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In This Issue • October 1, 2018

<italic>JAVMA</italic> News

A group wants recognition that canine and feline obesity is a disease, with a definition for the term and a uniform body condition scoring system. In other news, veterinarians should be mindful of the accommodations needed when caring for pets of the elderly and those with disabilities.

Seepage 816

Letters to the Editor

Seepage 844

What Is Your Diagnosis?

Seepage 857

Pathology in Practice

Seepages 861, 865

<sc>commentary</sc>Who should you turn to for help managing behavior problems in small animal practice?

Behavior problems in small animal medicine run

JAVMA News

A group wants recognition that canine and feline obesity is a disease, with a definition for the term and a uniform body condition scoring system. In other news, veterinarians should be mindful of the accommodations needed when caring for pets of the elderly and those with disabilities.

See page 816

Letters to the Editor

See page 844

Pathology in Practice

See pages 861, 865

commentary

Who should you turn to for help managing behavior problems in small animal practice?

Behavior problems in small animal medicine run the gamut from simple training concerns to complex medical issues. Veterinarians who do not feel comfortable assisting owners with training problems or diagnosing and treating behavior disorders should develop a network of individuals they can consult with or refer clients to when necessary.

See page 847

viewpoint

Challenges for dogs with urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli

Practitioners in human and veterinary medicine should be aware of the latest information regarding appropriate methods for microbiological detection of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and the correct interpretation of susceptibility results and proper selection of antimicrobial treatment.

See page 850

Small Animals

Clinical features and prognostic indicators for aspiration pneumonia in three brachycephalic dog breeds

Previous studies of aspiration pneumonia in dogs did not find brachycephalic breeds to be overrepresented. However, a retrospective study of medical records found that the relative risk of aspiration pneumonia in Pugs, French Bulldogs, and Bulldogs was 3.77 times that for all other breeds. Forty-one of 2,141 (1.91%) dogs of those breeds and 396 of 80,137 (0.49%) dogs overall had aspiration pneumonia. Median age at disease onset was substantially greater for Pugs (83 months) than for French Bulldogs (8 months) or Bulldogs (6 months). History of gastrointestinal signs was the most commonly observed risk factor (27/41 [66%]) in these breeds.

See page 869

Potential risk factors for mesenteric volvulus in military working dogs

Mesenteric volvulus (ie, intestinal rotation around the root of the mesentery) is an often-fatal disorder in dogs. Although the etiopathogenesis remains unclear, breed has been proposed as a predisposing factor. In a study of 211 military working dogs, including 54 with and 157 without mesenteric volvulus, risk factors significantly associated with mesenteric volvulus included German Shepherd Dog breed (OR, 11.5), increasing age (OR, 2.0), and history of prophylactic gastropexy (OR, 65.9), other abdominal surgery (after gastropexy and requiring a separate anesthetic episode; OR, 16.9), and gastrointestinal disease (OR, 5.4).

See page 877

Incidence, clinical signs, clinicopathologic test results, and outcomes of chyloabdomen in dogs and cats

A review of medical records for 36 cats and 17 dogs with chyloabdomen found that the most common clinical signs were lethargy (39/51 [76%]) and anorexia (37/51 [73%]), with fewer animals (23/53 [43%]) having abdominal distention. Chylothorax was a common comorbidity (25/53 [47%]), with malignant neoplasia being the most common underlying diagnosis (24/53 [45%]). The incidence of chyloabdomen was 2.0 cases/100,000 admissions for cats and 2.8 cases/100,000 admissions for dogs. Findings highlighted the need for multicenter prospective studies of disease progression, treatment response, and clinical outcome for dogs and cats with chyloabdomen.

See page 886

Resolution of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia following partial pancreatectomy in a dog with nesidioblastosis

A 6-year-old Australian Shepherd was evaluated because of persistent hypoglycemia. Hematologic analysis revealed a high serum insulin-to-glucose concentration ratio, and exploratory laparotomy was performed. No pancreatic lesions or masses were observed. Partial left pancreatectomy was performed, and histologic examination revealed islet cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, with no evidence of neoplasia. Clinical, biochemical, and histopathologic findings were compatible with nesidioblastosis. The clinical signs, including hypoglycemia, resolved after surgery, and the dog was apparently healthy on follow-up examination 8 months later.

See page 893

Equine

Minimally invasive, compartmentalized, modified open castration technique with primary closure in equids

Issues related to equine castration remain among the main reasons for client complaints and litigation, but many of these issues can be avoided with good surgical technique. A prospective study of a modified open castration technique with a scrotal approach and primary closure in 38 equids found that the technique was simple to perform, with a low complication rate, excellent cosmetic results, and prompt return to intended use after surgery. The procedure included minimal dissection into the scrotal region for removal of the testes, with the cremaster muscles left intact and the parietal vaginal tunic closed in place.

See page 897

Ruminants

Factors associated with strongyle infection in goats at the individual and farm level

Analysis of fecal samples from 631 adult goats on 52 farms in North Carolina with the McMaster technique to determine strongyle fecal egg counts revealed that farms on which no anthelmintic drugs had ever been used had the lowest mean fecal egg counts, compared with counts for farms on which specific strategies for parasite control were used. No other variables were significantly associated with farm-level fecal egg counts. For individual goat fecal egg counts, significant variables included goat breed, breed type, owner-defined purpose, daily dietary protein intake, and fecal coccidia score.

See page 907

Zoo Animals

Gastric dilatation and enterotoxemia in ten captive felids

Ten large felids at 8 facilities were determined or suspected to have developed gastric dilatation with or without enterotoxemia over a 20-year period. Four felids were found dead with no premonitory signs. Six felids had hematemesis or abdominal distention and signs of lethargy with or without vomiting. In 3 felids with an antemortem diagnosis, the gastric dilatation resolved with decompressive laparotomy but then recurred in 1 felid, which subsequently died. Three others died at various points during hospitalization. No single factor was definitively identified that might have incited or contributed to the gastric dilatation.

See page 918