The immediate past secretary-treasurer of the SDVMA, Dr. Matt Stork, presented the treasurer's report. Reports were also presented by SDVMA committee members and association partners.


Drs. Chanda Nilsson, Groton, president; Carolyn Geis, Pierre, president-elect; Matt Stork, Sioux Falls, vice president; Lisa Stanley, Fort Pierre, secretary-treasurer; Ethan Andress, Hettinger, North Dakota, immediate past president; Anna Braunschmidt, Garretson, District 1 representative; Heidi Sorensen, Watertown, District 2 representative; Sandra Wahlert, Hot Springs, District 3 representative, and AVMA delegate and alternate delegate—Drs. Chris Chase, Brookings, and Cindy Franklin, Yankton


Dr. Chanda Nilsson

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 258, 1; 10.2460/javma.258.1.7


Dr. Carolyn Geis

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 258, 1; 10.2460/javma.258.1.7



Virtual meeting, Oct. 15, 2020


AAFSPHV Veterinarian of the Year

This award, given each year in recognition of a veterinarian's outstanding accomplishments in the fields of veterinary food safety and public health, was dedicated to veterinarians across the globe in recognition of their extraordinary work to protect and preserve public health before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, veterinarians are playing a vital role in numerous ways, such as conducting collaborative research to better understand SARS-CoV-2 and developing potential mitigation tools; supporting the diagnostic capacity of human health services by performing high-throughput testing of human COVID-19 samples; donating personal protective equipment and ventilators; developing effective public health interventions and assisting with the tracking and surveillance of human and animal disease; continuing to ensure the safety of our food supply while working to identify solutions and respond to the impacts the pandemic has had on our food production systems; and offering essential care to both companion and food animals while implementing appropriate precautions to protect the health of patients, clients, and veterinary staff members.


The AAFSPHV provided members with an update on the organization's history, membership, continuing education plans, student outreach program, strategic planning, and a new collaborative partnership with the National Association of Federal Veterinarians, United States Animal Health Association, and American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine.


Drs. Donna DeBonis, Oak Harbor, Washington, president; Angela Demaree, Indianapolis, president-elect; Catherine Alexander, Fort Collins, Colorado, recording secretary; Kelly Vest, Blackwell, Oklahoma, treasurer; Jennifer Koeman, Seattle, immediate past president; Katherine Waters, Denver, executive vice president and AVMA alternate delegate; Kristen Obbink, Ames, Iowa, AVMA delegate; and directors—Drs. Roger Murphy, Raleigh, North Carolina; Van H. Brass II, Phoenix; Renee Funk, Atlanta; Mike Gilsdorf, Sykesville, Maryland; Kristen Obbink, Ames, Iowa; and Pamela Abney, Millsboro, Delaware


Dr. Donna DeBonis

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 258, 1; 10.2460/javma.258.1.7


Dr. Angela Demaree

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 258, 1; 10.2460/javma.258.1.7



Dr. Black (Ohio State ‘73), 74, Columbus, North Carolina, died July 31, 2020. Following graduation, he practiced in Indianapolis and in Middleburg, Virginia, before moving in the late 1970s to Tryon, North Carolina, where he owned an equine practice until retirement. Dr. Black also owned Three Springs Tack Repair, a tack repair and custom leatherwork business, which he continued with in retirement. An avid horseman, he showed jumpers throughout the Midwest in the 1960s. Dr. Black's wife, Janet; four children; two grandchildren; and a sister survive him. Memorials may be made to Foothills Humane Society, P.O. Box 985, Columbus, NC 28722, or Danny & Ron's Rescue, P.O. Box 604, Camden, SC 29021.


Dr. Crago (Ohio State ‘46), 96, Poland, Ohio, died May 11, 2020. Following graduation, he practiced large animal medicine in Kinsman, Ohio, for two years. Dr. Crago subsequently joined late brothers Drs. Glen Crago and Charles Crago at Crago Veterinary Clinic in Youngstown, Ohio, retiring in 1999.

Dr. Wilbur Crago was a member of the Ohio VMA. He received the American Animal Hospital Association's Charles E. Bild Practitioner of the Year Award in 1977 and was named AAHA Region 3's Outstanding Practitioner of the Year for 1976-77. He was a veteran of the Army, attaining the rank of captain. Dr. Crago was a member of the Kinsman Masonic Lodge and Sebring Salvation Army.

He is survived by his wife, Nada; two sons and three daughters; nine grandchildren and 13 greatgrandchildren. Other veterinarians in the family include late brother Dr. Vern Crago and nephew Dr. Tom Crago (Ohio State ‘71). Memorials may be made to the Oaks Foundation, 715 S. Johnson Road, Sebring, OH 44672.


Dr. Johnson (Auburn ‘03), 44, Bonifay, Florida, died July 20, 2020. He owned Dixieland Veterinary Services in Bonifay, where he practiced primarily small animal medicine. Dr. Johnson is survived by his wife, Jennifer Cloud; a son, a daughter, a stepson, and a stepdaughter; his parents; and a brother and a sister. Memorials toward Holmes County High School Ag Farm or Holmes County High School Drama Department may be sent to 105 Blue Devil Drive, Bonifay, FL 32425.


Dr. Leverett (Ohio State ‘60), 86, Limon, Colorado, died May 7, 2020. A diplomate of the American College of Theriogenologists, he owned a mixed animal practice, serving the eastern plains of Colorado prior to retirement in 2012. Dr. Leverett was a veteran of the Navy. His wife, Ruth; five children; 10 grandchildren; and four greatgrandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to St. Joseph Indian School, 1301 N. Main St., Chamberlain, SD 57325, stjo.org/culture.


Dr. Nissen (Auburn ‘53), 93, Marion, South Carolina, died July 6, 2020. Following graduation, he practiced in Bennettsville, South Carolina, for two years. Dr. Nissen then moved to Marion, where he owned Marion Animal Hospital for 56 years. He was a past president of the South Carolina Association of Veterinarians, a past chair of the South Carolina Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners, and a member of the American Animal Hospital Association and Pee Dee VMA. In 1986, Dr. Nissen was named South Carolina Veterinarian of the Year. In 2007, he received the SCAV Lifetime Achievement Award.

Active in his community, he served on the board of directors of the Marion County Chamber of Commerce and the United Way of Marion County. Dr. Nissen was a member of the Marion Rotary Club and Ducks Unlimited. He served in the Navy for four years. Dr. Nissen is survived by two daughters, a son, and four grandchildren. Memorials may be made to the Marion Presbyterian Church, P.O. Box 186, Marion, SC 29571.


Dr. Weaver (Ohio State ‘18), 34, Columbus, Ohio, died July 13, 2020. He had most recently completed a radiology internship at Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Prior to that, Dr. Weaver worked at Veterinary Specialty Hospital of the Carolinas in Raleigh, North Carolina, focusing on small animals. He is survived by his parents and a brother. Memorials may be made to Furever Friends Animal Rescue, c/o Capeside Animal Hospital, 58 Waterford Business Center Way, Belville, NC 28451, or Not One More Vet, nomv.org.

  • According to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as of Nov. 30, 2020, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and, in the U.S., Michigan, Oregon, Utah, and Wisconsin had reported SARS-CoV-2 in farmed minks.

  • Dambisa Moyo, PhD

  • Research shows a decline in visits per year when the average client transaction reaches approximately $300, suggesting clients are more sensitive to the cost of a single visit than the amount spent over a year.

  • The Value Pricing Framework

  • “Having AVMA leadership directly interact with members is very important,” said Dr. Douglas Kratt, AVMA president, during a virtual meeting with members on Oct. 28, 2020.

  • Dr. Valerie Marcano and Seth Andrews, PhD, are the founders of Pawsibilities Vet Med, a nonprofit platform dedicated to recruitment and retention of diverse students in veterinary medicine. (Courtesy of Drs. Marcano and Andrews)

  • The sponsors submitted a similar resolution for the winter session.

  • Dr. Elizabeth Colleran, owner of a feline-only practice, said cats without osteoarthritis will not hesitate to leap off a counter. Cats with osteoarthritis might slide partway down the counter to reduce the distance to the ground, hesitate before jumping, or look for an interim level to travel the distance in steps. (Photo by Samet Kaplan)

  • The Canine OsteoArthritis Staging Tool allows veterinarians to assign a numerical stage of osteoarthritis in dogs ranging from 0-4. Stage 0 is clinically normal with no risk factors for osteoarthritis, while stage 4 is severe osteoarthritis. COAST is available from Elanco at jav.ma/coast, although the site was being migrated to a new system at press time, or by calling 888-545-5973.

  • This dog is leaning forward in an abnormal stance typical of hip dysplasia or hip osteoarthritis pain, said Dr. B. Duncan X. Lascelles, professor of surgery and pain management at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine. (Photo by Dr. Lascelles)

  • Dr. Chanda Nilsson

  • Dr. Carolyn Geis

  • Dr. Donna DeBonis

  • Dr. Angela Demaree