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Radiographic features of histologically benign bone infarcts and bone infarcts associated with neoplasia in dogs

Sarah A. Jones BVETmed1, Lindsey J. Gilmour DVM1, Catherine M. Ruoff DVM, MS1, and Roy R. Pool DVM, PhD2
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  • 1 1Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.
  • | 2 2Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the radiographic appearance of benign bone infarcts and bone infarcts associated with neoplasia in dogs and determine the utility of radiography in differentiating benign and malignancy-associated bone infarcts.

SAMPLE

49 dogs with benign (n = 33) or malignancy-associated (16) infarcts involving the appendicular skeleton.

PROCEDURES

A retrospective cohort study was performed by searching a referral osteopathology database for cases involving dogs with a histologic diagnosis of bone infarction. Case radiographs were anonymized and reviewed by 2 board-certified veterinary radiologists blinded to the histologic classification. Radiographic features commonly used to differentiate aggressive from nonaggressive osseous lesions were recorded, and reviewers classified each case as likely benign infarct, likely malignancy-associated infarct, or undistinguishable.

RESULTS

Only 16 (48%) of the benign infarcts and 6 (38%) of the malignancy-associated infarcts were correctly classified by both reviewers. Medullary lysis pattern and periosteal proliferation pattern were significantly associated with histologic classification. Although all 16 (100%) malignancy-associated lesions had aggressive medullary lysis, 23 of the 33 (70%) benign lesions also did. Eight of the 16 (50%) malignancy-associated infarcts had aggressive periosteal proliferation, compared with 7 of the 33 (21%) benign infarcts.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that radiography was not particularly helpful in distinguishing benign from malignancy-associated bone infarcts in dogs.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Jones' present address is Pixel Veterinary Imaging, Austin, TX 78731.

Dr. Ruoff's present address is VitalRads, Cypress, TX 77410.

Address correspondence to Dr. Gilmour (lgilmour@cvm.tamu.edu).