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IN SHORT

FDA SEEKS MORE INPUT ON DRUG COMPOUNDING RULES

Federal officials resumed taking comments on plans to let veterinarians and pharmacists compound animal drugs from raw active ingredients under narrow circumstances.

Food and Drug Administration officials plan to accept comments through June 17. They accepted comments Nov. 20 to Feb. 18 and, on Feb. 20, announced the extension.

Draft guidance published in November 2019 describes the animal drug compounding methods that agency officials consider to be legal, as well as which would be illegal but allowed.

In general, making an animal drug from raw active ingredients constitutes creating a new product, which requires FDA review. Agency officials indicated certain exceptions would benefit patients with, say, allergies or poisoning.

The AVMA was among organizations that requested the FDA extend the comment period, along with the American Pharmacists Association, Alliance for Pharmacy Compounding, and National Community Pharmacists Association.

FDA officials are accepting comments submitted at regulations.gov under docket number FDA-2018-D-4533.

AKC CANINE HEALTH FOUNDATION AWARDS OVER $2M IN RESEARCH GRANTS

The American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation announced Feb. 27 that it had awarded over $2.1 million in 36 new grants for research on canine health.

Highlights from the new grants include the following studies:

  • • “Identifying early stage ultra-rare mutations as predictive biomarkers of lymphoma in high-risk versus low-risk breeds within the Dog Aging Project.”

  • • “Histotripsy for treatment of canine appendicular osteosarcoma.”

  • • “Tumor-educated platelets: A minimally invasive liquid biopsy for early cancer diagnosis.”

  • • “Clinical trial of Prevotella histicola supplementation to ameliorate meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin.”

  • • “Defining the effect of genotype, breed and age on the risk of developing canine degenerative myelopathy and investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying that risk.”

FREE DERMATOLOGY WEBINARS AVAILABLE FROM WORLD ASSOCIATION

The World Association for Veterinary Dermatology has developed a foundation course in veterinary dermatology, which comprised 30 webinars as of early March.

The webinars can be viewed free of charge at wavd.org/continuingeducation/webinars. The contributors are from around the world and are all experts in their fields.

The WAVD intends the webinars for fourth-year veterinary students and general practitioners who wish to increase their knowledge of the discipline of veterinary dermatology. In addition, several of the webinars contain important new information of value to those pursuing advanced studies in the discipline.

Veterinary colleges continue to face diversity, inclusion challenges

Student government at ISU passes bill to censure veterinary college administration

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Kate Alucard, a second-year student at Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, is the ISU student government senator for the veterinary college. “When I first visited ISU CVM, I fell in love with the school. Now that I've become a member of the veterinary college, I realize that not everyone gets the luxury of feeling like they belong.” (Courtesy of Kate Alucard)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

By Kaitlyn Mattson

Despite efforts to create diverse and inclusive environments within the veterinary profession, including veterinary colleges, there is still room for progress.

This fact became apparent during a student government meeting in February at Iowa State University, where veterinary students spoke about their experiences involving bias, microaggressions, bigotry, racism, and prejudice at the college or read transcripts from students who could not attend or feared speaking out. The student government passed a bill censuring the College of Veterinary Medicine administration.

The bill, Senate Resolution 2019-3-011 SR, titled “Censuring the College of Veterinary Medicine Administration,” can be found at jav.ma/censure in its entirety.

Dr. Dan Grooms, dean of the veterinary college, said the administration is aware of the issues and has been working on them.

“There is no doubt that what they (the students) have experienced is hurtful to them,” he said. “We are working hard to make sure our students have positive experiences. We want to make the college a more inclusive and welcoming environment for learning and working.”

He added that many of the resolutions' recommendations are already being implemented or had already been implemented; however, some will need to be discussed more broadly with the university.

“It's a continuous process, and it will always take work,” Dr. Grooms said.

There have been five reported incidents in the 2019–20 academic year, he said, and all the incidents have been investigated and, when a response could be made, responded to.

GREATER EFFORTS

The effort to increase diversity and inclusion on veterinary college campuses has largely been led by the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. The organization launched its DiVersity Matters initiative in 2005, in part because of the lack of diversity within the profession. According to the 2018 Bureau of Labor Statistics' report “Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity,” 92.9% of veterinarians in the workforce were white—a decrease of 4.4 percentage points from five years earlier.

A study analyzing the climate at veterinary colleges published in 2018 by the AAVMC shows one in three students reported hearing comments from fellow students related to race, gender identity, sexual orientation, disability, religion, or other demographic characteristics.

Lisa Greenhill, EdD, senior director for institutional research and diversity at the AAVMC, has been at the forefront of this initiative.

“While censure is often interpreted as a stinging rebuke, we can also look at this as a great opportunity for ISU to explore ways to improve diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts across the college community,” Dr. Greenhill said. “AAVMC has a long history of working with its member institutions in a variety of ways, including sharing research and offering training, program development coaching, and evaluation.

“So while it is genuinely awful that students are feeling marginalized, discriminated against, and unheard, the action taken by the student senate creates a unique chance for us to support ISU in being a welcoming and supportive environment where all students, faculty, and staff can thrive.”

ISU isn't alone. Veterinary students at the National Autonomous University of Mexico are protesting the reelection of Dr. Francisco Suarez Guemes, veterinary school director, because of, among other things, complaints related to his mishandling of sexual harassment as well as security issues and gender violence, according to media reports.

BIGGER PICTURE

But the problems aren't just at institutions of higher education, said Sonya G. Smith, EdD, chief diversity officer at the American Dental Education Association. Dr. Smith spoke during a session at the AAVMC annual conference in March, “When Hate is a Crime: Creating an Inclusive and Safe Environment on Campus.”

“Higher education functions and exists within society, and the U.S. continues to wrestle with how to better ensure fairness, equity, belongingness, diversity, and inclusion in all our systems and in everyday interactions,” she told JAVMA News. “Colleges must see these challenges as opportunities and not as something that they have to deal with to pacify students, faculty, staff, and alumni.”

Smith suggests that colleges make changes through strategic planning, allocation of resources, curriculum development, hiring policies, and recruitment and retention practices.

Smith said acknowledging bias is important, and everyone has it.

“It is not about being a good or bad person,” she said. “However, in our discussions, we must move from intent to impact. Although a person may not intend to be hurtful or discriminatory in their actions, self-reflection and the principles of organizational behavior require that we continue to ask, ‘What was the impact on the other person, this group, the organization, and even oneself?‘”

For the ISU veterinary students who spoke up, the hope is that the bill will facilitate more action from leadership.

Kate Alucard, the ISU student government senator for the veterinary college, said, “I would like to acknowledge the efforts made by the veterinary college administration since the censure and even before then. It was said by one senior faculty member that inclusion and diversity has improved more under Dr. Groom's leadership as the dean than any other dean in the past twenty years.

“However, we can sit and acknowledge the progress that has been made and still demand better for our students. Students are powerful. We can demand change and accountability. We shouldn't settle for tolerance. I proudly stand with my peers that have come forward on these issues. They are fearless, they are brave, and they are the future professionals in the veterinary profession, all over the world.”

HOW TO BETTER IMPLEMENT DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION EFFORTS

Sonya G. Smith, EdD, chief diversity officer at the American Dental Education Association, held a session during the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges' annual conference, “When Hate is a Crime: Creating an Inclusive and Safe Environment on Campus.” She gave JAVMA News the following tips for veterinary colleges to consider:

  • • Demonstrate that diversity is a driving and necessary condition for academic and clinical excellence.

  • • See cultural competency as a continuum by making sure that admissions and hiring committees receive cultural competency training and ongoing implicit bias and cognitive error training.

  • • Evaluate and ensure that diverse voices are heard consistently at all levels.

  • • Implement climate surveys with transparent and actionable discussions around findings and monitor solutions.

  • • Conduct a curriculum audit to determine whether principles of diversity, health equity, and inclusion are embedded throughout.

  • • Develop a diversity plan through which students, faculty, and staff come together to be a collective part of the solution.

  • • Be proactive in bringing about transformational change. Either you drive change or change will drive you.

AVMA CELEBRATES NATIONAL PET WEEK 2020

The AVMA is celebrating “A Lifetime of Love” again for National Pet Week 2020, held this year from May 3–9.

The Association plans to roll out a new series of videos around several National Pet Week themes, all designed to help highlight the importance of veterinary visits and the role veterinarians play in keeping pets happy and healthy throughout their lives.

Created in 1981 by the AVMA and the Auxiliary to the AVMA, primarily made up of the spouses of AVMA members, National Pet Week aims to foster responsible pet ownership, recognize the human-animal bond, and increase public awareness of the value of veterinary medicine.

The Association has chosen a focus for each day of National Pet Week, starting with selecting the right pet for the family. The focus for each day is as follows:

  • • Day 1—Choose well, commit for life.

  • • Day 2—Socialize now. New doesn't have to be scary.

  • • Day 3—Nutrition and exercise matter.

  • • Day 4—Love your pet? See your vet!

  • • Day 5—Travel with care. Arrive safely.

  • • Day 6—Emergencies happen. Be prepared.

  • • Day 7—Plan for their care. Give them a lifetime of love.

More information about National Pet Week is available at avma.org/PetWeek. Members of the AVMA can access an updated National Pet Week toolkit at the same site. The toolkit features social media images and posts, ideas for how clinics can observe the week, and ideas for promotional marketing.

Also during National Pet Week, the AVMA plans to announce the winners of the Bustad Companion Animal Veterinarian of the Year Award, AVMA Animal Welfare Award, and AVMA Humane Award. Merck Animal Health is sponsoring the awards, which will be presented at AVMA Convention 2020 this August in San Diego.

WVC becomes Viticus Group

Organization's annual conference draws over 16,000, features cat food that reduces allergens

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Drs. B. Duncan X. Lascelles and Sheilah A. Robertson present during the hands-on lab “Elevating Care for Osteoarthritis in Cats” at the WVC Annual Conference this past February in Las Vegas. (Courtesy of WVC)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

By Katie Burns

The Western Veterinary Conference became WVC in 2014. Now the organization has been renamed as Viticus Group, reflecting its expansion to education in human health, while the annual conference remains WVC.

Attendance was over 16,000 for the 2020 conference, held Feb. 16–19 in Las Vegas. The program provided continuing education in the categories of small animal, food animal, equine, avian and exotics, practice management, and veterinary technology. The AVMA offered sessions on several subjects at the conference, including “Planning in the Present for Your Financial Future” and a series on animal transport. Some of the sessions will be available on AVMA Axon, the Association's online CE platform.

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WVC will now be known as Viticus Group, providing continuing education for both veterinary and human health professionals. The name “Viticus” combines the Latin term for life, “vita,” and the Latin term for doctor, “medicus.” (Courtesy of WVC)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

During the conference, Nestle Purina PetCare announced the April release of Purina Pro Plan LiveClear, the first cat food that reduces allergens in cat hair and dander.

VITICUS GROUP

Since 1928, WVC as an organization has provided CE to veterinary professionals. The organization was founded in Logan, Utah, as the Intermountain Livestock Sanitary Association and was renamed the Western Veterinary Conference in 1965, then WVC in 2014.

The organization will now be known as Viticus Group, providing CE for both veterinary and human health professionals. The WVC name will be retained for offerings associated with the veterinary community, including year-round courses and the annual conference. Viticus Group was selected as the name for the overall organization to capture its mission for the human health division as well as the veterinary division.

Viticus Group's facilities for hands-on learning will receive upgrades and additions to accommodate more events for veterinary and human health. These facilities will be known as the Viticus Center. The former Oquendo Center will now be called Viticus Center–Oquendo Campus. The new 71,000-square-foot facility recently acquired by Viticus Group is called Viticus Center–Eastern Campus.

“We're excited about the expansion to include human health education as a focus along with veterinary education because it means we can influence more lives for the better,” said Andrea Davis, CEO of Viticus Group, in a Feb. 19 announcement. “Though we have a new face and a new name, our commitment to supporting veterinary and human health professionals by providing them access to affordable, advanced continuing education with cutting-edge technology in state-of-the-art facilities remains the same.”

The 2020–21 WVC officers are Dr. Robert Smith, Stillwater, Oklahoma, president; Dr. Brian Poteet, Tomball, Texas, president-elect; Dr. Debbie White, Las Vegas, vice president; veterinary technician E. David Stearns, Fall Creek, Wisconsin, secretary-treasurer; and Dr. Dennis McCurnin, Las Vegas, immediate past president.

CAT FOOD

The cat food that reduces allergens, Purina Pro Plan LiveClear, is the culmination of more than a decade of Purina research, according to a company announcement.

“Cat allergen management is a significant problem, with one in five adults worldwide sensitive to cat allergens,” said Ebenezer Satyaraj, PhD, in the announcement. He is an immunologist for Nestle Purina Research and lead investigator for the research that led to the development of Pro Plan LiveClear.

The protein Fel d 1 is the major cat allergen, causing responses in up to 95% of cat allergen–sensitive individuals. Fel d 1 is produced in the salivary and sebaceous glands of cats, transferred to the cat's hair and skin during grooming, and shed into the environment via hair and dander.

“All cats produce Fel d 1, although the amount can vary widely between individual cats and fluctuate throughout the year,” Dr. Satyaraj said. He noted that, despite popular myths, no cats are hypoallergenic, and all cats produce Fel d 1, regardless of breed, age, hair length, color, housing, sex, or size.

The Pro Plan LiveClear diet is formulated using a key protein sourced from eggs that contains an anti-Fel d 1 antibody. A study published last year in the journal Immunity, Inflammation and Disease found that feeding the diet was shown to significantly reduce the allergens in cat hair and dander by a mean of 47%, starting in the third week of daily feeding. In this same study, 97% of cats exhibited a reduction of active Fel d 1, with individual variability.

“From the standpoint of the owner and the veterinarian, it is important to note that Pro Plan LiveClear neutralizes the major cat allergen without impacting the physiology of the cat,” said Dr. Jason Gagné, Purina director of veterinary technical communication, in the Purina announcement. “Because scientists do not know precisely why cats produce Fel d 1, our goal was to neutralize the protein rather than inhibit its production. Meanwhile, a 6-month safety study proved that the egg product ingredient coating the LiveClear kibble is completely safe for the cat to eat. The ingredient's action occurs in the mouth, but once swallowed, it is digested like any other protein.”

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Pro Plan LiveClear Adult Chicken and Rice

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

AVMA SESSIONS

At WVC, the AVMA offered CE tracks on the topics of cannabis and opioids, air transport of companion animals, financial planning, and well-being and healthy workplaces.

The sessions going up on AVMA Axon cover a macro view of veterinary economics; practical tactics to address debt; the critical link between debt and behavior; steps to purchase a practice with debt; civility in the workplace; animal transport by air, above and below the wing; air travel from the animal's perspective; and the what and why of certificates of veterinary inspection in pre-travel examinations. AVMA Axon is at axon.avma.org.

COMPANY SOLD PRESCRIPTION DRUGS TO UNAUTHORIZED USERS, RESELLERS

A drug distribution company pleaded guilty in February to selling farm-use prescription drugs to people who lacked prescriptions and resellers who were unlicensed to receive them.

The company also sent prescription drugs to states where the company had failed to maintain drug distribution licenses, according to prosecutors.

Animal Health International Inc. agreed to forfeit about $47 million gained from illegal shipments, pay a $5 million fine, and pay $1 million to the Virginia Department of Health Professionals to settle charges of introducing and delivering misbranded prescription drugs into interstate commerce, according to an announcement from the U.S. Attorney's Office in the Western District of Virginia. AHI's parent company, Patterson Companies Inc., also agreed to improve compliance with federal and state laws.

Patterson Companies spokeswoman Bria Townshend provided a statement that the company worked with the government over the prior 18 months to resolve the investigation, and the company made substantial organizational and cultural changes focused on strengthening regulatory and compliance processes.

“We've made significant enhancements and modifications to our prescription drug licensing, dispensing, distribution and related sales practices that are designed to drive compliance with applicable laws in our industry and continue to meet the needs of our customers,” company officials said. “We've brought people on board with extensive regulatory affairs experience, invested in external subject matter expertise, and continue to train our employees and monitor activity to ensure that the activity described in our settlement with the government does not reoccur.”

The charges against AHI originated from at least $54 million worth of drug sales. About $7.4 million of those sales involved two longtime AHI customers who pleaded guilty in 2016 and 2017 to working with a Tennessee-based veterinarian to obtain fraudulent prescriptions so they could sell AHI drugs, according to court documents.

The Tennessee veterinarian, who died in 2015, worked with Marlin Webb and Billy K. Groce to write prescriptions for animals in Virginia despite never seeing the animals and being unlicensed in Virginia, court documents state. Webb and Groce filled the prescriptions through AHI, although they sometimes ordered prescription drugs without any prescriptions, court documents state.

Groce received a sentence of four months imprisonment, and Webb received probation.

NEW LISTINGS IN AVMA ANIMAL HEALTH STUDIES DATABASE

Below are some of the new listings of veterinary clinical studies in the AVMA Animal Health Studies Database. Information about participation in the studies is available at avma.org/findvetstudies.

  • • AAHSD005132: “IntestoGuard: New drug tested for dogs with chronic diarrhea,” Iowa State University and The Ohio State University.

  • • AAHSD005130: “Diagnostic utility of thoracoscopy for localization of pulmonary bullae in dogs with spontaneous pneumothorax,” North Carolina State University.

  • • AAHSD005128: “Field evaluation of a rapid, mobile, novel sequencing technology for the detection of equine herpesvirus–1 in equine nasal secretions,” Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine; samples may be submitted from any veterinary practice in the U.S.

  • • AAHSD005123: “Cryoablation with immunotherapy to treat canine osteosarcoma,” Center for Image-Guided Animal Therapy at Johns Hopkins University.

  • • AAHSD005122: “Y90 endovascular radiosurgery in dogs with hypervascular brain tumors,” Center for Image-Guided Animal Therapy at Johns Hopkins University.

  • • AAHSD005121: “Biologic activity and safety of temozolomide in dogs with naturally-occurring apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma: A pilot study,” Kansas State University.

  • • AAHSD005098 “Pilot study comparison of fecal microbiota transplant versus probiotics as treatment for acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome in dogs,” Kansas State University.

FDA APPROVES ZOETIS' MULTIPLE-PARASITE PREVENTIVE

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Simparica Trio received approval from the Food and Drug Administration in February. The chewable tablet delivers sarolaner, moxidectin, and pyrantel to protect dogs from heartworm disease, ticks and fleas, roundworms, and hookworms. (Courtesy of Zoetis)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

By Kaitlyn Mattson

Zoetis received approval in February from the Food and Drug Administration for its new Simparica Trio, the first combination drug that protects dogs from heartworm disease, ticks and fleas, roundworms, and hookworms.

The treatment delivers three active ingredients—sarolaner, moxidectin, and pyrantel pamoate—in a monthly chewable tablet to protect dogs from multiple parasites.

Dr. Chris Adolph, a senior veterinary specialist at Zoetis and diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Microbiologists in parasitology, said the company decided to put these active ingredients together because many veterinarians have been asking for such a drug.

“Many veterinarians are using two or three different products to achieve the goals of protecting against parasites,” Dr. Adolph said. “This gives them the opportunity to protect against all the parasites in one.”

Dr. Adolph added that clients would not have to be selective in their treatment choices because Simparica Trio is just one pill that covers a variety of parasites.

“This is the very first that has been approved that is in one tablet,” Dr. Adolph said. “It's much needed in the market. … It will benefit dogs and veterinarians for years to come.”

Zoetis develops and manufactures medicine and vaccines for use by veterinarians, livestock producers, and people that care for farm and companion animals. The animal health company sold products in over 100 countries and earned $6.3 billion in 2019.

Zoetis anticipates Simparica Trio will be available to veterinary customers in April. The tablets will be available in six strengths for dogs and puppies 8 weeks or older and over 2.8 pounds.

The drug will be available by prescription only.

Adverse effects may include vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, anorexia, otitis externa, pruritus, polyuria, hyperactivity, and polydipsia. The full safety information for the drug can be found at jav.ma/SimparicaTrio.

EMAIL LOGIN NOW AN OPTION ON AVMA WEBSITE

Quick question: What's your AVMA member ID number? Don't remember it off the top of your head? That's OK, you're not alone.

With that in mind, the AVMA website now allows members to use either their email address, effective March 24, or member ID number when signing into avma.org and e-business applications. These changes do not apply to third-party sites such as the Veterinary Career Center or JAVMA and AJVR website.

Including email as a username option is intended to bring the AVMA in line with current trends and make it easier to log in. Also as part of the change, the Association will be removing shared email addresses as well as passwords that currently include the user's last name.

ANNUAL SPENDING ON PETS NEARING $100B

Annual sales of pet products and services in the United States are nearing $100 billion for the first time, as 2019 spending reached $95.7 billion, according to a Feb. 27 announcement from the American Pet Products Association.

The overall sales figures are higher than previously reported industry expenditures as a result of APPA's efforts to refine and improve its research methodology.

Veterinary care and product sales came in at $29.3 billion, a substantial jump from previously reported spending figures. In addition to routine veterinary care, the total now includes surgical procedures and sales of pharmaceuticals and other products through veterinary clinics.

Pet food and treats is by far the largest spending category, with 2019 sales reaching $36.9 billion. Dog and cat foods are the dominant category components, with the growing popularity of pet food mix-ins and toppers contributing to increased sales. The growth in subscription pet food delivery programs also added to the success of this category. APPA expects the pet food and treats category to see another 4% increase in sales in 2020.

Supplies, live animals, and over-the-counter medicines sold at retail accounted for $19.2 billion in 2019. This category includes estimated retail sales of fish, reptiles, birds, and other small animals, which had previously been broken out as a separate category. Sales figures for live animals are difficult to come by and are a relatively small contributor to overall sales. APPA purposely excluded sales of dogs, cats, and horses because these animals are typically obtained outside of the retail pet channel.

The category of other services contributed $10.3 billion to industry sales last year. The category comprises boarding, grooming, insurance, training, pet sitting and walking, and all services outside of veterinary care.

“Aside from echoing the current state of the pet industry, APPA's latest industry figures remind us of just how much Americans love their pets,” said Steve King, CEO of APPA. “By understanding consumer behavior, we're not only fostering the success of the pet industry for generations to come, we're notably improving the lives of pets and the humans who love and care for them.”

Veterinarians among those charged in widespread horse doping scheme

Unapproved drugs hidden from regulators, racetrack officials

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The U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York has indicted 27 people for taking part in conspiracies “to manufacture, distribute, and receive adulterated and misbranded (performance-enhancing drugs) and to secretly administer those PEDs to racehorses” in New York, New Jersey, Florida, Ohio, Kentucky, and the United Arab Emirates.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

By Kaitlyn Mattson

Malinda Larkin

Federal prosecutors have arrested several veterinarians, trainers, and other horse racing professionals on charges relating to systematic, covert administration of illegal performance-enhancing drugs to racehorses in the U.S. and abroad, according to court documents released March 9.

Of the 27 defendants, 19 are charged in an indictment detailing conspiracies “to manufacture, distribute, and receive adulterated and misbranded PEDs and to secretly administer those PEDs to racehorses” in New York, New Jersey, Florida, Ohio, Kentucky, and the United Arab Emirates, according to the press release from the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York.

“This is the most far-reaching prosecution of racehorse doping in the history of the Department of Justice,” said U.S. Attorney Geoffrey S. Berman during a press conference. “The defendants who we charged today engaged in this conduct not for the love of the sport, and certainly not out of care for the horses, but for money to secure cash prizes by increasing a racehorse's chances of winning races or to make money by manufacturing and selling illegal drugs. And it was the racehorses that paid the price for the defendants' unbridled greed.”

FOUR INDICTMENTS

The charging documents state that in some instances the horses were given unapproved drugs “whose chemical composition is unknown” and that the drugs were administered by nonveterinarians in a manner that could injure or even kill the horses and masked the horses' ability to feel pain, resulting in overexertion during races that potentially caused accidents, broken limbs, and death.

The investigation began in January 2017 and continued through this year, and it involved races across the country and in the UAE. FBI agents raided barns at Gulfstream Park West near Miami and the Palm Meadows Training Center in Boynton Beach, Florida, the day the charges were announced, according to The Washington Post.

Court documents indicate that Jorge Navarro, a horse trainer, is at the center of the alleged scheme. Federal prosecutors say he and others used PEDs designed to evade drug tests, hid the drugs from state regulators and racing officials, and shipped certain products designed to mask the presence of PEDs through a straw purchaser, among other things. From February 2018 to February 2020, he entered horses in nearly 1,500 races.

Drs. Erica Garcia and Seth Fishman, equine veterinarians in Florida, and Gregory Skelton, an equine veterinarian in Indiana, were charged as accomplices to Navarro; prosecutors allege the veterinarians either illegally manufactured the PEDs or illegally administered PEDs at Navarro's direction. A number of other people were charged with helping Navarro obtain, ship, and administer the drugs.

Jason Servis, another high-profile trainer, operated a similar doping scheme for virtually all of the racehorses under his control, according to court documents. He entered horses in approximately 1,082 races in the past two years. In this case, Drs. Alexander Chan, an equine veterinarian and racing official with the New York Racing Association, and Kristian Rhein, a racetrack veterinarian in New York, are accused of obtaining and administering misbranded and adulterated PEDs, among other things.

The second indictment charges four people, including another equine veterinarian, Dr. Louis Grasso, with conspiring to violate the misbranding laws of the United States. The indictment states he “manufactured, sold, and distributed adulterated and misbranded PEDs for use on racehorses,” including snake venom as a pain-blocking substance.

Dr. Grasso has previously been convicted of selling human steroids. He also lost his New York State Racing and Wagering license for administering drugs too close to starting times, which means he cannot practice at racetracks within the state. Dr. Grasso practices in Orange County, New York.

The third indictment charges two individuals with misbranding and adulterations conspiracies. According to the press release, “The two defendants previously collaborated in running online marketplaces selling adulterated and misbranded PEDs for racehorses.”

The final indictment charges another two individuals with distribution of an adulterated and misbranded blood builder sourced illegally.

RACING AND ETHICS

The drugs listed within the court documents include erythropoietin, which increases the red blood cell count of horses to stimulate endurance and improve race recovery; snake venom, which is used to deaden a horse's nerves and block pain; SGF-1000, which is a customized PED that is intended to promote tissue repair and increase a horse's stamina; analgesics such as a frozen pain shot, which contains pain-relieving substances; and red acid, a custom-made PED that is administered to mask injuries in racehorses, among other things.

Thirteen people were taken into federal custody March 9, according to the press release. Dr. Fishman was arrested this past October.

Dr. David Frisbie, president of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, issued a statement in response to the announcement of federal charges.

“Today's indictments of five AAEP-member veterinarians are concerning and disappointing to our association and the countless equine veterinarians who provide medical care to racehorses in an ethical manner,” he said. “The AAEP's Professional Conduct and Ethics Committee has been informed about the federal charges, and our internal review process will soon begin to ensure a fair and thorough evaluation of the events. The AAEP's authority, however, is limited only to membership status in the association. It is the ethical obligation of AAEP members and all veterinarians to adhere to the highest standards in order to protect the racehorse and the integrity of the sport.”

As previously reported by JAVMA News, a cluster of apparently unrelated horse racing deaths in 2019 led to increased calls for safety-related reforms and standardization in the industry, including the creation of the Thoroughbred Safety Coalition and the introduction of the Horseracing Integrity Act (HR 1754) in the 116th Congress. The legislation would establish the Horseracing Anti-Doping and Medication Control Authority as an independent, private, nonprofit organization that would develop and administer a program for Thoroughbred, Standardbred, and Quarter Horse racing. The Federal Trade Commission would have oversight.

The Thoroughbred Safety Coalition, launched this past November, comprises six racetrack organizations: The Breeders' Cup, Churchill Downs, the Del Mar Thoroughbred Club, Keeneland, the New York Racing Association, and The Stronach Group, which operates Gulfstream Park West and Palm Meadows Training Center. The TSC aims to make operational, medical, and organizational changes to the racing industry. It issued the following statement:

“There is no place in our sport for the activities described in the indictments filed by the Southern District of New York U.S. Attorney's Office. Safety and integrity will always come first for the members of the Coalition, which is why restricting medication and improving testing is one of the main pillars in our reform platform.”

Dr. Rick Arthur, equine medical director at the University of California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine assigned full-time to the California Horse Racing Board, said testing has always been rigorous in horse racing, but there has been an over-reliance on drug testing instead of surveillance.

“In my 13 years in this position as equine medical director for the California Horse Racing Board, the best anti-doping and regulatory compliance strategy I have seen is the implementation of video surveillance at Santa Anita racetrack,” he said. “We have all the regulations we need. It's just very difficult to monitor everyone's activity, and this is an example of a few bad actors spoiling the barrel.”

Can veterinarians prevent the next pandemic?

Veterinary epidemiologists advocate for one-health approach to researching, responding to zoonoses

By R. Scott Nolen

The COVID-19 pandemic marks the third novel coronavirus outbreak of the 21st century.

Unlike the viruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, which were associated with outbreaks limited in scope, SARS-CoV-2—the virus that causes COVID-19—burned across the globe in just over two months since the first case was reported last December in Wuhan, China.

Most countries, including the United States, were soon scrambling to manage the public health crisis.

On March 11, the World Health Organization officially declared COVID-19 a pandemic. At the time, the WHO stated that more than 118,000 human cases of coronavirus disease had been reported in 114 countries, along with nearly 4,300 human deaths.

“We are deeply concerned by both the alarming levels of spread and severity, and by the alarming levels of inaction,” WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom said.

“We have never before seen a pandemic sparked by a coronavirus.”

CORONAVIRUSES

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that have been found in dogs, cats, horses, cattle, swine, chickens, turkeys, humans, and bats. Several bat coronaviruses have been shown to be zoonotic pathogens, and the human illnesses they cause range in severity from a mild cold to severe pneumonia, with the potential to be fatal.

“It's important to recognize that there are a number of coronaviruses that have infected people for decades. These viruses often represent 10 to 20% of all the common colds in people,” said Dr. Christopher W. Olsen, professor emeritus of public health at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine and School of Medicine and Public Health.

Dr. Olsen spent much of his career studying zoonotic infections and was a consultant to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during the SARS epidemic. Coronaviruses in general aren't becoming more lethal to humans, Dr. Olsen explained. Rather, the viruses that cause SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 are each novel coronaviruses that humans have no immunity against and are fully susceptible to.

While the SARS and MERS viruses are more lethal than the COVID-19 virus, neither are as infectious as this latest novel coronavirus, according to Linda Saif, PhD, a professor and coronavirus researcher at The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine.

The case fatality rates for SARS and MERS have been 10% and 34%, respectively, Dr. Saif explained. The estimated fatality rate for COVID-19 ranges from less than 1% to as high as 3.4%. “For unknown reasons, neither SARS nor

MERS were as highly infectious and adapted to human-to-human transmission as the COVID-19 virus,“ she said.

“As RNA viruses, with their ability to recombine and acquire mutations, coronaviruses are more likely to evolve and gain the ability for interspecies transmission, similar to influenza viruses,” Dr. Saif continued. “This is partly why we are seeing coronaviruses more frequently causing these pandemics.”

A likely explanation for the origin of the COVID-19 virus is that it is a recombinant coronavirus generated in nature from a bat coronavirus and another coronavirus in an intermediate animal host, Dr. Saif explained. Initially, pangolins were thought to be that host, but viral sequencing indicated that likely isn't the case, she said.

VIRAL HOSTS

Bats are as diverse as the viruses they carry.

With more than 1,300 bat species found throughout the world, bats are the second-largest order of mammals after rodents.

Researchers have studied bat behavior, feeding habits, migratory patterns, and echolocation. Yet few early studies looked at bats as hosts of viruses beyond the rabies virus.

That changed with the 2003 SARS epidemic, which was ultimately linked to bats. Since then, more than 120 viruses have been identified in various bat species, including several novel coronaviruses, as well as the Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses.

Today, bats are increasingly considered one of the most important animal reservoirs for emerging infectious viruses.

The ways a bat might have directly infected a human with COVID-19 include a human eating the bat, in soup, for example, or coming into contact with bat feces or secretions at the exotic animal markets common in China, Dr. Saif said. Likewise, bat feces are sometimes sold in stores for use in Chinese traditional medicine, she said, adding that fruit or other foods contaminated with bat feces or urine might be a foodborne route of transmission to humans.

DEJA VU ALL OVER AGAIN

Veterinary epidemiologist Dr. Donald Noah isn't surprised that a novel zoonotic virus is responsible for the current pandemic.

“Something like this was going to happen, and it will happen again,” said Dr. Noah, an associate professor of public health and epidemiology at Lincoln Memorial University College of Veterinary Medicine.

Prior to his academic career, Dr. Noah held senior leadership positions with the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, where he served as deputy assistant secretary for biodefense against weapons of mass destruction. As acting deputy assistant secretary of defense, Dr. Noah was part of the government response to the 2009–10 pandemic of swine flu, or H1N1 influenza, that killed some 12,000 Americans.

“Even when the COVID-19 pandemic is over, we're not going to be able to wash our hands of this, literally or figuratively,” Dr. Noah said. The ongoing expansion of human populations into wildlife habits, he explained, means more frequent human-animal interactions that make exposure to a new zoonotic disease more likely.

Dr. Noah is hesitant to use the phrase “silver lining” about an ongoing pandemic, but he hopes Congress will be compelled to be proactive about preventing these public health crises before they begin by enacting one-health legislation.

“Zoonotic pathogens don't perceive species differences. They don't perceive geographic boundaries,” he said. “The problem is disease surveillance and response systems are siloed between the human, veterinary, and environmental communities.

“Federal agencies have no choice but to merge their efforts against these pathogens. The alternative is to continue to accept unchecked disease emergence.”

“There's not a lot we can do about disease emergence,” Dr. Noah concluded, “but what we can do is be better prepared to respond quicker, more effectively, and in a more collaborative way that minimizes the loss of life and economic hardships.“

REVERSE ZOONOSES

Dr. Saif said veterinarians should be involved in all aspects of zoonotic infections, in concert with a one-health approach.

“Veterinarians need to be part of identifying the animal reservoirs and the intermediate hosts for these diseases,” she said. “This may focus on wildlife medicine, such as understanding the habitats and diversity of bat species as reservoirs for coronaviruses and multiple other viruses.”

Additionally, studies of bat physiology and immunity are critical to understand how bats can harbor so many viruses without disease, according to Dr. Saif.

“A similar emphasis is needed for avian species that transmit avian influenza and for swine as influenza hosts,” she explained. “The question of what factors influence interspecies transmission remains unknown.

“Also, more veterinarians should be working with other researchers to develop the most appropriate animal models for these diseases since we cannot test antivirals or vaccines without an animal model that reproduces the human disease and responses.”

Regarding whether a pet can be infected with COVID-19 virus by a sick owner, Dr. Saif noted that researchers will want to investigate that. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has indicated that there is no evidence that pets become sick and that there is also no evidence to suggest that pet dogs or cats can be a source of infection with SARS-CoV-2, including spreading COVID-19 to people. The AVMA has developed a series of FAQs that includes this topic.

“Veterinarians should be at the forefront of this research to investigate if a new disease can cause a reverse zoonosis and transmit from humans to pets and livestock,” she said.

No evidence pets can become ill with COVID-19 virus as it surges in US

AVMA concerned about potential drug shortages; veterinary events canceled as a precaution

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Food and Drug Administration officials forecast short supplies of personal protective equipment such as surgical masks, gowns, and suits, as well as isolation gowns.

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

By Greg Cima and Malinda Larkin

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention officials see no evidence that the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 in people sickens pets or can spread to people through pets.

But the agency is advising, out of an abundance of caution, that people who become sick with the coronavirus should limit contact with their companion animals, just as they should limit contact with people. World Health Organization officials also indicated they saw no evidence pets have become ill with or could spread the virus.

Meanwhile, the AVMA and government agencies continue to monitor the availability of medical supplies and animal drugs as well as other potential impacts to the profession as the virus continued to spread in the U.S. in the first few months of the year. A number of universities and organizations cancelled classes and events to allow for social distancing.

ANIMALS AND COVID-19

“When possible, have another member of your household care for your animals while you are sick,” according to a CDC FAQ document updated in February to add information on animals. “If you are sick with COVID-19, avoid contact with your pet, including petting, snuggling, being kissed or licked, and sharing food. If you must care for your pet or be around animals while you are sick, wash your hands before and after you interact with pets and wear a facemask.”

Though the virus seems to have emerged from an animal source, CDC officials also saw no evidence that animals or animal products arriving from China or elsewhere pose a risk of spreading the COVID-19 virus in the U.S. More information is available at jav.ma/cdc_covid.

Late in February, authorities in Hong Kong reported that they quarantined a pet dog after its owner was hospitalized because of COVID-19, and nasal and oral cavity samples tested “weak positive” for the COVID-19 virus. Four subsequent nasal samples continued to test “weak positive,” but test results for nasal samples collected on March 12 and 13 came back negative. The region's Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department said the results suggested a low-level infection likely acquired from a person, and they said World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) officials agreed with their findings.

“The dog has not shown any signs of disease related to COVID-19,” Hong Kong authorities said. The companion animal was returned to the owner after completion of quarantine and consecutive negative test results. The dog, identified by the South China Morning Post as a 17-year-old Pomeranian, died on March 16, the department said in an email, citing the animal's owner. The AFCD gave no further details.

OIE officials separately characterized the positive nasal sample results as “presence of genetic material from the COVID-19 virus” and said the organization lacks evidence dogs become sick from the virus or play a role in disease spread.

On March 19, Hong Kong authorities said they quarantined two more dogs—a German Shepherd Dog and a mixed-breed dog whose owner had COVID-19—after a polymerase chain reaction–based assay detected COVID-19 virus in a sample from the German Shepherd Dog but not the other dog. Neither dog showed clinical signs of disease.

Idexx Laboratories Inc. announced March 13 that it has seen no positive results to date of SARS-CoV-2 in pets. Idexx evaluated thousands of canine and feline specimens during validation of a new veterinary test system for the COVID-19 virus, according to a company press release. The specimens were obtained from those submitted to Idexx reference laboratories for PCR assay testing.

The company says if health authorities determine it is clinically relevant to test pets, it will make the test system available, but neither the CDC nor the AVMA is recommending that pets be tested at this time. Dogs or cats with respiratory signs should be evaluated by a veterinarian for more-common respiratory pathogens before looking to evaluate them for COVID-19, according to an AVMA FAQ for veterinarians and veterinary clinics.

On March 19, Antech Diagnostics announced that it also has not detected any evidence of SARS-CoV-2 in samples from dogs and cats.

MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG SHORTAGES, CONSERVING MASKS AND GOWNS

Since February, AVMA leaders have been working with the CDC, the Food and Drug Administration, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and other experts and international disease authorities to gather the latest information on the coronavirus for veterinarians, clients, and patients, available at avma.org/coronavirus. Aside from keeping veterinary team members healthy, ensuring as much access to care for ill patients as possible, and other concerns, AVMA leaders are worried about potential drug shortages as COVID-19 disrupts supply chains, especially because six of the 32 companies that produce animal-use drugs in China or that use active ingredients from China to produce drugs for the U.S. market indicated to the FDA they have seen disruptions that could lead to shortages.

No animal drug shortages were reported as of mid-March.

The website notes that FDA officials were working with the companies to find ways to mitigate shortages, and the AVMA was collecting information on drug needs and veterinarians' concerns. The AVMA is asking that veterinarians send information on supply chain issues to coronavirus@avma.org, with details on the products and their manufacturers or distributors.

FDA officials also forecast short supplies of personal protective equipment such as surgical masks, gowns, and suits, as well as isolation gowns.

Guidance from the FDA on surgical mask and gown conservation strategies is available at jav.ma/masks.

EVENT CANCELLATIONS, ONLINE CLASSES

As cases of COVID-19 ramped up over the beginning of March, academic institutions reacted by taking greater precautions to slow the spread of the COVID-19 illness.

The 50th Annual Student AVMA Symposium, slated for March 14–16 at Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine in Ithaca, New York, was canceled after organizers conferred and the university called off all nonessential events or work-related gatherings scheduled between March 9 and April 15 that involved more than 100 people.

Student organizers were working with college leadership to identify ways to provide recorded lectures for registrants to view, according to a post on the event's website.

The Veterinary Innovation Summit, which was to be held April 3–5 at Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, was also canceled because of caution over COVID-19. All registration fees were to be refunded and cancellation fees waived.

Many universities with veterinary colleges announced in mid-March that they were suspending face-to-face instruction and testing for various lengths of time during the spring semester to allow for social distancing. Instead, universities encouraged educators to move their courses online and to prepare to continue that way as long as in-person instruction seemed inadvisable, potentially through the end of the semester.

Many clinical rotations were being cancelled and veterinary teaching hospitals were curtailing operations to enable social distancing, according to a March 15 announcement from the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. “Schools are working with students who are in clinical rotations and externships on an individual basis to re-assign them or make alternative arrangements as needed,” the announcement said.

The AAVMC also noted that its impacted member institutions were working with the AVMA Council on Education to ensure they maintain the highest quality of education during this time.

“The COE requires schools to report any disruption to the educational program lasting two or more weeks and to describe their plans to remediate the disruption. The COE is reviewing these plans to ensure they are in compliance with the standards of accreditation,” the announcement said.

People

CRWAD MARKS 100TH ANNUAL MEETING

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Alderman Joe More (center) presents a proclamation by the city of Chicago honoring the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases to Qijing Zhang, PhD, CRWAD president (left), and Charles Czuprynski, PhD, CRWAD council member (right).

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

The Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases held its 100th annual meeting Nov. 2–5 in Chicago. The city of Chicago marked the occasion with a proclamation honoring CRWAD and its years of work.

Since the first CRWAD meeting convened in 1920—as a closed gathering of 11 individuals, mostly directors of experiment stations and deans of U.S. veterinary schools—the conference has evolved into the premier international event on animal health and disease research.

More than 700 scientists attended the 100th annual CRWAD meeting, which featured 17 featured speakers and 270 oral and 220 poster presentations.

LEADERSHIP

The 2019 CRWAD officers were Qijing Zhang, PhD, Iowa State University, president; Dr. Amelia Woolums, Mississippi State University, vice president; Dr. Christopher Chase, South Dakota State University, immediate past president; Dr. Paul Morley, West Texas A&M University, executive director; and council members—Dr. M.M. Chengappa, Kansas State University; Charles Czuprynski, PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Dr. Annette O'Connor, Michigan State University; and Dr. Philip Griebel, University of Saskatchewan.

AAVI AWARDS

The American Association of Veterinary Immunologists recognized Dr. Bettina Wagner, Cornell University, as the 2019 AAVI Distinguished Veterinary Immunologist.

Recipients of the AAVI student awards for best oral presentations were as follows: Alexandra Gillespie, University of Massachusetts; Carsten Walker, Michigan State University; Jayne Wiarda, Iowa State University; Elizabeth Larson, Cornell University; and Amanda Amaral, North Carolina State University. Best poster presentation was awarded to Shauav Bhattarai, South Dakota State University.

ACVM AWARDS

The American College of Veterinary Microbiologists named Dr. T.J. Nagaraja, Kansas State University, as the 2019 Distinguished Veterinary Microbiologist.

ACVM student award winners were as follows: Don Kahn Award for best overall presentation—Debra Goulart, Iowa State University; best oral presentations—Sara Raabis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Syeda Hadi, Michigan State University; best poster presentation—F. Yuan, Kansas State University.

AVEPM AWARDS

The Association for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine presented the Mark Gearhart Memorial Graduate Student Award for best overall graduate student research to Dr. Gizem Levent, Texas A&M University.

Sam Rowe, University of Minnesota; James Ogunrina, Texas A&M University; and Casey Cazer, Cornell University, received awards for best oral presentations. Sneha Jha, Purdue University, won best poster presentation.

ANIMAL HEALTH INSTITUTE AND JOSEPH J. GARBARINO FOUNDATION

Best oral presentation was by Ting-Yu Cheng, Iowa State University, and best poster presentations were by Emily John, University of Prince Edward Island, and Babiana Benavides, University of Narino.

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY AWARDS

The best oral presentation was presented by Megan Wright, University of Tennessee.

NC1202 AWARDS

The NC1202 North Central Multistate Committee for Research on Enteric Diseases of Swine and Cattle made the following student awards: Lynn Joens Award, first place, oral—Raquel Burin, Washington State University; second place, oral—Frances Shepherd, University of Minnesota.

The David H. Francis award for best poster presentation was given to Brandon Ruddell, Iowa State University.

COMMISSIONED CORPS HONORS VETERINARIANS WHO PROTECTED PUBLIC HEALTH

The U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps honored three veterinarians for work to protect and improve human and animal health.

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Capt. Hugh Mainzer

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

Capt. Hugh Mainzer received the 2019 USPHS Veterinary Responder of the Year Award for public health work in Puerto Rico following Hurricane Maria. He led the Public and Environmental Health Systems Branch of the Department of Health and Human Services Joint Recovery Office in Puerto Rico, where the department deployed him for a month to work with federal partners, local agencies, and private companies to make the needed plans for recovery.

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Capt. Tom Thomas III

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

Capt. Tom Thomas III, chief surgery service and facility veterinarian for the National Institutes of Health, received the 2019 James H. Steele One Health Outstanding USPHS Veterinary Career Award for 24 years of service through the USPHS and NIH. The Commissioned Corps honored him for his collaboration with fellow USPHS officers and for deployments during Hurricane Katrina and other events with public health concerns. He also served nine years in the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps and worked in private practice.

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Lt. Stefanie Campbell

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

Lt. Stefanie Campbell received the 2019 Junior USPHS Veterinary Officer of the Year Award and the USPHS Junior Officer of the Year Award, which is given by the U.S. Surgeon General. As an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Vector-borne Diseases, Dr. Campbell led an investigation into an outbreak of tick-borne relapsing fever, conducted complex analyses of plague infections in the U.S., and provided expertise on vector-borne diseases that are zoonotic, bacterial, or both.

The USPHS gave the veterinary officer awards in September, and Dr. Campbell received her subsequent award from the Surgeon General in December.

NAVTA NAMES VETERINARY TECHNICIAN OF THE YEAR

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Mary Berg, owner of Beyond the Crown Veterinary Education, recently was named the 2020 Veterinary Technician of the Year. (Courtesy of Mary Berg)

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

By Kaitlyn Mattson

The National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America awarded Mary Berg the annual Veterinary Technician of the Year award in February.

Berg, a registered veterinary technician, said, “This award means so much to me as I have been involved in many aspects of the profession over the years—including research, practice, teaching, and consulting—as well as my involvement with NAVTA, AVMA, and American Association of Veterinary State Boards.”

The award is given to a NAVTA member who has provided leadership to the association and the veterinary technician industry as a whole.

Berg is the owner and president of Beyond the Crown Veterinary Education, a company that provides veterinary dental training, and a charter member of the Academy of Veterinary Dental Technicians. She worked in companion animal oral health product research for 26 years.

Berg is actively involved in NAVTA leadership and is the president of the Kansas Veterinary Technician Association. She continues to work in research, specializing in products aimed at improving oral health of companion animals. Berg also serves on the AVMA Council for Veterinary Technician Education and Activities.

“Being a veterinary technician has been a wonderful career and I have loved every minute of it,” she said. “I challenge each veterinary technician to follow your dreams, and don't be afraid to step outside of your box. Say yes to opportunities; you never know where they will lead you.”

AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ZOOLOGICAL MEDICINE

EVENT

Annual meeting, Sept. 28, St. Louis

PROGRAM

The meeting was held in conjunction with the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians at the ExoticCon conference.

AWARDS

Presidential Service Award

Dr. Sathya Chinnadurai, St. Louis; Dr. Ray Wack, Sacramento, California; Dr. Jonathan Sleeman, Madison, Wisconsin; and the ACZM Examination Committee

NEW DIPLOMATES

Jeffrey Applegate, Point Pleasant, New Jersey

Kate Archibald, Baltimore

Kyle Donnelly, Melbourne, Florida

Molly Gleeson, Culver City, California

Kate Gustavsen, Chicago

Michael Hyatt, Brooklyn, New York

Benjamin Lamglait, Sainte Hyacinthe, Quebec

Ellie Milnes, Nanyuki, Kenya

Jennifer Niemuth, Cary, North Carolina

Lynnette Waugh, Oakland, California

BUSINESS

Reports were presented by the executive board and the chairs of all the ACZM committees. New diplomates were recognized.

OFFICIALS

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Drs. Jennifer Langan

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

Drs. Jennifer Langan, Chicago, president; Douglas Whiteside, Calgary, Alberta, vice president; Christopher Bonar, Dallas, secretary; Lisa Harrenstien, Portland, Oregon, treasurer; and Kay Backues, Tulsa, Oklahoma, immediate past president

UNITED STATES ANIMAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION

EVENT

123rd annual meeting, Oct. 24–30, Providence, Rhode Island

PROGRAM

The meeting, held jointly with the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (see story, page 862), drew nearly 1,300 attendees. Dr. Juan Lubroth, chief veterinary officer for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, presented the keynote address “Understanding and Overcoming the Challenges for the Control of African Swine Fever: A Global Threat in Your Backyard.”

AWARDS

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Dr. Belinda Thompson

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

USAHA Medal of Distinction

Dr. Belinda Thompson (Cornell '81), Ithaca, New York. Dr. Thompson has served as an assistant clinical professor in the Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences at Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine since 2002. Prior to that, Dr. Thompson was in large animal practice in Pine City, New York. She was recognized for her broad impact on the association, local producers, and veterinarians and at a national level.

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Dr. Barbara Porter-Spalding

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

USAHA Federal Partnership Award

Dr. Barbara Porter-Spalding (Michigan State '91), Raleigh, North Carolina. Dr. Porter-Spalding is a senior staff officer with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's Veterinary Services. She was honored for her collaborative efforts in training and exercise programs as lead on the VS Training and Exercise Plan and for her efforts toward improving emergency preparedness.

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Dr. Beate Crossley

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

APHIS Administrator's Award

Dr. Beate Crossley, Davis, California. A 1994 veterinary graduate of Free University of Berlin in Germany, Dr. Crossley is an associate professor and virologist at the University of California-Davis' California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory.

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Dr. Susan Keller

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

National Assembly Award

Dr. Susan Keller (Kansas State '85), Mandan, North Dakota. Dr. Keller is the North Dakota state veterinarian. She was recognized for her leadership and tireless commitment to animal health.

BUSINESS

Thirty-one resolutions were approved and can be viewed at usaha.org/usaha-resolutions.

OFFICIALS

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Dr. Martin Zaluski

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

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Dr. Charles Hatcher

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

Dr. Martin Zaluski, Helena, Montana, president; Dr. Charles Hatcher, Nashville, Tennessee, president-elect; Dr. Dustin Oedekoven, Pierre, South Dakota, first vice president; Steve Rommereim, Alcester, South Dakota, second vice president; Dr. Manoel Tamassia, Trenton, New Jersey, third vice president; Dr. Annette Jones, Sacramento, California, treasurer; and Dr. Kristin Haas, Montpelier, Vermont, immediate past president

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF VETERINARY LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICIANS

EVENT

62nd annual meeting, Oct. 23–28, Providence, Rhode Island

AWARDS

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Dr. David Steffen

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

E.P. Pope Award

Dr. David Steffen (Iowa State '87), Lincoln, Nebraska, for noteworthy contributions to the AAVLD and to the field of veterinary diagnostic medicine. A diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, Dr. Steffen is a professor at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln School of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences. He also serves as a diagnostician at the veterinary school's Nebraska Veterinary Diagnostic Center. Dr. Steffen consults on bovine congenital diseases and is active in the efforts to advance animal health and service to the food animal production industry.

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Dr. Francisco Uzal

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

Distinguished Service Award

Dr. Francisco Uzal, San Bernardino, California, for volunteering time, energy, and professionalism to substantially enrich and advance the AAVLD and the field of veterinary diagnostic medicine. A 1982 veterinary graduate of the University of Buenos Aires in Argentina, Dr. Uzal is a professor and branch chief of the University of California-Davis' California Animal Health and Food Safety Lab in San Bernardino. He is a diplomate of the ACVP and has served as images editor and guest editor for the Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.

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Stacy Pollock

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

Outstanding Performance Award for Diagnostic Services

Stacy Pollock, Willmar, Minnesota, was the inaugural recipient of this award, given to members of an AAVLD laboratory who have performed laboratory duties on behalf of their clients in an outstanding fashion. Pollock is a veterinary technician and manager of the Minnesota Poultry Testing Laboratory in Willmar. She played a key role in providing diagnostic services to Minnesota's poultry industry during the national outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in 2015.

BioMic Award for Excellence in Diagnostic Microbiology

Dr. John Dustin Loy (Iowa State '09), Lincoln, Nebraska, for research accomplishments in the field that have resulted in new scientific findings that have application for the betterment of veterinary medicine. A diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Microbiologists, Dr. Loy serves as a veterinary diagnostic microbiologist and case coordinator at the Nebraska Veterinary Diagnostic Center. He is also section leader and faculty supervisor for the center's bacteriology and molecular diagnostic laboratories. Dr. Loy's research interests include development and validation of novel molecular and proteomic diagnostic methods, pathogenesis and ecology of opportunistic bovine respiratory and ocular pathogens, and enteric diseases of swine.

J. Lindsay Oaks Best Student Molecular Biology Presentation Award

Sai Narayanan, Oklahoma State University, for “A novel online metagenome-based pathogen detection tool”

Richard Walker Best Student Bacteriology Presentation Award

Sreenidhi Srinivasan, Pennsylvania State University, for “Diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis using a defined skin test in buffaloes in India”

Brenda Love Best Student Bacteriology Poster Presentation Award

Dr. Molly Carpenter, Colorado State University, for “Antiviral activity of synthesized IFN-λ3 and PEGylated IFN-λ3 against bovine viral diarrhea virus in vitro”

Best Oral Presentation Award

Dr. Giovani Trevisan, Iowa State University, for “Aggregating results and summarizing findings from multiple veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the US on a near real-time basis”

Best Poster Presentation Award

Dr. Grazieli Maboni, University of Georgia, for “Unique antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in animal-associated Acinetobacter spp. reveal high rate of multidrug resistance”

Best Diagnostic Pathology Slide Seminar Presentation Award

Dr. Bianca R. Pfisterer, University of Tennessee, for “Pituitary tumor in a budgerigar”

AAVLD/ACVP Diagnostic Pathology Travel Award

Dr. Vanessa J. Oakes, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, for “Theileria orientalis Ikeda genotype is identified in cattle in Southwestern Virginia”

Best JVDI Full Manuscript

Dr. Rodney A. Moxley, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, for “Investigation of congestive heart failure in beef cattle in a feedyard at a moderate altitude in western Nebraska”

Best JVDI Brief Communication

Dr. Jennifer L. Jones, Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine, for “Whole genome sequencing confirms source of pathogens associated with bacterial foodborne illness in pets fed raw pet food”

Life Membership

Drs. Grant Maxie, Guelph, Ontario, and Daniel Shaw, Columbia, Missouri

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Dr. Deepanker Tewari

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

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Dr. Shuping Zhang

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

Officials

Drs. Deepanker Tewari, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, president; Shuping Zhang, Columbia, Missouri, presidentelect; Jerry Saliki, Athens, Georgia, vice president; Kristy Pabilonia, Fort Collins, Colorado, secretary-treasurer; Keith Bailey, Stillwater, Oklahoma, immediate past president; and David H. Zeman, Brookings, South Dakota, executive director

SOCIETY FOR VETERINARY MEDICAL ETHICS

EVENT

Annual meeting, Jan. 22, Orlando, Florida

AWARDS

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Dr. Alice Villalobos

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

SVME Shomer Ethics Award

Dr. Alice Villalobos (California-Davis '72), Hermosa Beach, California, was honored for her years of service and leadership of the SVME and for her contributions to the field of veterinary medical ethics. Dr. Villalobos serves as director of Pawspice and Animal Oncology Consultation Service in Woodland Hills, California. Prior to that, she was director of Coast Pet Clinic and Animal Cancer Center of Hermosa Beach and VCA Coast Animal Hospital in Hermosa Beach. Dr. Villalobos is president emeritus of the SVME and a past president of the American Association of Human-Animal Bond Veterinarians. Known for her work in the field of cancer care for companion animals and quality-of-life assessment, she published a scoring system for life quality called The HHHHHMM scale, standing for Hurt, Hunger, Hydration, Hygiene, Happiness, Mobility, and More Good Days than Bad. Dr. Villalobos is the co-author of “Canine and Feline Geriatric Oncology: Honoring the Human-Animal Bond.”

Student Essay Award

Timothy Ojodare, University of Ilorin, Nigeria, for “TeleVeterinary Medicine and its Impact on Veterinary Medicine”

OFFICIALS

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Dr. Marthina Greer

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

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Dr. Rolan Tripp

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

Drs. Marthina Greer, Lomira, Wisconsin, president; Rolan Tripp, Vancouver, Washington, presidentelect; Bonnie Bragdon, Aiken, South Carolina, secretary; John Wright, St. Paul, Minnesota, treasurer; Lynn Bahr, Roswell, Georgia, parliamentarian; and William Folger, Houston, immediate past president

MISSOURI VMA

EVENT

128th annual convention, Jan. 23–26, Columbia

PROGRAM

The convention offered more than 60 continuing education lectures and drew more than 600 attendees.

AWARDS

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Dr. Clifford J. Miller

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

Veterinarian of the Year

Dr. Clifford J. Miller (Missouri '00), Moberly. Dr. Miller owns Green Hills Veterinary Clinic, a mixed animal practice in Moberly. Earlier in his career, he practiced in Kansas City. A past president of the MVMA, Dr. Miller chairs the MVMA Legislative Committee. He was instrumental in establishing Moberly's Hounds Program, a partnership between the Moberly Correctional Center and Moberly Animal Shelter. The program offers criminal offenders the opportunity to train shelter dogs prior to adoption.

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Dr. Clark K. Fobian

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

Distinguished Legislative Leadership Award

Dr. Clark K. Fobian (Missouri '77), Sedalia. Dr. Fobian is former owner of Thompson Hills Animal Clinic in Sedalia. He is a past president of the AVMA and MVMA and a past chair of the American Veterinary Medical Foundation.

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Dr. Joan Coates

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

President's Award

Dr. Joan Coates (Missouri '90), Columbia. A diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Dr. Coates is section head for neurology and neurosurgery at the University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine. She is a member of the MVMA Wellbeing Task Force and helped develop the Wellbeing Webinar, a presentation aimed at preventing suicide among veterinarians.

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Dr. Abby Whiting

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

Ortu Stella Award

Dr. Abby Whiting (Missouri '11), St. Louis, was the inaugural recipient of this award. Dr. Whiting practices small animal medicine in St. Louis. She also serves as a moderator for Not One More Vet, an online veterinary support group.

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Dr. Jessica Thiele

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

William A. Wolff Volunteerism Award

Dr. Jessica Thiele (Missouri '12), Jefferson City. Dr. Thiele serves as veterinarian at Jefferson City Animal Shelter. In 2019, when a tornado touched down in the city, Dr. Thiele ensured that the shelter provided care for almost 40 pets affected by the tornado.

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Denise Colvin

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

Missouri Veterinary Medical Foundation Distinguished Service Award

Denise Colvin, Jamestown. Colvin has served as museum archivist at the Missouri Veterinary Medical Museum since 2008. The museum houses more than 3,000 artifacts in several exhibits that Colvin has helped develop over the years.

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Dr. Kenton Morgan

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

Missouri VMA Academy Distinguished Service Award

Dr. Kenton Morgan (Missouri '83), Faucett. An equine technical service veterinarian at Zoetis, Dr. Morgan provides support for the equine specialist sales team and the company's veterinary clients. Earlier in his career, he was in private practice in Missouri, Kansas, and Idaho.

OFFICIALS

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Dr. David L. Gourley

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

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Dr. Marcy Hammerle

Citation: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 256, 8; 10.2460/javma.256.8.841

MVMA—Dr. David L. Gourley, Mountain Grove, president; Dr. Marcy Hammerle, St. Charles, president-elect; Dr. Edward Migneco, St. Louis, vice president; Dr. Shelia L. Taylor, Springfield, secretary-treasurer; Dr. Carol Ryan, Troy, board chair and immediate past president; and Richard D. Antweiler, Jefferson City, executive director. Missouri VMA AcademyDrs. Julie King, Ozark, president; Caitlin DeWilde, St. Louis, vice president; and Bruce Whittle, Trenton, immediate past president. MVMF—Drs. Philip R. Brown, Chillicothe, board chair; Scott Fray, Boonville, board vice chair; George Buckaloo, Lake Tapawingo, secretary-treasurer; and Roger Dozier, Jefferson City, museum director

Obituaries: AVMA MEMBER | AVMA HONOR ROLL MEMBER | NONMEMBER

LYLE E. BRUMLEY

Dr. Brumley (Illinois '68), 80, Allen, Texas, died Dec. 17, 2019. During his 50-year career, he practiced small animal medicine in the Chicago area and in Ottumwa, Iowa. Dr. Brumley also served as chief of staff of the Animal Welfare League in Chicago Ridge, Illinois. He was a member of the Chicago and Illinois State VMAs. Active in his community, Dr. Brumley served as president of the Maercker School District 60 board of directors and was a member of the Rotary Club of La Grange.

He is survived by his wife, Barbara; two daughters and a son; 12 grandchildren; and two brothers and a stepbrother. Memorials may be made to Hospice Plus-McKinney, 1575 Redbud Blvd., Suite 201, McKinney, TX 75069, curohealthservices.com; Grinnell College, 1115 8th Ave., Grinnell, IA 50112, alumni.grinnell.edu/give; First Congregational Church of La Grange, 100 6th Ave., La Grange, IL 60525, fcclg.org; or toward the choral music department at Lovejoy High School, 2350 Estates Parkway, Lucas, TX 75002, lhs.lovejoyisd.net.

ROBERT E. BRYANT

Dr. Bryant (Colorado State '55), 90, Lewiston, Idaho, died Oct. 1, 2019. He was a partner at what was known as McIntosh Veterinary Clinic in Lewiston, where he initially practiced large animal medicine, focusing later on small animals. Dr. Bryant retired in 1996. Early in his career, he practiced for a year in Bismarck, North Dakota, and worked for the state of Idaho's livestock disease control division in Lewiston.

Dr. Bryant was a member of the Idaho VMA and was named Veterinarian of the Year in 1993. He was also a member of the United Way and Rotary Club. Dr. Bryant's son; four grandchildren; four great-grandchildren; and two sisters survive him.

ROBERT A. CRANDELL

Dr. Crandell (Michigan State '49), 95, College Station, Texas, died Dec. 15, 2019. He served as head of the microbiology section at the Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory for seven years, retiring as microbiology section head emeritus. Following graduation, Dr. Crandell was in the Air Force for 20 years, eventually serving as chief of the biosciences division at the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine and attaining the rank of colonel. During that time, he received a master's of public health from the University of California-Berkeley. Dr. Crandell subsequently served as a professor and directed the veterinary diagnostic laboratory at the University of Illinois before joining the TVMDL.

A diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine and American College of Veterinary Microbiologists, he made significant contributions to the understanding of feline viruses. Dr. Crandell isolated and identified the feline rhinotracheitis virus and established a feline kidney cell line. While at the TVMDL, he helped explain the role of Cache Valley fever virus, isolated a calicivirus from vesicular lesions of canines, and expanded the serologic and virological testing capabilities of the laboratory.

Dr. Crandell was the founding editor of the Journal of Veterinary

Diagnostic Investigation and served on the board of scientific review of the American Journal of Veterinary Research. A past president of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, he consulted in comparative virology with the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Crandell served on committees of the ACVPM, United States Animal Health Association, National Academy of Sciences National Research Council, and what is now known as the National Institute for Animal Agriculture.

He received the AAVLD E.P. Pope Award in 1991 and was named a Distinguished Alumnus by the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine in 1993. In 2001, Dr. Crandell received the NIAA's President's Award in recognition of exemplary leadership and dedication to the institute and to the former NIAA Emerging Diseases Committee. He was honored with the AAVLD Pioneers in Virology Award in 2005 and was a co-recipient of the American Veterinary Epidemiology Society's Karl F. Meyer–James H. Steele Gold Headed Cane Award in 2014.

Dr. Crandell is survived by three daughters and a son. Memorials may be made to the Wounded Warrior Project, P.O. Box 758516, Topeka, KS 66675, woundedwarriorproject.org.

RONALD F. DUBBE

Dr. Dubbe (Minnesota '66), 81, Waconia, Minnesota, died Nov. 28, 2019. He practiced dairy medicine at Waconia Veterinary Clinic until 1980. Dr. Dubbe later served as a speaker on dairy cow nutrition and care, pursued several patents pertaining to dairy production and health, and was involved with Pine Products in Waconia.

Active in his community, he served on the board of directors of Ridgeview Medical Center and Mayer Lutheran High School. Dr. Dubbe was a veteran of the Army. He is survived by his wife, Ellen; three sons; seven grandchildren; 15 great-grandchildren; and a brother.

JOSEPH H. GAINER

Dr. Gainer (Ohio State '46), 94, Potomac, Maryland, died Aug. 24, 2019. A diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Microbiologists, he worked for the Commissioned Corps of the U.S. Public Health Service from 1965 until retirement in 1994. During that time, Dr. Gainer had commissions at the National Cancer Institute and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and served as a veterinary officer at the Food and Drug Administration. He investigated immunotoxicity of heavy metals, metabolism and smoking, and the role of interferons in the immune response.

Following graduation and after receiving a master's in veterinary pathology in 1947 from The Ohio State University, Dr. Gainer embarked upon a career in academia and research beginning at The Ohio State University and subsequently at the Mayo Clinic, the University of Chicago, and the University of Arkansas. He then served two years in the Army Veterinary Corps during the Korean War. Dr. Gainer went on to earn his second master's degree in 1958, in the field of virology, from the University of Michigan. He then served eight years as head of virology at the state diagnostic laboratory in central Florida.

In retirement, Dr. Gainer volunteered at the Rachel Carson Institute. He is survived by six children, 16 grandchildren, and four great-grandchildren. Memorials toward the Joseph and Bridget Gainer Graduate Student Award Fund, for need-based support of female graduate students at the University of Michigan Rackham Graduate School, may be sent to the University of Michigan Office of University Development, 3003 S. State St., Suite 9000, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, jav.ma/JosephBridgetGainerFund.

EARL E. GATZ

Dr. Gatz (Kansas State '56), 89, Olathe, Kansas, died Nov. 28, 2019. Following graduation and after serving in the Army Veterinary Corps, he established a mixed animal practice in Pratt, Kansas, where he worked for almost 44 years. Dr. Gatz served 17 years on the Kansas Board of Veterinary Examiners. A longtime member of the Kansas VMA, he was named KVMA Veterinarian of the Year in 1984. Dr. Gatz served eight years as a trustee of the Pratt Community College.

His wife, Nancy; five children; 13 grandchildren; and six great-grandchildren survive him. Dr. Gatz's late father, Dr. Isaac F. Gatz (Kansas State ‘22), owned a practice in Preston, Kansas, and son Dr. David E. Gatz (Kansas State ‘84) recently retired from his veterinary practice in Leavenworth, Kansas.

DERECK A. KLOPFENSTEIN

Dr. Klopfenstein (Purdue ‘97), 49, Goshen, Indiana, died Aug. 25, 2019. Following graduation, he practiced at Birnamwood Veterinary Services in Birnamwood, Wisconsin, for two years. In 1999, Dr. Klopfenstein co-established Dairy Veterinary and Management Services in Goshen with his father, Dr. Douglas Yoder (Ohio State ‘73). Dr. Klopfenstein was a member of the American Association of Bovine Veterinarians, American Dairy Science Association, Indiana VMA, and National Mastitis Council.

He is survived by two sons, a daughter, his parents, and two brothers. Memorials, toward an educational fund for his children, may be made to Dereck Klopfenstein Estate, and sent to Chad Klopfenstein, 60751 Creekstone Court, Goshen, IN 46526, or made to Heifer International, P.O. Box 8058, Little Rock, AR 72203.

GARNET L. LEITCH

Dr. Leitch (Guelph '52), 92, London, Ontario, died Oct. 25, 2019. He co-owned South Huron Veterinary Clinic, a mixed animal practice in Zurich, Ontario, prior to retirement. Dr. Leitch is survived by his wife, Grace, and a daughter. Memorials may be made to Humane Society London & Middlesex, 624 Clarke Road, London, Canada N5V 3K5.

WILLIAM E. MOORE

Dr. Moore (Cornell '58), 85, Manhattan, Kansas, died Nov. 1, 2019. He was a professor of clinical pathology at the Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine from 1968 until retirement in 1999. During his tenure, Dr. Moore also served as head of the university's former Department of Laboratory Medicine and directed the clinical pathology laboratory. Earlier in his career, he worked at a practice near Boston for a few years and served as director of the clinical pathology service at the Animal Medical Center in New York City. Dr. Moore's daughter, four grandchildren, and three siblings survive him.

MCTYIER SALTER

Dr. Salter (Georgia '54), 89, Dawson, Georgia, died Nov. 12, 2019. Following graduation, he served as a base veterinarian with the Air Force, attaining the rank of captain. Dr. Salter subsequently joined his father, the late Dr. John W. Salter, in practice in Dawson, retiring after 50 years. He was a member of the Georgia VMA, Masonic Lodge, and American Legion, and was a past member of the Dawson City Council.

Dr. Salter is survived by his wife, Eloise; a son and a daughter; seven grandchildren; and seven great-grandchildren. Memorials may be made to First Baptist Church of Dawson Youth Fund, 309 Church St., Dawson, GA 39842; Phoebe Hospice, 320 Foundation Lane, Albany, GA 31707; or Humane Society of Terrell County, P.O. Box 311, Dawson, GA 39842, myhstc.org.

STEVEN L. STOCKHAM

Dr. Stockham (Kansas State '72), 71, Manhattan, Kansas, died Nov. 14, 2019. A diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, he was professor emeritus of veterinary clinical pathology at Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine.

Following graduation, Dr. Stockham served two years in the Air Force as a base veterinarian with the rank of captain. He then practiced in Caldwell, Idaho, and Salt Lake City. From 1981–2001, Dr. Stockham taught at the University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine. He then joined Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine, retiring as professor emeritus in 2016.

Dr. Stockham was a member of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. He was also an honorary member of the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Dr. Stockham co-authored the textbook “Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology.” He received what is now known as the Zoetis Distinguished Veterinary Teacher Award in 1987 and was inducted into the ESVCP Clinical Pathology Hall of Fame in 2013. In 2015, Dr. Stockham was honored with the ASVCP Educator Award. In 2016, the Association for American Veterinary Medical Colleges recognized him with the national Distinguished Teacher Award. He was the recipient of the ASVCP Lifetime Achievement Award in 2018.

Dr. Stockham was active with the Boy Scouts of America, serving as a scout master. He is survived by his wife, Marcia; two sons; three grandchildren; and a sister and two stepsisters. Memorials may be made to Good Shepherd Hospice House, c/o Yorgensen-Meloan-Londeen Funeral Home, 1616 Poyntz Ave., Manhattan, KS 66502; or toward a memorial for Dr. Steven Stockham, Fund M47283, Kansas State University Foundation, 1800 Kimball Ave., Suite 200, Manhattan, KS 66502, ksufoundation.org/give/memorials.

WILLIAM A. SUMNER JR.

Dr. Sumner (Cornell '56), 86, Kinston, North Carolina, died Oct. 29, 2019. A small animal veterinarian, he owned Pamlico Pet Care in Oriental, North Carolina, prior to retirement in the mid-1990s. Dr. Sumner also helped establish the Pamlico Animal Welfare Society in Oriental. Earlier, he served as director of the Greensboro Veterinary Hospital in Greensboro, North Carolina.

Dr. Sumner was a past president of the American Animal Hospital Association, North Carolina VMA, and Guilford County Humane Society, and was a past North Carolina delegate to the AVMA House of Delegates. He received several honors during his career, including being named NCVMA Distinguished Veterinarian and North Carolina State University Honorary Alumnus. Dr. Sumner was AAHA Region II Veterinary Practitioner of the Year in 1982 and AAHA Charles E. Bild Practitioner of the Year in 1984.

His two daughters, a son, and two grandchildren survive him. Memorials may be made to St. Mary's Episcopal Church, 800 Rountree St., Kinston, NC 28501; Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, NY 14853; North Carolina State Veterans Home, 2150 Hull Road, Kinston, NC 28504; or Pamlico Animal Welfare Society, P.O. Box 888, Oriental, NC 28571.

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